Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Author : Alenng, Nor Azlida

Oral squamous cell carcinoma: review of incidence and risk factors

Muhammad Azeem Yaqoob; Wan Muhamad Amir W Ahmad; Nor Azlida Alenng; Sami Aljahmi; Sayed Farooq Jalal; Ashfaq Ur Rahim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7967-7978

Globally, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer and it is associated with a mortality
rate up to 50%. Oral cancer usually encompasses tumours derived from the lips, anterior
two-thirds of the tongue, buccal mucosa, hard palate, the floor of mouth, upper and lower
alveolar ridges, retromolar trigone, and sublingual area. An approximate age-standardized
to world population (ASR (W) for oral cavity and lip cancer according to the World Health
Organization (WHO) the topmost is South East Asia with incidence of 6.4 per 100000,
followed by Europe and East Mediterranean (4.6 cases per 100000), America (4.1 per
100000), Africa (2.7 per 100000), and Western Pacific area (2.0 per 100000).Oral
squamous cell carcinoma has multifactorial pathogenesis which includes smoking, alcohol
consumption, and HPV and others. Oral cancer has multifactorial etiology, mainly
smoking, tobacco, alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing and high-risk human
papillomavirus (HPV). Worldwide, the prevalence of HPV infection is 3% in oral cavity
cancer and has a significant role in the management of oral squamous cell carcinoma
(OSCC) as HPV-related oral cancers have shown better prognosis.
The risks of oral cancer in many developing countries had increased mainly by the habits
of using betel quid chewing, tobacco and alcohol consumption.Human papillomavirus is a
major concern and a public burden in a clinical setting all over the world. The sites
frequently involved in HPV related cancers are tonsils and base of the tongue.