Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Author : Goodwin, Thomas J.

Three-dimensional normal human neural progenitor tissue-like assemblies: A model for persistent Varicella-zoster virus infection and platform to study oxidate stress and damage in multiple hit scenarios

Thomas J. Goodwin; M. McCarthy; N. Osterrieder; R.J. Cohrs; B.B. Kaufer

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 61-62

The environment of space results in a multitude of challenges to the human physiology that present barriers to extended habitation and exploration. Over 40 years of investigation to define countermeasures to address space flight adaptation has left gaps in our knowledge regarding mitigation strategies partly due to the lack of investigative tools, monitoring strategies, and real time diagnostics to understand the central causative agent (s) responsible for physiologic adaptation and maintaining homeostasis. Spaceflight-adaptation syndrome is the combination of space environmental conditions and the synergistic reaction of the human physiology. Our work addresses the role of oxidative stress and damage (OSaD) as a negative and contributing Risk Factor (RF) in the following areas of combined spaceflight related dysregulation: i) radiation induced cellular damage [1,2] ii) immune impacts and the inflammatory response [3,4] and iii) varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation [5]. Varicella-zoster (VZV)/Chicken Pox virus is a neurotropic human alphaherpesvirus resulting in varicella upon primary infection, suppressed by the immune system becomes latent in ganglionic neurons, and reactivates under stress events to re-express in zoster and possibly shingles.

Translational research at NASA: From earth to space and back again

Thomas J. Goodwin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages -

The Space Environment provides many challenges to the human physiology and therefore to extended habitation and exploration. Translational research and medical strategies are meeting these challenges by combining Earth based medical solutions with innovative and developmental engineering approaches. Translational methodologies are currently applied to spaceflight related dysregulations in the areas of: (1) cardiovascular fluid shifts, intracranial hypertension and neuro-ocular impairment 2) immune insufficiency and suppression/viral re-expression, 3) bone loss and fragility (osteopenia/osteoporosis) and muscle wasting, and finally 4) radiation sensitivity and advanced ageing. Over 40 years of research into these areas have met with limited success due to lack of tools and basic understanding of central issues that cause physiologic maladaptation and disrupt homeostasis. We will discuss the effects of living in space (reduced gravity, bone and muscle loss, increased radiation and varying atmospheric conditions [EVA]) during long-duration, exploration-class missions and how translational research has benefited not only space exploration but also Earth based medicine. Modern tools such as telemedicine advances in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics (Omics-sciences) has helped address syndromes,