Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : breast

Evaluation of the Single Path Versus Double Path PECS I and II Blocks as an Efficient Analgesic Choice in Female Breast Surgeries

Dr. Rajeev Kumar, Dr. Praveen Kumar Singh .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 74-78

Background: Excruciating pain is a common consequence following breast surgery and can be efficiently managed with double path PECS I and II blocks. Pectoral plane blocks (PECs) are being utilised more frequently in analgesia for patients undergoing breast surgery.
Methods: Sixty patients undergoing breast surgery were randomly assigned into two groups: Single path and double path. Performance time of technique, the onset and length of the sensory block, visual analogue pain ratings (VAS), postoperative analgesic requirements and success rate were the outcomes.
Results: A single-path block performed more quickly. With the exception of 10 hours postoperatively, where the double-path group had lower pain scores, other time points saw equal pain scores. The sensory block lasted longer and started sooner in the double path block.
Conclusions: The use of double-path pectoral blocks was a beneficial approach, as it was associated with a faster onset, and a longer duration of analgesia.

Breast lesions on FNAB and their categorization according to IAC Yokohama system in a tertiary care center

Dr Meenakshi Khajuria, Dr Manpreet Kour, Dr Amit Khajuria .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8828-8832

Background: Breast lesions commonly present as palpable breast lumps. FNAC is a first line, minimally invasive and cost-effective investigation in diagnosis of breast lumps with high levels of accuracy in differentiating various benign and malignant.
Aims and Objectives: The aim is to study the spectrum and distribution of breast lesions according to IAC Yokohama system of reporting breast cytopathology.
Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology in Government Medical College Rajouri over a period of one year from January 2021 to January 2022.Results: Out of 134 cases, majority of the cases were in category 2 i.e.,70.9%. most common benign lesion is fibroadenoma i.e., 48.42% of all the benign lesions.Category5 has 11.94% of the total cases. Most common malignancy is ductal cell carcinoma i.e., 87.5% of the total malignancies.Conclusion: Categorization of the lesions according to the IAC Yokohama system of reporting breast cytopathology gives uniformity to the results by different cytopathologists. Therefore, the management can be planned by the surgeon according to the risk and unnecessary delay can be prevented.


Dr. Brajesh Pathak, Dr. Vibhor Mahendru

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2700-2707

The ensuing driving force behind death from breast cancer in women is legitimacy. It occurs when cells in the breast become confined and attack the supporting tissue or spread throughout the body. Mammography is a truly unprecedented and remarkable modality used to distinguish and find breast cancer in a short time frame.
Mammography is a two-stage picture and depends on the unambiguous confirmation of dangerous morphological deviations for breast cancer. These manifestations combine areas of mass, all calcification, gap and required curvature. A standard screening mammogram combines the mean diagonal and craniocaudal approach on each breast. Screening tests are facilitated only to find unsafe disclosures after which the woman will return for a more conclusive method. Positive mammographic approaches can likewise incorporate spot pressure, enlargement, rolling, extended view, and upright view to delineate and bind features.


Dr. Manoj Srivastava, Dr. Nishee Srivastava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2613-2616

Background & Method: The aim of this study is to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the traditional triple assessment of symptomatic breast lesions with contrast-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. patients with palpable breast lesions were recruited from the symptomatic breast clinics. All underwent clinical examination by consultant breast surgeons, FNAC was performed according to our standard protocol for symptomatic patients, which does not include image guidance.
Result: MRI proved to most sensitive and specific modality. Triple assessment MRI and FNAC all have specificity of 100%. MRI proved to be most sensitive modality with 96 % sensitivity, (physical examination 91%, USG 91%, FNAC 84% and Triple assessment 84 %.)
Conclusion: With the aim of improving the accuracy of triple assessment, MRI can provide valuable information and with improvements in technology can further enhance specificity. Contrast-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of the breast is as sensitive and more specific than the combined traditional triple assessment for the diagnosis of malignant breast lesions.

Leukemia Recurrence Exclusively in the Breast after Stem Cell Transplant

Naziya Samreen; Shahrukh K. Hashmi; Amy Lynn Conners; Asha Bhatt; Katrina N. Glazebrook

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 41-45

Introduction: Leukemic involvement of the breast is extremely rare but constitutes an oncologic emergency. Imaging findings of T-Cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) recurrence in the breasts have not been previously described. Case Description: Patient is a 25 year old female who presented with symptoms of superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction secondary to a mediastinal mass status post biopsy demonstrating T-ALL, which was cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) positive and B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), and 80% Ki-67 positive. She was treated with chemotherapy and post-treatment positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) demonstrated resolution of mediastinal mass, with no evidence of distant disease. She underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in first remission. Seven months post-HSCT, patient presented with a large area of tender swelling of both the breasts with biopsy demonstrating relapsed T-ALL. Radiologic findings showed bilateral breast masses on ultrasound and mammogram, which were hypermetabolic on PET/CT. Conclusions: Breast involvement in leukemia recurrence, a very rare entity, can present with palpable masses. Mammographic findings in leukemia can include masses or architectural distortion, they are typically hyperechoic on ultrasound, and can have marked uptake on PET/CT. Oncologists, primary care providers and radiologists should be aware of leukemia presentations in the breast for prompt referral for urgent management.