Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Breast Cancer


Uddaraju Susmitha; Narasingarao, M. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1040-1050

The ability to predict the reaction of breast tumors to neoadjuvant chemotherapy from the get-go over the span of treatment can delineate patient’s dependent on the reaction for explicit tolerant treatment procedures. From now on, reaction to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is measured as being based on physical examination or breast imaging (mammogram, mri, or normal MRI). There is a powerless connection with these projections and with the actual tumor size as measured by the pathologist through authoritative procedure. Given the numerous options open to Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), it is important to develop a plan to predict response over the care period. Sadly, as long as certain people are not seen as responding, their condition can never again be specifically resectable, so this situation should be preserved at a strategic remove from progressing response appraisal protocols throughout the care regimen. This paper provides a review of all the existing frameworks of machine learning involved to perform accurately neoadjuvant chemotherapy responses

Molecular Detection of Mouse Mammary Tumor-like Virus (MMTV-Like) in Breast Carcinoma for Iraqi Female Patients

Hasan A. Mohammed; Müge Fırat; Mohammed E. Mansur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1533-1566

Background: The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like env gene have
previously been reported to be present in some human breast cancers, however, their
role in developing that cancers is still unclear.
Aim: This study aims to investigate the presence of MMTV-like env gene among
Iraqi women who have breast cancers.
Methods: The prevalence of MMTV-like env gene and beta-globulin gene in
formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast tissue specimens of 88 Iraqi women
with breast cancers was detected using conventional PCR and Real- Time techniques.
Eight benign breast tumors’ specimens were also used as controls. Fisher’s exact test
was used to analyse data.
Results: MMTV-like env gene were detected in 16 (18.8%) specimens of those with
breast malignancies, while they were not identified in benign breast tumors
specimens. However, no significant difference between two groups was noted.
Conclusion: MMTV-like env and beta-globin genes were detected in Iraqi women
with breast cancer, and further research is needed to study the role and association of
these env gene with cancer development.

DNA based CGB methylation in breast cancer a case control study

Dr. Anjana Vasudevan; Dr. Vasugi. G. A.; Dr. R. Ponniah Iyyappan; Dr. Harpreet Kaur; Dr. Balaji Singh; Dr. Guru Prasad; Dr. C. S. Subramanium; Dr. C. Kaliyappa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 55-61

Breast carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. Breast cancer also produces and is influenced by ectopic hormones. Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is one such hormone and is encoded by chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes. The aim of this study was to determine the CGB gene methylation in breast cancer tissues and compare them with normal tissues.
Materials and methods: After approval from Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC), consent from patients were obtained. Normal and tumour tissues from breast cancer patients were taken. DNA was isolated from normal and tumour tissues. Post bisulfate conversion samples were processed for qPCR using methylation specific primers for the set of selected CGB genes and SYBR green.
Results: 1-2M was found to be significantly higher among the normal tissues (50.22). 3-9M was found to be 65.93 in tumour tissues and 5.05 in normal tissues and this was significant.
Conclusion: 3-9 M is significantly higher in tumour tissues compared to normal tissues and 1-2 M is significantly higher in normal tissues. This suggests that there are 2 different types of beta hCG secreted by two different types of genes and this can be used for further analysis as a part of future projects. This may help in formulating a new treatment process and may also be used as a tumour marker in high risk patients

The Effect of TNFα -308G/A Gene Polymorphism with Breast Cancer Risk in Iraqi Population

Anwar Abed Nasser Dhabaan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 163-167

The study included two hundred and thirty samples of which 130 patients women of
breast cancer in Iraqi population,, their ages ranged from 29 to 71 year (ages mean 42.95
± 1.5) and 100 controls (healthy women), their ages ranged from 25 to 65 year (ages
mean 31.37 ± 1.9). We confined the frequency of TNF-α gene -308G/A polymorphism by
TARMS PCR technique (Tetra-amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain
reaction technique). Also, we determined the association of TNF-α gene -308G/A
polymorphism with breast cancer of Iraqi women population. Statistical results showed
significant difference in genotype frequency of TNF-α gene -308G/A polymorphism with
breast cancer women patients and control (healthy women). The A allele showed high
frequency in breast cancer patients comparison with control (healthy women) and present
with etiological fraction risk (EF) of breast cancer patients in Iraqi women, and its ratio
64.23% in patients while in control 50.50%. The G allele shows high frequency in control
comparison with breast cancer patients was 35.77% and 49.50% respectively, and
present related with protective fraction (PF) with breast cancer patients was (0,21.4). The
genotypes of AA and GG (homozygotes) shows high frequency in breast cancer patients
was 58.46% and 30% respectively, comparison with control was 16% and 15%
respectively, also AA and GG homozygotes genotypes showed relationship with
etiological fraction risk of breast cancer in women patients, while the GA heterozygote
genotype show high frequency in control (healthy) was 69% comparison with breast
cancer patients was 11.54%, and show related with preventive fraction of breast cancer
patients. Our findings demonstrate that the TNFα -308G/A gene polymorphism may
represent a risk factor for breast cancer development of patient’s women in Iraqi

Increased expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes in breast cancer cells

Jolanta Rzymowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Brygida Slaska; Izabella Cisek; Katarzyna Wach; Sebastian Mazur; Paulina Stachyra; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 14-19

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the expression at the mRNA level of cytochromeb, subunits COI, COII, COIII of complex IV, ATP6 and ATP8 and to perform aquantitative analysis of the activity of ATP synthase as complex V of the respiratory chain, responsible for ATP synthesis and break down of ATP to ADP in breast cancer. Methods and Results: The level of gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated on the basis of the light intensity of fluorochrome or fluorescein in the cells. Determination of the activity and location of the ATP synthase in cells was carried out using hybridization. In the formulations of breast cancer there was a higher genes expression at the mRNA level for all the examined genes as compared with non-cancerous tissue. The ATP activity was also higher in preparations obtained from breast cancer cells compared with the control tissue. Conclusions: The results confirm mtDNA incorporation to nDNA in neoplastic cells. They point to increased expression at mRNA level for COI, COII, COIII, ATP6 and ATP8 in breast cancer cells compared with control tissue. Increased amount of ATP synthase points to increased ATP in a neoplastic cell.