Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Author : Brundha, M.P.

ImmunobiologyOf N-Cov Spike Protein

M. Rithanya; Smiline Girija; M.P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2965-2972

Immunobiology is the branch of science that deals with immunological effects which includes phenomenan like infectious diseases, growth and development, hypersensitivity, heredity, aging and transplantation. In this review article, we have compiled the immunobiology of the nCoV, which has led to the world wide panic causing a major pandemic. Coronavirus (CoV) is a large family of viruses that has led to mild to severe illness, with magnified cytokine storms in the lungs. The severe forms of these viruses involve Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A new strain of virus that had not been earlier detected in humans is the Novel coronavirus (nCoV). The major structural protein, the spike protein S seems to be the highly potent moiety involved with viral fusion and entry into the host cells through ACE receptors. This review thus throws insights into the immuno-biology of the spike protein and its role in the immuno-pathogenesis of CoV.


N. Naveenaa; Leslie Rani; M.P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 324-333

The facemask is a personal protective equipment which is used to prevent the droplet or aerosol spread. Due to the pandemic spread like SARS, COVID-19 the mask is recommended to be worn by all the people to prevent the infection. It is one of the non-pharmaceutical ways of prevention, it helps in controlling the spread but not in complete eradication of the disease.This is a widely used way of prevention, which is cheap, non-invasive and has capacity to reduce the mortality rate due to respiratory infection. The major problem associated with these equipment are, they are commonly misused and they go out of stock even before the health care sector receives these equipment. So proper selection of masks is required to prevent the infection and also to reduce the demand of masks in the health sector. The aim of this review is to understand the importance of masks and needs of the personal protective equipment during the onset of any pandemic conditions. A systematic search strategy was done and the articles were found using keywords. Literature was taken from databases like PubMed and Google Scholar. The articles which discussed face masks were included and other articles which had the different types, advantages and disadvantages were also included. The review summarises the needs and the urge to use a face mask at the onset of pandemic condition. Selection of proper mask is emphasised to reduce the demand of masks.

Recent Advances Of Lab Testing Of COVID 19

Amirtha varshini; Leslie Rani. S; M.P. Brundha; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3062-3069

A cluster of pneumonia cases infected with a completely unique coronavirus was reported in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province of China in December 2019. The acute respiratory illness is understood as coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19.3 The virus that caused this disease is designated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2. Workflows for COVID-19 laboratory diagnosis by screening and confirmation steps by molecular method have been designed and validated, with the utilization of synthetic nucleic acid technology. Diagnosis of COVID-19 depends on a mixture of epidemiological criteria, presence of clinical symptoms additionally as laboratory testing and clinical imaging based tests. COVID-19 includes analysing examples that demonstrate the present or past nearness of SARS-CoV-2. Tests for viral presence are utilized to analyze current ailment and to permit public health specialists to distinguish and contain flare-ups as fast as could reasonably be expected.The test can be done on samples obtained by various methods, including a nasopharyngeal swab , throat swabs, deep airway material via suction catheter or saliva. As evidenced by previous epidemics, including SARS and MERS, exceptionally delicate and explicit lab diagnostics are basic for case distinguishing proof, contact following, creature source finding, and productive and sane regulation measures. This study reviews the recent advances within the lab testing of covid 19


Kameswari. S; M.P. Brundha; D. Ezhilarasan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1174-1181

Coronavirus which is an irresistible sickness was spread overall pandemic. First events of obscure etiology in Wuhan, China. This distinguished a novel coronavirus now named as a SARS COV 2. It is secured by fat protein which is a solitary abandoned RNA genome. The infections are round or pleomorphic with wrapped particles.SARS-COV incites a huge scope starting in China and the new infection is by all accounts infectious and the COVs have become the significant pathogens of developing respiratory maladies. The indications of the beginning periods of the infection are vague. The death rates for cases all around stay between 1% to 2%. Rapid duplication of infections is additionally an entangled factor in identifying the ailment. Consequently the recognition of this sickness can be distinguished by different strategies like RT-PCR (Real time Polymerase Chain Reaction), CT (Computed Tomography) and so forth… RT-PCR is one among them. Detection of infection by RT-PCR in clinical examples offers the alternative of conclusion in the beginning periods of the ailment and its application incorporates genotyping, mutation detection. RT-PCR techniques during the initial hardly any long periods of ailment have been low and much better affectability is after day 6 of the ailment. RT- PCR technique which is found to be a standard method for diagnosing the positive cases. This helps in finding true negativity and rule out the serological positive cases. Thus, this review at the advantages and disadvantages of RT- PCR in COVID 19.

Salivaomics - A Review

V.T. ThamaraiSelvi; M.P. Brundha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2914-2931

The term Salivaomics was coined in 2008, which is used for the development of knowledge about the salivary constituents. Saliva contains salivary markers which are used in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, etc. Diagnosis from saliva is a developing field with appreciation as it contains hormonal status, neurological effects, nutritional and metabolic influence and immunological status, the diagnostic markers are very useful in various assays. There are 5 different branches in Salivaomics which are the diagnostic alphabets which include proteins, mRNA's, miRNA, metabolic compounds, and Microbes. Salivary genomics is the study of whole genomes i.e., DNA of all the organisms. Salivary proteomics is the study of the proteins present in the saliva. Saliva contains about 1,166 proteins. Salivary Metabolomics is the study in which small metabolites present within the system. Salivary transcriptomics is related to the diagnosis of mRNA. Around 185 mRNAs are found common in all healthy humans. Saliva has a proportionately distributed ratio of bacterial colonies like Bacteroidetes, Fusobacterium, Prevotells, Proteobacteria, Veillonella etc. The advantages of Salivaomics include potential diagnostic value, Safer and easier for the health care professionals compared to blood sampling which sometimes causes cross-infection, Multiple samples can also be obtained easily. There are certain disadvantages which make salivaomics less reliable and preference as a diagnostic tool, These include Composition and flow of the saliva is influenced by the method of saliva collection and also stimulation of saliva flow, biomarkers in saliva which are not reliable, Proteins present in the saliva are also affected by the rate of flow of saliva. SALO is a cross-disciplinary interaction creation, which helps in growing semantically enhanced web-enabled will be created within Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB).
With this background, the present study aims to review the uses, advantages, disadvantages, techniques and methods used in Salivaomics.