Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Leprosy

Histopathological Study of Skin Lesions in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Rajkot, Gujarat: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study

Nayana H. Bhalodiya, Gauravi A. Dhruva, Rahul Sanghvi, Amit H. Agravat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 1641-1648

: Skin is the largest sensory organ of the body and acts as a barrier against various harmful environmental agents. Dermatologic disorders are common in all countries but the spectrum varies greatly. The spectrum varies according to geographic distribution, gender, age, and coexisting disorder. We conducted this study to find out prevalence of various skin diseases, site of distribution, frequency of various skin diseases and gender preponderance of diseases. Material and Method: A descriptive retrospective, cross-sectional study was done in the Pathology Department of PDU Medical College, Rajkot, Gujarat, from December 2021 to November 2022 (1 year). The biopsies taken were fixed in 10% formalin and then processed and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin stain (H&E). A convenience sampling method was used. Data was collected, point estimate at 95% Confidence Interval was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data and systemic random sampling was used to achieve sample size. Results: In our one-year study, total 130 biopsies were studied. Males were more affected than females. Most common affected age group was 31-40 years of age. Out of 130 skin biopsies, 117 (90%) were non-neoplastic and 10 (7.8%) were pre-malignant and neoplastic. Histopathological diagnosis was inconclusive in 3 (2.31%) cases. The most common non-neoplastic histopathological pattern observed in our study was infectious diseases comprising of 46 (35.4%) cases In Infectious diseases Leprosy was leading cause especially Lepromatous Leprosy. Trunk and abdomen (40.80%) were most common site of involvement in skin lesions. Conclusions: Infectious diseases especially Leprosy is still a common cause of skin diseases in developing country like India and strong intervention should be taken for it’s prevention. Histopathological examination is the gold standard for the proper diagnosis as histomorphological features distinguish various skin lesions which are having overlapping clinical features.


Dr Mohak Agarwal, Dr Rohit Kothari, Dr Priya Garg, Dr Shreya Deoghare, Dr Kirti Deo Dr Anushka Rakesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 3095-3105

Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is caused by Mycobacterium leprae,through respiratory root and affects skin and nerves predominantly. This nerve injury can induce a lack of pain sensitivity, motor dysfunction and can ultimately lead to limb loss. Neuropathy causes post-traumatic septic arthritis and neuropathic joints. Acute and chronic joint involvement as  symmetric polyarthritis mimicking rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with or without lepra reaction has been reported. Leprosy appears in rheumatology as primary arthritis, a concomitant infection, or a treatment outcome. Joint pain and arthritis occur during reactive inflammation. Hansen's disease may also cause rheumatoid-like erosive deforming arthritis in large and small joints.
A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Department of Dermatology and Venereology. The study included all leprosy cases but excluded patients with other types of arthritis. Patients with coagulopathy, connective tissue disorders, and collagen vascular disorders were excluded.
The mean age of 100 study participants was 41.30 years (SD - 19.23 years), 76% were male, 24% female. Most study participants had ulcers on their feet. 24 had left foot ulcers and 17 on the right. Lesions were also present on medial malleolus, hand, lower limbs, etc. 56% had no leprosy reaction, 24% type 2, and 20% type 1. Polyarthritis was the most prevalent rheumatological manifestation (34%), followed by tenosynovitis (32%). Some patients had enthesitis (16%), oligoarthritis (15%), dactylitis (12%), etc. Most lepromatous and tuberculoid leprosy patients had increased ESR and CRP.
Borderline and lepromatous leprosy often causes symmetrical polyarthritis, oligoarthritis, enthesitis, and dactylitis. Leprosy is rare in outpatient rheumatology, but rheumatologists must know this crucial differential diagnosis. Dermatologists should be involved when anti lepromatous medications to prevent unnecessary antirheumatic therapy.

Histomorphological Spectrum of Hansen’s Disease at Urban Teaching Hospital – A Prospective Study

Dr. Shraddha Yadav, Dr. Shirish. S. Chandanwale, Dr. Akshi Raj, Dr. Madhuri Singh, Dr. Anshita Garg

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 806-817

Introduction: Leprosy is an ancient, chronic, granulomatous, curable disease affecting the skin and peripheral nerves extensively and is caused by Mycobacterium (M) leprae. It remains a considerable health issue in many developing countries including India. Timely and accurate diagnosis is essential for leprosy management as it helps to spread and morbidity associated with it. Materials and Methods:  The Cross-sectional Prospective study was conducted between period August 2020 to September 2022 in a teaching hospital from urban industrial area. A total of 100 Skin biopsies from clinically suspected cases of leprosy were included in this study. Detailed histomorphological features were studied.  Bacteriological Index (BI) of acid fast bacilli was calculated on Fite ferraco stain. Results: The most common type of leprosy was BT (n=24). Males were commonly affected than females and commonest age group was 21-40 years (n=39). Majority of the cases in lepramatous leprosy (50%) had Grenz zone. Perineural lymphocytes (37.50%) and periadnexal lymphocytes (45.45%) were appreciated. Conclusion: Classifying leprosy is vital to decide the treatment course. It should only not be on the basis of counting skin lesions, but also through clinical, bacteriological, histopathological examination of the skin biopsies.

Clinico-Epidemiological Trends of Leprosy in Karaikal District, India After Elimination of Leprosy – ‌‌‌A Ten Year Retrospective Study

Dr.S.S.Arulvasan, Dr.C.Abhirami, Dr.C.Ramya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6225-6236

Leprosy is an age-old chronic infectious disease of mankind. This disease has been infecting humans for at least 100,000 years and still affects millions of people all over the world. India achieved Leprosy “elimination” in December 2005, but the disease remains a major public health concern because India still has the highest leprosy burden in the world. According to the National Leprosy Elimination Program (NLEP), a total of 114451 new cases were detected between 2019 and 2020 and about half that many between 2020 and 2021.So,it is important to understand the trends of leprosy but short-term trends in leprosy are difficult to interpret due to year-to-year fluctuations in program activities and hence Long-term trends are more important to understand the clinic epidemiological trends of leprosy and to monitor the leprosy control activity. In this study we have done aretrospective statistical analysis of data obtained from the health department, Karaikal, India for ten yearsi.e. from 2012 to 2022. Major key indicators of leprosy burden for both elimination of disease and elimination of transmissionare analyzed to understand the nature and trends of leprosy in a coastal district Karaikal and also to compare itwith the clinicoepidemiological trend of India.

Determination of random blood sugar, alkaline phosphatase and zinc levels in individuals with leprosy

Ansuman Dash, Lingidi Jhansi Lakshmi, Anju Choudhary, Doddigarla Zephy, Qurie Madhura

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2048-2056

Objective: The current study aimed to compare the levels of zinc, alkaline phosphatase, and random blood sugar in people with leprosy to those in healthy controls from the Bundelkhand area. The second objective was to compare the correlation between study parameters in the leprosy group and the healthy control group. Material & methods:  The research was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry at Maharani Laxmi Bai Medical College (MLBMC) in Jhansi. In the healthy control group, forty human beings with normal glycemic status were age and gender matched. The leprosy patient group contained forty leprosy patients who were receiving treatment. Leprosy disease was diagnosed in accordance with the world health organization guidelines. Results: Age difference between the two groups was not statistically significant in the present investigation. Whereas, we found a statistically significant contrast between the two sets of data we analyzed, including RBS, ALP, and serum zinc levels. Leprosy patients showed a positive link between ALP and zinc, and a negative correlation between age and RBS; RBS and serum zinc. A positive connection between ALP and zinc was seen in the control group. We conclude that periodic monitoring of zinc concentrations in leprosy people may be prudent since zinc deficiency worsens insulin resistance and may lead to greater loss through urine.


Dr.C.Aparna, Dr. G.Harinath, Dr. K.Sharada Devi, Dr. A.Shanmugapriya, Dr. K.Harika Reddy, Dr. R.Sugatamil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3172-3179

 Background; Leprosy still continues to be an important public health problem. The present study was undertaken to study the histopathological features of  leprosy in skin biopsies and to categorize them into various types based on microscopy, bacterial index to correlate with clinical presentations whenever possible.  Aim;To know the prevalence of Leprosy in our Institute with Clinico-Histopathological correlation.  Objectives;To know the distribution of various types of Leprosy in our Institute.To know the sensitivity and overall correlation of Histopathology and Bacterial index in diagnosing various types of Leprosy Material and methods :We have done the study on a Sample size of 55cases.  Results:  Borderline Tuberculoid leprosy constituted  the  maximum percentage of cases. Conclusion : Correlation between clinical, bacteriological and histopathology was 100% in diagnosing BB,IL, and ENL followed by BT.

An Understanding of A Clinico Pathological Correlation In Leprosy In A Tertiary Care Teaching Institution.

Nishant Saxena, Nimisha Saxena, Shilpa Mittal , Harsh Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 409-420

Background: Leprosy caused by mycobacterium leprae is a chronic granulomatous disease that mainly
affects peripheral nerves and skin. Depending upon the immune status of the individual it manifests var ious
clinical and pathological forms. Histopathology plays an important role in the diagnosis of clinically suspicious
cases and helps in exact classification of various subtypes and types which therefore helps in deciding the
treatment plan and cure. Vari ous inflammatory disorders also mimics clinically to leprosy therefore exact
diagnosis plays an important role for early treatment. So this study is undertaken to correlate the clinical
diagnosis with histopathological findings which plays crucial role in patient management.


A.J. Kurbanbaeva; U.A. Aleuov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1342-1347

In all periods of human development, every nation around the world had its own
special and personal folk descriptions and methods of treatment. Folk healing originated in the
first stages of the formation of human life. She was not guided by any scientific rules. only with
the help of approximate indicators of the development of achieving the properties of a kind of
folk treatment, there was a further continuation. However, it is not so difficult to determine the
origins of the history of healing, the objects and goals of treatment are always similar, relevant
and common. Only the concepts of diseases, the ways of their presentation and the practice of
treatment were not always similar to each other. this does not mean that the number of diseases
has increased, just that identical methods of treatment have been formed.