Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Breast cancer


A FRAME WORK TO DETECT BREAST CANCER USING KNN and SVM

RAJESH SATURI; K.V. Sai Phani; Prof.P. PREM CHAND

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1432-1438

The main reason of increasing mortality rate among women is the breast cancer. It makes several hours with the less availability of systems to identify the diagnosis of cancer manually. Hence there is a need to develop an automatic system for early detection of cancer. Several researchers have focused in order to improve performance and achieved to obtain satisfactory results. But unfortunately it will be very difficult to detect the cancer in beginning stages because the symptoms may be inappropriate.Therefore, there is a need to determine and acquire a new knowledge to prevent and minimizing the risk of getting effected with cancer. Machine learning (ML) is algorithms are widely used in detecting breast cancer patterns and predict the grading level. Machine learning techniques can be used to classify the stage of cancer, where machine can be trained from past data and build a model so that it can predict the category of new input.In this paper we used K-nearest neighbors (K-NN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) on the dataset collected from UCI repository to detect breast cancerwith respect to the results of accuracy the efficiency of algorithm is also measured and compared.

“Breast cancer trends in a Tertiary Care Teaching Institute of South India”

Dr. M Bala Vikas Kumar; Dr. Venkat Rao Boinapally

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 313-318

Introduction: The Incidence of breast cancer has been found to increase gradually especially among younger women. This could be due to two reasons first is it may be reflecting the true incidence of the tendency of younger women to develop breast cancer or second could be due to increasing awareness and availability of modern screening methods which has led to the detection of cancers in early ages. Methods: We in this cross-sectional study screened n=125 women for breast cancer at RVM Institute of Medical Sciences, Mulugu, Telangana from January 2019 to Dec 2019. A total of n=120 cases were screened for breast cancer. Results: Out of n=125 women screened n=21 cases were detected with breast cancers.The incidence rate was calculated as 21%.Out of the total n=21 cases, n=7(33.33%) cases were found to malignant, n=14(66.67%) cases were benign lesions. Among the malignant lesions diagnosed the Invasive duct cell carcinoma was found in 71.43% of out of the total n = 7 cases of malignancy. In non-neoplastic lesions out of n=14 cases, fibroadenoma was diagnosed in 38.09% cases, followed by proliferative breast disease with atypia 14.28% and Phyllods in 9.52% cases. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for organized breast cancer screening programs especially in rural areas. A multidisciplinary approach is required to create awareness, screening, detection, and treatment. This can help reduce the incidence and mortality in cases of breast cancers.

Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer by Detection of Genetic Variation for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes in the Women's of Nineveh Province

Nada Saad Omer; Dr.FİLİZ SARIKAYA PEKACAR; Dr. HananShihab Ahmad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1525-1532

Women's Breast Cancer ranks first among other type in Iraq and the world. It often detects because of
examinations performed in patients on familial cancer history. Approximately, 10% of hereditary breast cancer
represents of all breast cancer cases and BRCA1/2 represented the responsible genes. Mutations in the BRCA1/2
germ increases the risk of hereditary breast cancer twenty times more. Therefore, the detection of BRCA1/2
genes mutations is important for the diagnosis, treatment and application of clinical methods of patients. New
generation sequencing is more useful than classical methods. With this method, a patient-specific clinical
treatment can be customized, treatment, and early diagnosis, facilitates new discoveries, identification of existing
mutations, primarily breast and ovarian cancer.
In this study, the female patients had selected between the ages of 18-49 living in Nineveh-Iraq and having
demographic identical qualities, the samples taken within the consent of the participants were examined and
some significant mutations had been detected. Bioinformatics studies of variants evaluatedas pathogenic were
performed. In addition, variants of unknown clinical significance were identified and listed.Based on the results
obtained in the study, it is concluded that tests should be applied directly in the laboratory environment to
develop an understanding based on the Next Generation Sequencing approach for the detection of BRCA1 and
BRCA2 mutations and to evaluate the functional role of the mutations. In addition, our study draws a conclusion
for the early diagnosis of the New Generation Sequencing technique and the development of a personalized,
patient-specific treatment approach.

The Effect of Arm Exercises on The Prevention of Lymphedema in Post- Mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients at Haji Adam Malik Medan Hospital

Helinida Saragih; Nurmaini .; Ikhsanuddin Ahmad Harahap

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2025-2028

Breast cancer is a malignant neoplasm, an abnormal growth of breast tissue that does not see the surrounding tissue, grows infiltrative and destructive, and can metastasize. Every breast cancer patient experiences side effects from various treatment treatments. This is because the therapy that each patient gets varies and also that cancer sufferers have different genetic backgrounds and different environments. Mastectomy in breast cancer patients can cause many patients to suffer from decreased joint mobility, lymphedema, and limitation in daily activities. These complaints can be overcome with arm exercises. Arm exercises are done to improve circulation and muscle strength and to prevent joint stiffness, preventing lymphedema from occurring. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of arm exercises on lymphedema prevention by looking at the value of arm measurements before the intervention and after intervention in the intervention and control groups. The research design was a quasi-experimental study with a total sample size of 32 respondents per group so that the total sample was 64 respondents. The research results were based on the t-test. The independently obtained p=0.001, namely p <0.005, which means that there was a significant effect of the arm measurement value on post-mastectomy breast cancer. It is hoped that this study can be used as education for post-mastectomy patients to improve the lymph flow so that lymph flow obstruction does not occur.

A MODE FUZZY WEIGHT BASED CANONICAL POLYADIC (MFWCP) AND ADAPTIVE NEURO FUZZY INTERFACE SYSTEM (ANFIS) FOR MISSING VALUE IMPUTATION IN BREAST CANCER PREDICTION

S.R. Lavanya; Dr.R. Mallika

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 2053-2066

Most of the women are affected by BC (Breast Cancer) which is one of the dreadful diseases in the entire world and considered as subsequent threatening reason of cancer death in women. The likelihood of death can be significantly reduced by means of early detection and prevention. Hybrid Bayesian frameworks were utilized previously for breast cancer prediction and handling missing values in patient’s characterization. WCP (Weight Canonical Polyadic) algorithms manage continuous missing values in the data by using least squares recursively. A main bottleneck in using WCP is the unfolding of multiple relationships of discovered modes (N). The complexity increases when the value of N is large. This paper uses imputations in attribute dependencies for enhancing BC detections. This work divides the dataset into discrete and continuous subsets where discrete fields are assigned values using BN (Bayesian Networks) followed by Tensor factorization on an integrated dataset using MFWCP (Mode Fuzzy Weight based Canonical Polyadic). The new dataset is created from full/missing value subsets for assigning values to fields with missing values. MFWCP operations result in operations where N value of WCP is greater than three. This third order is reduced to first order WCP by applying Khatri-Rao product. DT (Decision Trees), KNN (K-Nearest Neighbors) and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System) classifiers are combined to classify BC and the proposed hybrid method is evaluated using defined performance measures enhanced imputation accuracy.

In-Vitro evaluation of anti-cancer and genotoxic potential of medicinal herb Saussurea lappa extract in human cancer cell lines

Ayyub A. Patel; Mohammed Amanullah; Fahmy G. Elsaid; Tamer Soliman; Mohamed Eissa; Hani Alothaid

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 736-747

For centuries, plants are known to play part in the daily routine from providing food to the management of human health. During the last few decades, diverse phytochemicals have been characterized as agents that possess a potential to execute cancer cells. The oil extracted from the root of Saussurea costus; has been used in traditional medicine for a long time. Purpose: This study was carried out to assess the effect of Saussurea lappa aqueous extract on five different cell lines; Human Lung Fibroblast cells (MRC5), Human Dermal Fibroblast adult (HDFa), Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK), breast cancer cells (MCF7) and human colonic cancer (Caco2). Results: On normal cell lines; the extract showed cytotoxic activities with the half maximal inhibitory concentration; IC50 values, ranging from 0.85 to 2.5 mg/ml whereas MRC5 was the most sensitive cell line (IC50 values: 0.85). On malignant cell lines; MCF7 cells showed inhibition in cell proliferation with activity from 67.17% to 91.01% by the extract treatment concentration 0.50 to 2.0 mg/dl. However, Caco2 cells exhibited inhibition in proliferation ranging from 37.10% to 69.45% by the same treatment dose. Thus, breast cancer cells were more sensitive than colon cancer cells to Saussurea costus extract. The genotoxic potentialities of the crude extract showed increase in expression of proapoptotic genes; P53, IκBα, BAX and TNF and decrease in the expression of antiapoptotic genes; Bcl2, Survivin, and MMP-7. Conclusion: Our work pointed out that Saussurea lappa extract could be a potential candidate that has the capability to fight cancer.

DETECTION OF MICROCALCIFICATION CLUSTERS USING STATISTICAL PARAMETERS AND DYADIC CONTOURLET TRANSFORM BASED PRECISION ENHANCEMENT

Venmathi A R; A. Senthil Kuma; M. Gomati; G. Suresh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2423-2436

—Recent scenario, breast cancer found to be a threat and dangerous carcinoma among women in the world. In contemplation of reducing the breast, cancer-related death needs an efficient computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The discrimination of microcalcification clusters (MCCs) is an important manifestation for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper focuses on the detection of breast cancers cells size below 2mm. To achieve précised enhanced cancer cell region an efficient technique dyadic Counterlet transform (DCTs) in two dimension is proposed. The enhancement of cancer cell region obtained through preserving the boundaries and borders with curvature for a small region.

Ki-67 and It’s Correlation Between The Clinical And Histological Parameters In Breast Cancer Patients - An Institutional Study

Dr Siddharth Mahender; Dr Bharathi Raja.K; Dr Akshaya Gunasekar; Prof. Dr.K.S Ravishankar.K.S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2854-2864

Breast cancer is a major health issue and yet there lacks studies which show the correlation between Ki-67 as a prognostic marker and the variables of breast cancer.
Aim: to correlate Ki-67 index with clinical and histological parameters of breast cancer. Methods and materials: it is a cross-sectional study done on 86 cases of cancer breast who presented to the institute SBMCH, Chennai in one and a half years duration. Age, tumor size, site , menopausal status, lymph node involvement ,histological type and grade, Ki-67 index were determined and correlated in these patients.Results: the mean age was 52 years, and most of them (62.8%) were post-menopausal. The tumors were more common on the left breast compared to right. Size of 2-5cm were more prevalent and more cases had nodal involvement in our study. Out of the histological types Invasive ductal was most common followed by Papillary carcinoma and Invasive lobular carcinoma. In our study Ki-67 did not show any significant correlation with the age(p=0.427), gender(p=0.447),side of the tumor(p=0.619), menopausal status(p=0.121), pathological size of the tumor(p=0.169),nodal involvement(p=0.568) or histological type of the tumor(p=0.373). However a really significant correlation was observed between grade of the tumor(p<0.001). Concluding that in our study there was a significant correlation between ki-67 and tumor grade which is an established prognostic marker, and hence it plays a vital role in deciding the prognosis of breast cancer.

Low Quality of life (QoL) in Indian breast cancer patients : a critical analysis of UP

Sanjiv Srivastava; Dr.Alpana Srivastava; Dr. Sandeep Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1561-1575

Background
Breast cancer is the commonest of all cancers among women across the world and India being no exception to this deadly disease. There may be many symptoms due to cancer, some are complex but some are not complex. Measuring quality of life (QoL) is important to measure overall burden of disease. It is important to evaluate cancer specific QoL which is associated to all stages of this disease. Also Quality of Life is a term that adds various dimensions of quality of life such as physical, psychological, socio-economical, spiritual, cognitional & social dimensions. Balance between all the four domains (i.e. Physical, Psychological, Social and Spiritual) means good quality of life, but in India QoL in general is not good and if we talk of cancer patients its worst.
Objective
The aim of this study is assessment of QoL in breast cancer patients undergoing treatment through various modalities at different stages of disease.
Methods
This is a cross-sectional study, a total of 150 breast cancer patients were included. Patients quality of life were assessed by Ferrel‘s Quality of Life Instrument-Breast Cancer patient
version and the instrument is already validated by Ferrel BR et al (2012). These questionnaires consist of general well-being, psychological well-being, distress, fearfulness, social concerns and spiritual well-being. The data obtained gives Cronbach alpha value of 0.642 which is reliable enough for further study. The QoL in for most subjects was around 50% and is a cause of concern as this is quite low as compare to global standards.
Results
A significant relationship between type of cancer, amount of pain, and fatigue (tiredness) was found. However, none of the demographic variables (age, marital status, income) were significantly related to QoL. Education and type of treatment were found to be correlated with QoL. The physical well-being score was found to be Mean = 4.82, SD = 2.19. The Psychological well-being score was found to be Mean=4.95, SD=2.02. For social well-being score was found to be Mean=4.98, SD=1.94. The highest score was for spiritual well-being Mean = 5.32, SD = 2.46.
Conclusion
Influencing quality of life (QoL) is an important issue in Breast cancer patients. Apart from effect of treatment there are other factors like socioeconomic status, psychological well-being, fear of recurrence etc., Which plays a pivotal role in patients wellbeing and if counseled at various levels like family, hospital and society can improve QoL.

A Tertiary Medical College Hospital based Observational study to evaluate the correlation between antithyroid peroxidase antibody levels in patients with invasive breast cancer

Senthilkumar A. C.; Sridharan. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1647-1651

Background: Very few studies have assessed prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in women with breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies in women with breast cancer.
Methods: Tertiary hospital based cross - sectional study carried out at Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, during the period of August 2018 to July 2020. Seventy-five women in surgical oncology ward/OPD were included in the study. Subjects included in the study were between age 35 to 80 years, provided they fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. History was noted, serum anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies test was done. Results were noted and analyzed.
Results: Out of 75 subjects, 21.3% of women with breast cancer were having elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies.
Conclusions: Prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies is high among women with breast cancer. These results have implications both for screening of patients for thyroid disorders and also for development of new prognostic markers. Therefore, routine screening is preferable among women with breast cancer.

DETECTION OF MICROCALCIFICATION CLUSTERS USING STATISTICAL PARAMETERS AND DYADIC CONTOURLET TRANSFORM BASED PRECISION ENHANCEMENT

Venmathi A R; A. Senthil Kumar; M. Gomati; G. Suresh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 2423-2436

Recent scenario, breast cancer found to be a threat and dangerous carcinoma among women in the world. In contemplation of reducing the breast, cancer-related death needs an efficient computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system. The discrimination of microcalcification clusters (MCCs) is an important manifestation for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper focuses on the detection of breast cancers cells size below 2mm. To achieve précised enhanced cancer cell region an efficient technique dyadic Counterlet transform (DCTs) in two dimension is proposed. The enhancement of cancer cell region obtained through preserving the boundaries and borders with curvature for a small region.

Sleep Quality, Fatigue And Medication Adherence Among Breast Cancer Survivors At Chennai - A Descriptive Study.

Dr.Shankar Shanmugam Rajendran; Dr. Pradeep Kumar Naik; Mr.Kannan Kasinathan; Mr. Anbalagan Murudan; Mrs.Rizwana Ibrahim; Mrs.Nirmala Asaithambi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1424-1439

The cancer survival journey starts for the person at the time of diagnosis and lasts until the end of life, with adverse effects on normal activities. Breast cancer mortality is strongly associated with poor sleep. Fatigation and decreased appetite are the hallmarks of cachexia in terminally ill patients. Inadequate medication adherence may cause alterations in risk-benefit ratios. Aim: To assess the sleep quality , fatigue, and medication adherence among breast cancer survivors and to find their association with the selected demographic variables. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional analysis involving 60 samples of OPD medical oncology using a convenient sampling technique and the study duration was one week. Pittsburgh sleep quality index scale, Perform questionnaire, Medication adherence rating scale were used to assess the patients. RESULTS: The study concluded that 61.67% of the cancer survivors were disordered sleepers, 45.00% of the cancer survivors were having low fatigue score and 71.67% of the breast cancer survivors were having good medication adherence score. There was a strong positive equal correlation between the Sleep Quality Index score and the Fatigue score, which indicates that the quality of sleep raises the fatigue score. CONCLUSION: Clients suffering with breast cancer should be assessed for sleep quality, which directly helps to reduce the fatigue level. Evidence-based practice interventions like Exercises, cognitive behavior therapy, yoga, and aerobic exercises could help the patient to have adequate sleep.

DNA based CGB methylation in breast cancer a case control study

Dr. Anjana Vasudevan; Dr. Vasugi. G. A.; Dr. R. Ponniah Iyyappan; Dr. Harpreet Kaur; Dr. Balaji Singh; Dr. Guru Prasad; Dr. C. S. Subramanium; Dr. C. Kaliyappa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 55-61

Breast carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death. Breast cancer also produces and is influenced by ectopic hormones. Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) is one such hormone and is encoded by chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) genes. The aim of this study was to determine the CGB gene methylation in breast cancer tissues and compare them with normal tissues.
Materials and methods: After approval from Institutional Ethical Committee (IEC), consent from patients were obtained. Normal and tumour tissues from breast cancer patients were taken. DNA was isolated from normal and tumour tissues. Post bisulfate conversion samples were processed for qPCR using methylation specific primers for the set of selected CGB genes and SYBR green.
Results: 1-2M was found to be significantly higher among the normal tissues (50.22). 3-9M was found to be 65.93 in tumour tissues and 5.05 in normal tissues and this was significant.
Conclusion: 3-9 M is significantly higher in tumour tissues compared to normal tissues and 1-2 M is significantly higher in normal tissues. This suggests that there are 2 different types of beta hCG secreted by two different types of genes and this can be used for further analysis as a part of future projects. This may help in formulating a new treatment process and may also be used as a tumour marker in high risk patients

Discovery of Aminoglycoside Derivatives as a Potent Inhibitor for the Prognostic P4HA1 gene in Breast Cancer: A Holistic Genomic and Virtual Screening Approach.

Manikandan Murugesan; Premkumar Kumpati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 920-941

Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase Subunit Alpha 1 (P4HA1) is a catalytic enzyme that involves synthesis of collagen and extracellular matrix interactions. Aberrant expression of P4HA1 promotes carcinogenetic invasion and metastasis in breast cancer. In this study, we combined transcriptomic and drug repositioning approach for the intervention of new targeted anti-cancer therapy for breast cancer. The mRNA expression, copy number variation, mutation and clinical patient’s outcome of P4HA1 validated through cBioportal. High-throughput virtual screening and MM-GBSA analysis were performed with Drugbank approved molecules (9,612) for identifying the potent therapeutic drug molecules against P4HA1 using Schrodinger. The cBioportal based gene expression of P4HA1 in the TCGA-breast cancer cohort revealed significant elevated expression in the breast tumor compared to the normal. Subsequently, the high copy number amplification and mRNA expression was high in the invasive breast carcinoma compared to the other subtypes. In addition, the overall survival was validated with median P4HA1 expression and conferred with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Further, receptor based virtual screening identified top hits of aminoglycoside derivatives, amikacin (glide score −9.58 kcal/mol) and gentamicin (glide score −7.02 kcal/mol) with best docking score and stable interaction with favorable amino acid residues of P4HA1 includes Glu171, Asp178, Lys213, Lys 206 and Leu174. Moreover, both the drug passed the drug-likeness property (ADME) and MM-GBSA energy model. This study integrates genomic and molecular docking approach, suggests P4HA1 as a prognostic biomarker and selective inhibition might be therapeutically involved in the breast cancer intervention.

Comparative Analysis Of Rt-Pcr And Immunohistochemistry Methods For Determining Her2 Status In Breast Cancer Samples

Shokhista Rustamova; Yodgormirza Nurmatov; Muazzam Bakiyeva; Tokhirjon Rakhmanov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3924-3929

This study aimed to compare two methods of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) using the intercalating SYBR Green dye and TaqMan hybridization probes to determine the amount of the HER2 gene (human epidermal receptor) in breast tumours.
Methods--- The experiments were carried out with 32 validated samples of breast cancer and two gastric cancer cell lines. An immunohistochemical (IHC) assay was used to evaluate the accuracy of the RT-PCR methods.
Results--- The obtained results show that real-time PCR with the TaqMan probes allows the use of a small amount of DNA (≥0.4 ng/μl) to determine the overexpression of the HER2 gene. Real-time PCR with SYBR Green allowed us to determine the minimum number of false negatives resulting from the absence of marker expression in tumour tissue.
Conclusions--- The full correspondence of the results of the RTPCR and immunohistochemistry methods obtained for the cell line samples makes it possible to introduce the qPCR method into clinical practice for use in detecting the HER2/neu gene content.

A REVIEW OF MACHINE LEARNING FRAMEWORKS FOR EARLY AND ACCURATE PREDICTION OF NEOADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY RESPONSES

Uddaraju Susmitha; Narasingarao, M. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1040-1050

The ability to predict the reaction of breast tumors to neoadjuvant chemotherapy from the get-go over the span of treatment can delineate patient’s dependent on the reaction for explicit tolerant treatment procedures. From now on, reaction to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is measured as being based on physical examination or breast imaging (mammogram, mri, or normal MRI). There is a powerless connection with these projections and with the actual tumor size as measured by the pathologist through authoritative procedure. Given the numerous options open to Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), it is important to develop a plan to predict response over the care period. Sadly, as long as certain people are not seen as responding, their condition can never again be specifically resectable, so this situation should be preserved at a strategic remove from progressing response appraisal protocols throughout the care regimen. This paper provides a review of all the existing frameworks of machine learning involved to perform accurately neoadjuvant chemotherapy responses

Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer by Detection of Genetic Variation for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes in the Women's of Nineveh Province

Nada Saad Omer; Dr.FİLİZ SARIKAYA PEKACAR; Dr. HananShihab Ahmad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4443-4456

Women's Breast Cancer ranks first among other type in Iraq and the world. It often detects because of examinations performed in patients on familial cancer history. Approximately, 10% of hereditary breast cancer represents of all breast cancer cases and BRCA1/2 represented the responsible genes. Mutations in the BRCA1/2 germ increases the risk of hereditary breast cancer twenty times more. Therefore, the detection of BRCA1/2 genes mutations is important for the diagnosis, treatment and application of clinical methods of patients. New generation sequencing is more useful than classical methods. With this method, a patient-specific clinical treatment can be customized, treatment, and early diagnosis, facilitates new discoveries, identification of existing mutations, primarily breast and ovarian cancer.
In this study, the female patients had selected between the ages of 18-49 living in Nineveh-Iraq and having demographic identical qualities, the samples taken within the consent of the participants were examined and some significant mutations had been detected. Bioinformatics studies of variants evaluatedas pathogenic were performed. In addition, variants of unknown clinical significance were identified and listed.Based on the results obtained in the study, it is concluded that tests should be applied directly in the laboratory environment to develop an understanding based on the Next Generation Sequencing approach for the detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and to evaluate the functional role of the mutations. In addition, our study draws a conclusion for the early diagnosis of the New Generation Sequencing technique and the development of a personalized, patient-specific treatment approach. 

Molecular Detection of Mouse Mammary Tumor-like Virus (MMTV-Like) in Breast Carcinoma for Iraqi Female Patients

Hasan A. Mohammed; Müge Fırat; Mohammed E. Mansur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1533-1566

Background: The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like env gene have
previously been reported to be present in some human breast cancers, however, their
role in developing that cancers is still unclear.
Aim: This study aims to investigate the presence of MMTV-like env gene among
Iraqi women who have breast cancers.
Methods: The prevalence of MMTV-like env gene and beta-globulin gene in
formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast tissue specimens of 88 Iraqi women
with breast cancers was detected using conventional PCR and Real- Time techniques.
Eight benign breast tumors’ specimens were also used as controls. Fisher’s exact test
was used to analyse data.
Results: MMTV-like env gene were detected in 16 (18.8%) specimens of those with
breast malignancies, while they were not identified in benign breast tumors
specimens. However, no significant difference between two groups was noted.
Conclusion: MMTV-like env and beta-globin genes were detected in Iraqi women
with breast cancer, and further research is needed to study the role and association of
these env gene with cancer development.

The Effect of TNFα -308G/A Gene Polymorphism with Breast Cancer Risk in Iraqi Population

Anwar Abed Nasser Dhabaan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 163-167

The study included two hundred and thirty samples of which 130 patients women of
breast cancer in Iraqi population,, their ages ranged from 29 to 71 year (ages mean 42.95
± 1.5) and 100 controls (healthy women), their ages ranged from 25 to 65 year (ages
mean 31.37 ± 1.9). We confined the frequency of TNF-α gene -308G/A polymorphism by
TARMS PCR technique (Tetra-amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain
reaction technique). Also, we determined the association of TNF-α gene -308G/A
polymorphism with breast cancer of Iraqi women population. Statistical results showed
significant difference in genotype frequency of TNF-α gene -308G/A polymorphism with
breast cancer women patients and control (healthy women). The A allele showed high
frequency in breast cancer patients comparison with control (healthy women) and present
with etiological fraction risk (EF) of breast cancer patients in Iraqi women, and its ratio
64.23% in patients while in control 50.50%. The G allele shows high frequency in control
comparison with breast cancer patients was 35.77% and 49.50% respectively, and
present related with protective fraction (PF) with breast cancer patients was (0,21.4). The
genotypes of AA and GG (homozygotes) shows high frequency in breast cancer patients
was 58.46% and 30% respectively, comparison with control was 16% and 15%
respectively, also AA and GG homozygotes genotypes showed relationship with
etiological fraction risk of breast cancer in women patients, while the GA heterozygote
genotype show high frequency in control (healthy) was 69% comparison with breast
cancer patients was 11.54%, and show related with preventive fraction of breast cancer
patients. Our findings demonstrate that the TNFα -308G/A gene polymorphism may
represent a risk factor for breast cancer development of patient’s women in Iraqi
population.

Loss Of Immunohistochemical Expression Of Pten As A Predictive Biomarker In Breast Carcinoma

Iftikhar Altemimi; Binan Adil Alaaragy; Yassir Alaa Shubbar; Rihab Hameed; Salah Jumaah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3653-3668

Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy with a high mortality in females worldwide. Tumor suppressor genes had significant role to maintain genome integrity and the cell cycle. In particular PTEN is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, It has a negative regulator of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway which has a major role in carcinogenesis and dysregulation of it occurs repeatedly in breast cancer. Aim: this article aimed to appraise the associations between PTEN expression in patient had breast cancer with clinic pathological parameters including: age, histological types, and status of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER-2/nue receptor, to check the impact of its expression on clinical outcome. Materials and methods: in this case-control study, formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue from sixty patients with breast carcinoma and twenty patients without cancer (as control groups). Labeled Streptavidin -Biotin (LSAB+) method used to detect PTEN protein expression, HER2/neu, ER and PR receptors by immunohistochemical assay, and then we correlate PTEN expression with each biomarkers and clinic pathological characteristics. Results: 29/60 (45.3%) of cases decreased PTEN expression while its expression retained in 31/60 (51%) of cases. Loss of expression significantly associated: with lymph node metastasis ( p-value=0.0008 ), high grade (p< 0.05 ) , high stage (p-value=0.0001 ) and with triple negative breast cancer (p-value=0.03) . However, loss of PTEN protein expression did not correlate with age, histological types, estrogen, progesterone and HER-2 receptors status. Conclusion: PTEN loss can predict aggressive behavior and worse outcome in patients had breast cancer.

Increased expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes in breast cancer cells

Jolanta Rzymowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska; Brygida Slaska; Izabella Cisek; Katarzyna Wach; Sebastian Mazur; Paulina Stachyra; Ludmi&;a Grzybowska-Szatkowska

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 14-19

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the expression at the mRNA level of cytochromeb, subunits COI, COII, COIII of complex IV, ATP6 and ATP8 and to perform aquantitative analysis of the activity of ATP synthase as complex V of the respiratory chain, responsible for ATP synthesis and break down of ATP to ADP in breast cancer. Methods and Results: The level of gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated on the basis of the light intensity of fluorochrome or fluorescein in the cells. Determination of the activity and location of the ATP synthase in cells was carried out using hybridization. In the formulations of breast cancer there was a higher genes expression at the mRNA level for all the examined genes as compared with non-cancerous tissue. The ATP activity was also higher in preparations obtained from breast cancer cells compared with the control tissue. Conclusions: The results confirm mtDNA incorporation to nDNA in neoplastic cells. They point to increased expression at mRNA level for COI, COII, COIII, ATP6 and ATP8 in breast cancer cells compared with control tissue. Increased amount of ATP synthase points to increased ATP in a neoplastic cell.