Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Author : Achmad, Harun


An Overview of Frequency Malocclusion in Cases of Down Syndrome Children: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Eriska Riyanti; Risti Saptarini Primarti; Monica Imanuelly Pagala

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1641-1649

health in Indonesia. Dental and oral health in children is an important factor that must be considered as early as possible. Therefore, knowledge of children, especially knowledge of malocclusion, must be considered more because if a children experiences malocclusion it can affect tooth grow that a laterage. Down Syndromeis a chromosomal disorder thatresults in mental retardation. Mental retardationis a worldwide problem with major implications, especially for developing countries. It is estimated that the incidence of severe mental retardationisabout 0.3% ofthe total population, andnearly 3% havean IQ below 70%. As human resources, ofcourse they cannot be utilized, because 0.1% of these children need care, guidanceandsupervisionthroughouttheirliving.Objective: To review the frequency of malocclusion in DownSyndromechildren. Methods: Scientific evidence and clinical cases were drawn from the literature to support this review and information on the frequency of malocclusion in childrenwith Down Syndromewascollected.Result/Discussion: There are several types of malocclusion that often occur in children with DownSyndrome. Some of them are associated with class III Anglemalocclusion, crowding, and anterior open bite. Conclusion:Down Syndrome is one of the most studied genetic syndromes because of its frequency in our population and its medical significance. Malocclusion was observed in 92% of subjects with Downsyndrome. The incidence of malocclusion is higher in children/adolescents with Down Syndrome than in individuals without the syndrome. Class III malocclusion is most frequently observed.

The Association of Body Mass Index with Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Eriska Riyanti; Risti Saptarini Primarti; Andi Virga Zulhiah Pratiwi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1631-1640

Background: In the last few decades, industrialization, urbanization, economic development and market globalization have had a significant impact on changes in lifestyle and diet. Thus, food choices and nutritional intake greatly affect oral health and body weight. This has a significant impact on health and nutrition, particularly through higher carbohydrate intake and lower physical activity, particularly among younger members of the population. High sugar intake, such as sugar-containing snacks and soft drinks, was reported it is more common in children/adolescents who are overweight and obesity than those of normal weight. Frequent sugar intake is also a risk factor for dental caries. Given this, there is strong evidence that supports the relationship between dental caries and dietary intake has been associated with the development of obesity at a young age. Thus, it is possible to conclude that there is a biological relationship between dental caries and body weight. Objective: To see the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Methods: Scientific evidence and clinical cases were drawn from the literature to support this review and information on the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Result/Discussion: There is some scientific evidence showing a specific relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children. Conclusion:Body mass index has a significantrelationshipwiththeincidenceof dental caries in children. However, thisconditiondoes not account for which category the incidence of dental cariesis greatest. This is associated with multifactorial interactions that mutually influence the occurrence of dental caries in children.

The Use of Space Maintainer in Pediatric Dentistry: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Taya .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1532-1545

Introduction: Primary teeth have an important role in directing the eruption of permanent teeth. Premature loss of primary teeth can lead to unwanted tooth movement resulting in loss of space in the permanent teeth. Space maintainer (SM) is a tool-based process that plays an important role in preventive and interceptive orthodontics during the start of primary teeth or premature loss in developing teeth. Space maintainer (SM) has been used when there is premature loss of primary teeth to avoid unwanted teeth movement and loss of arch length.
Objective: To explore the use of spaca maintainers in pediatric dentistry. Methods: In the systematuc riview, the article search was performed on Pubmed, Elsevier, and Google Scholar. Study published on 2013 to 2020. 60 were articles assessed, including 60 articles from the electronic databases, 0 from the manual hand search. 50 records screened, 30 records excluded, 22 full-text articles assessed for eligibility and 15 full-text articles were
included. Results: There were 15 articles about the use of spaca maintainer in pediatric dentistry. Conclusion: Based on 15 articles show that space maintainers are used in pediatric dentistry to preserve the space left by primary teeth that were extracted before the date of the teeth being removed.

Oral Health Condition and Dental Care in Children with Congenital Heart Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Sasmita M. Arief

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1233-1247

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common congenital defects, present at birth, it can affect the walls, valves or the great vessels of the heart. CHD considered to be among the most common malformations in newborn infants with an incidence of 8 out of 1000 live births worldwide. Children with congenital disease certainly need special health care. Healthy teeth and gums are important for everyone, especially for children with heart conditions. Providing children with dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic, and in particular during the increased social restrictions, can be a challenging task. The purpose of writing this systematic review is to examine about oral health condition and dental care in children with congenital heart disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data source of Pubmed, published from 2011-2021. After eliminating duplicated articles, the titles and abstracts of each article were analyzed across 119 articles resulting in 86 articles being excluded. The full-text articles in the remaining 33 articles were re-analyzed and excluded 23 articles and produced 10 articles which were then entered into the analysis. Based on this systematic review shows that children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have poor oral health. Education and disease awareness about and prevention of dental illnesses have to be guided and steered by the parents. The role of dentists and pediatricians is very important in this case. Providing children with dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic, and in particular during the increased social restrictions, can be a challenging task.