Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are an increasingly common complica- tion in critically ill patients in Europe and are frequently fatal. Because of changes in treatment strategies and the increased use of antifungal prophylaxis, the epidemiology of IFDs has changed substantially in recent years and infections due to Candida species are no longer the majority in many institutions. In contrast, the emergence of non-Candida IFDs such as aspergillosis, ucrmycosis and fusariosis has increased. Rates of IFD-related mortality in Europe depend on the pathogen, geographical location and underlying patient characteristics, with rates ranging from 28 to 59% for Candida infections and from 38 to 80% for invasive aspergillosis. Early initiation of antifungal therapy is critical for improving outcomes; how- ever, this is complicated by the difficulty in diagnosing IFDs rapidly and accurately. Choice between agents should be based on a variety of factors, including spectrum of activity, adverse events, drug interactions, route of administration, clinical efficacy of individual agents and local epidemiology.