Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Author : Agarwal, Dr. Rakhee

Microbiological Profile and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Ocular Infections in A Tertiary Care Hospital

Dr. Rakhee Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2293-2299

Background: The eye may become infected from the outside or as a result of bloodstream-borne germs invading the eye. In this work, particular bacterial and fungal pathogens that cause eye infections were isolated, identified, and their antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed. This research was done to find the bacterial and fungal pathogens that cause eye infections, isolate and identify them, and find out how susceptible they are to antibiotics in vitro.
Methods: All of the participants in the current study had slit lamp bio-microscopy examinations, and an ophthalmologist made a clinical diagnosis based on accepted practises. The various ocular tissues were collected for specimens for smear and culture after thorough ocular examinations utilizing conventional methods. The samples were examined under a microscope directly using techniques like Gram staining, and biochemical reactions performed were catalase test, coagulase test Motility test, Indole test, Citrate utilisation test, Urea Hydrolysis test, and sugar fermentation tests.
Results: In vitreous and corneal specimens, growth was observed in n=20 (32.25%) of the n=26 (41.93%) instances that were found to be positive by direct microscopy (KOH mount with Calcofluor White staining), while no growth was found in n=6 cases. Out of n=36 (58.06%) cases that were negative on direct microscopy, growth was seen in n=2 (5.55%) cases, whereas no growth was seen on culture in the remaining n=34(94.44%) cases. Direct microscopy had a sensitivity of 80.12% and a specificity of 79.61%.  Out of total n=20 fungal isolates found n=15 cases were from corneal scrapings which yielded Aspergillus sp. In n=6, Penicillium sp. n=5 Candida albicans n=2 and Fusarium sp. n=2 and the one mixed growth of candida along with Coagulase negative staphylococcus.
Conclusion: Emerging drug resistance is a matter of serious concern and hence all ophthalmological samples must be analysed as thoroughly as possible for antimicrobial resistance due to the increase of antibiotic resistance. Ophthalmologists must adhere to the etiologic approach to diagnosis and consider risk reduction in order to lessen the burden of ocular infections.

A Study of Microbiological Profile of Ear Infections with Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern

Dr. Rakhee Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1879-1887

Background: One of the most common diagnoses presented to ENT OPDs around the world is an ear infection. It is a significant health issue in developing nations like India. It has a connection to avoidable hearing loss. It carries a higher chance of developing potentially severe long-term consequences. Knowing their etiological agents as well as their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern will therefore aid in determining the best course of treatment and helping to avoid problems. The current research attempted to study the microbiological profile of ear infections with antibiotic sensitivity patterns.
Methods: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria a total of n=60 cases were identified during the period of study. The ear discharge was collected using sterile swabs under aseptic precautions. Three samples were taken. One swab for Direct Gram Stain and KOH mount. The Second swab was for bacterial culture and the third swab was for fungal culture. The pus swabs from discharge-producing ears were collected using swab methods and cotton wool. Stained with gram stain and followed by culture on MacConkey agar, Blood agar, Mannitol Salt agar, and Chocolate agar, ear discharge samples were inoculated.
Results: The commonest organism isolated as P. aeruginosa in 36.36% of cases followed by S. aureus in 25.45% of cases. Proteus mirabilis, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli were isolated in 5.45% cases each. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), K pneumoniae, were isolated in 3.63% of cases. The fungal isolates that predominate include Aspergillus niger 7.27% cases, followed by 1.81% of Aspergillus flavus, Candida tropicalis, and Candida each.
Conclusion: According to this study, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the most typical causes of ear infections. The regularly prescribed medications Gentamycin, Amoxicillin, Erythromycin, and Cotrimoxazole have been proven to be less effective against these pathogens. Ciprofloxacin was responsive to the majority of the isolates.