Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Oxidative Stress

A study of oxidative stress in Post Menopausal cervical cancer patients in Udaipur, Rajasthan, India - an institutional study

Ms Shilpa Sharma , Dr A K Verma, Dr Shuchi Goyal, Dr Rajul Lodha ,Mamta Rathore5 .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 5, Pages 37-44

Background: Cervical cancer is a preventable disease because it has a premalignant stage which may last up to 10-20 years before its progression to invasive carcinoma. The potential role of ROS in DNA damage as well as the nutritional etiology of cervical neoplasia (which include low dietary intake of vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E, and folate) has been suggested. Objectives: The objective of this study is to measure the oxidant status. To estimate and compare serum levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in postmenopausal cervical cancer patients and healthy age matched control. Methodology: This case control study consist of 90 patients of cervical cancer along with 60 healthy subjects of précised matched age within the institution. blood samples was collected from all participants and were analysed for oxidant MDA (malondialdehyde) .Results obtained were analyzed statistically to see the significance of differences. Results: The Mean concentration of S.MDA (nmol/L) in case group was 5.77 ±2.40 while that of control group 2.03±0.70 and the difference among them found to be highly significant. The mean age of cervical cancer group(case) is 51.26 ±5.43 yr while that of control group is 55.60±4.50 year. According to demographic data .Smoking history present in 16% and 11% in case and control group respectively.History of alcohol present in 9.9% and 4.2% in case and control group respectively.Among total 90 patients of cervical cancer 86(95.55%) females were married. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that the patients with cervical cancer have high lipid peroxidation (MDA), which is a marker of oxidative stress; and this worsened as the disease progressed. There is a need for antioxidant supplementation in these patients to reduce oxidative stress.


Kiran Gupta, Dr Arun Mishra, Dr Ashraf Ali Khan, Sumit Deb Nath

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 246-251

Asthma, one of the most common chronic diseases, is characterised by symptoms of random airway blockage and has a range of overlapping phenotypes1. A crucial part of both health and sickness is played by ADAM33, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase glycoprotein engaged in intercellular and cell-matrix interactions.These proteins play a role in myogenesis, neurogenesis, the inflammatory response, and apoptosis in healthy individuals. They do this via altering cell adhesion and cell signalling or through proteolysis. It's significant that the airway epithelium also contains the ADAM33 protein, in addition to the smooth muscle and mesenchymal cells. Oxidative stress may have a role in the aetiology of asthma, a condition that affects the airways and is chronically inflammatory. Acute and chronic inflammation-related features of the airways in asthma include thickening of the airway wall, subepithelial fibrosis, and increased smooth muscle mass. These changes are linked to airway remodelling and may contribute to the development of airflow limitation by increasing airway resistance.

Evaluation and comparison of haematological and antioxidant profiles as a marker of severity in COVID-19 infection among children

Dr. Gunasekaran A, Dr. Judy Veronica J, Dr. Gomathi R, Dr. Dhivyanarayani M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 2054-2061

The COVID-19 pandemic caused relatively high mortality in patients, especially in those with concomitant diseases (i.e., diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). In most of aforementioned comorbidities, the oxidative stress appears to be an important player in their pathogenesis. The direct cause of death in critically ill patients with COVID-19 is still far from being elucidated. In this regard oxidative stress is one of the topics that need to be investigated. Therefore, the present research study was carried out to explore the relationship between the oxidant/antioxidant system and COVID‐19 exacerbation.
Materials and Methods: A total number of 60 children were involved in this study; they further equally divided into patient and control group. Blood Samples were collected from 30children confirmed diagnosed with COVID-19 infection and 30 healthy children volunteers as the control group. The patient group consisted of 22children with mild disease and 8 children severely ill patients.
Results: COVID-19 patients with mild and severe disease have shown the signs ofanaemia, leucocytosis and thrombocytopenia than control group. Serum levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. TAC levels were considerably lower in patients compared with healthy individuals (control group). An increasing trend was found in NO concentration as well as MDA levels in patient group.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that COVID-19 patients may be susceptible to depleted total antioxidant capacity. Moreover, showing such variations in blood samples of infected individuals could be considered as a predictive marker of COVID-19 severity.

Characterization and Comparison of oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in psoriatic arthritis patients

Dr. Rajashekar Danda; Dr. Madas Ravichandra Yadav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1838-1846

Background: The aim of our research was to evaluate the oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers of oxidative stress (OS) in blood samples of patients with Psoriatic Arthritis compared to healthy controls.
Materials and Methods: Our study involved 40 patients with Psoriatic Arthritis and 40 generally healthy subjects matched by age and gender to the study group patients. In this study we have evaluated the haematological and lipid profiles in healthy control and patients group. We have also assessed the concentration/activity of antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Catalase (CAT) and total antioxidative status (TAS), and lipid oxidation products: Malondialdehyde (MDA) were estimated. Serum ADA, hsCRP, SUA, and ESR were evaluated for patients and controls. The extent of disease severity was assessed using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Quality Of Life Index (DLQI) and patients were grouped into having mild, moderate and severe disease using these scores.
Results: Comparison among healthy control and psoriasis patients; there were no statistical differences concerning age, body mass index, and fasting serum glucose level. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide end products (NOx) and hsCRP levels (p<0.001) was noted in Psoriasis patients as compared to controls. The concentration of GPx, CAT, and SOD was significantly higher in patients with Psoriatic Arthritis compared to healthy subjects.
Conclusions: Systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress can be relevant for assessment of psoriasis severity, for prediction of the outcome of therapy and of the development of co-morbidities. Our findings revealed that an imbalance of oxidative stress and antioxidant factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Therefore, treatment based on antioxidant strategies might be beneficial in psoriasis management.


Sumesh K, Sumitha Prabhu PS, Rasitha CH, Simi N, Ratheesh GB, Dinesh Roy D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 51-62

Subfertility (also commonly known as infertility), which affects one in six couples, is the failure to manifest a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular, unprotected intercourse. Even though genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors play a pivotal role in subfertility, the etiology of the disease still remains enigmatic. The extent of somatic DNA damage and oxidative stress among subfertile subjects was studied. TORCH infection screening and several clinical parameters were also analyzed among 74 subfertile females and 45 age and sex-matched healthy individuals as control. The study concluded that subjects with subfertility showed increased oxidative stress and associated somatic DNA damages along with varying degrees of infections.


Dr. Amit Kumar Khajuria, Dr. Mohit Thalquotra, Dr. Parul Singh, Dr. Gaurav Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2092-2096

Introduction: Numerous metals go through redox cycling, which results in the production of free radicals and oxidative stress. This study looked into the in-vitro oxidative stress placed on orthodontic archwires comprised of different alloys.
Methods: The quantity of the oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine in DNA was measured after exposing mouse fibroblast cells L929 to 6 different types of archwires. Cell vitality and number were determined using trypan blue dye.
Results: Coated nickel-titanium, copper-nickel-titanium, and cobalt-chromium produced oxidative stress levels that were lower than those of standard nickel-titanium archwires (P <0.05), but higher than those of titanium-molybdenum and the negative and absolute controls (P <0.05). Standard nickel-titanium archwires generated the highest oxidative stress, significantly higher than all other wires and the controls (P The least tension was produced by stainless steel and titanium-molybdenum. The lowest viability was caused by nickel-titanium, which was lower than the negative and absolute controls, all other wires, and titanium-molybdenum (P< 0.05). The material with the highest viability was stainless steel. The largest suppression of cell growth was caused by nickel-titanium, which was higher than all other samples (P< 0.05) excluding the positive control and cobalt-chromium. The positive control, cobalt-chromium, nickel-titanium, and titanium-molybdenum showed the lowest inhibition (P< 0.05), followed by stainless steel.
Conclusions: Every orthodontic archwire causes oxidative stress in a test tube. The maximum biocompatibility is found in stainless steel archwires, and the lowest is found in nickel-titanium


Ratheesh GB, Josekumar VS, Sumitha Prabhu PS, Parvathy S, Poornima R Varma, Gayathry A, Dinesh Roy D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 539-547

Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), known popularly as recurrent miscarriage, is a clinical condition of two or more failed pregnancies, affecting 12-15% of total pregnancies. Besides genetic and anatomical abnormalities, stress and anxiety impart a vital role in repeated abortions. The Perceived Stress Scale, an extensively used psychological tool for assessing the perception of stress in an individual, was taken for evaluating the role of psychological stress among subjects with RPL. The oxidative stress marker, malondialdehyde (MDA) and several other clinical parameters were also analyzed among 150 women with RPL and 110 healthy women with one or two children. The study concluded that RPL individuals are shown to have higher rates of oxidative and psychological stress with elevated MDA concentration and PSS score respectively. 


Chiluka Kiran, Sanath Kumar, Bandi Suman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3058-3066

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global epidemic that is often asymptomatic and silent, and progresses slowly and is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease. NAFLD affects a third of the world population with very much high prevalence among patients with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism etc. The natural history of NAFLD ranges from pure steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis and in some patientsto hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD has been found to be the hepatic components of metabolic syndrome which is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease. This study aimed to determine the biochemical hepatic markers and lipid profile among NAFLD patients and their possible relationship with degrees of fatty liver and other comorbidities to aid the clinician tointervene early in order to delay the occurrence of complications associated with NAFLD.
Materials and Methods: In this analytical cross sectional study, 145 individuals aged 20–69 years referred to the Govt Medical College/ GGH Hospital Suryapet during the period from June 2021 to May 2022, were included through sequential sampling method after meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria and after taking informed consent and ethical committee approval. Serum lipid profile and Serum liver enzymes was estimated on ERBA EM 360 auto analyzer.
Results: We found significant increase in lipid parameters (TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG), liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and GGT) and decrease in HDL-C and AST/ALT (Deritis ratio) in NAFLD with type 2 DM compared to controls.
Conclusion: We conclude from our study that in obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypothyroidism and Type 2 DM the elevated liver enzymes and lipid profile could be biomarkers for the early diagnosis of NAFLD with Type 2 DM and other comorbidities.

Study to evaluate the effect of vitamin C supplement on pulmonary function test in COPDpatients.

Dr SatyendraPrajapati,Dr ArpitVerma, Dr BalajiGhugare, Dr Nikita Toshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10715-10721

Introduction: A substantial body of evidence indicates that nutrition influences respiratory
health. Much of the nutrition research has focused on the intake of fruits, vegetables, and
antioxidant micronutrients, because lungs are subject to a wide range of oxidant induced insults
and because antioxidant defenses play an important role in protecting the lungs from damage.
Materials and methods: Seventy five patients with COPD were included in the study. In their
baseline clinical examination, malondialdehyde (MDA); red blood cell superoxide dismutase
(SOD) and erythrocyte glutathione peroxides (GPx) levels were measured. All the above
parameters were repeated after 12 weeks of supplementation with 1000 mg vitamin C daily.
Result: Serum MDA levels were significantly lowered, erythrocyte SOD and Gap activity were
significantly higher after supplementation of vitamin C. No significant improvement in FEV1
and FEV1/FVC was observed after 12 weeks of vitamin C supplementation.
Conclusion: The present study shows that the plasma lipid peroxide (MDA) levels were
decreased and antioxidants levels (GPx and SOD) increased after 12 weeks supplementation of
vitamin C in patients with COPD. Exogenous supplementation with vitamin C does not have any
significant effect on the spirometric measurements though it brings down the levels of MDA
showing attenuation of further damage.

To Study Association Between the Levels of Oxidative Stress Markers and Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease at a Tertiary Care Hospital

Shinde Shivprasad, Karpe Sonal Prabhakar, Meshram Priti, Pundpal Gurudas Sadanand

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5782-5788

Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease state
characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. An increased
inflammatory response in the lungs plays a central role in the pathogenesis of COPD.
Oxidative stress and systemic inflammation are co-dependent processes. Pulmonary
hypertension is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD). The present study is an attempt to study the various markers of oxidative
stress in COPD and their co relation with pulmonary hypertensionusing 2D ECHO
Materials and Methods: The present study enrolled 100 participants, 50 of them
diagnosed cases of COPD and the remaining 50 as control. Apart from the chest X ray,
routine blood investigations, sputum AFB examination and PFT, 6-minute walk test
(6MWT), 2D Echo and levels of above mentioned oxidative and inflammatory markers
were done of the patients. Pulmonary hypertension diagnosed based on the
Transthoracic 2D – ECHO by TR jet method – presence of mPAP more than 25 mmHg
considered as the criteria for defining pulmonary hypertension. As far as the
quantitative data was concerned, comparison between the 2 groups was done using
unpaired t test, and for the qualitative data appropriate data was used.

Obesity with cardiopulmonary wellbeing and oxidative stress in asymptomatic individuals with/without family background of T2DM

Bonala Sharat Babu,Dr. Shreya Nigoskar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1212-1218

Introduction: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have emerged as new drivers of CVD risk
as a result of our contemporary overconsumption of processed and energy-dense food
products with low nutritional value, paired with our sedentary lifestyle. Increased oxidative
stress is a well-known contributor to the onset and progression of diabetes,
as well as its consequences.
Material and Methods: This is a prospective and observational study conducted at
Department of Biochemistry. Students and apparently healthy cases in the age of 18-30 years
who accompanied DM patients in were included for the study (n = 50). Individuals who are
taking any medications for a health issue that prevents them from conducting sub-maximal
exercise, as well as those who engage in regular physical activity, yoga, or other biofeedback,
were excluded from the research. For the control group (n = 50), age and gender matched
seemingly healthy adults with no family history of diabetes were recruited.
Results: The cardiovascular parameters of controls and cases individuals are shown and
Heart rate (p <0.001), blood pressure (SBP p< 0.001, DBP p <0.001, MAP p <0.001)and rate
pressure product (p 0.001) all showed statistically significant differences, but PP (< 0.135)
did not. The body fat distribution, cardio respiratory fitness as determined by the Cooper 12-
minute run test, and blood glucose readings of controls and patients. Body fat percentage
(p<0.001), visceral fat (p<0.001), Cooper 12-minute run test (p<0.001), and FBS (p<0.001)
were all significantly different. The differences in oxidative stress parameters across groups.
Between controls and cases participants, there was a significant difference in TAOS
(p<0.000) and MDA (p<0.000).
Conclusion: In our study, we found that both groups had similar age, height, and waist-hip
ratio (WHR), but FDRDM had a considerably higher body mass index (BMI). Fasting
percentage body fat and blood glucose levels were significantly higher, and the 12-minute
walk distance was much shorter in FDRDM. Visceral fat levels were marginally elevated, but
not statistically significant alteration during the early stages of illness significant differences
in oxidative markers were observed among the subjects.


Dr. Vidhyadhar Vaidya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2852-2863

diabetes, metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular diseases. The incidence of such diseases is growing day by day around the globe and causes various complications. The disease not only affects the quality of life but also the mortality rate with this disease is too high. Considering these factors, it is important to come up with a simple yet potential solution for reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, RV New Visions Health Care Pvt. Ltd has developed an RV forte capsule as a potential treatment for reducing oxidative stress and help to fight against cancer.
Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of RV forte capsule was evaluated In-vitro by using DPPH scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging assay, and Reducing power assay. Further, toxicity testing in animal models and the standardization using the HPTLC method was done.
Results: The formulation RV forte capsule showed significant anti-oxidant action when compared with standard ascorbic acid. The percentage scavenging activity of RV forte capsule was found to be 14.2 - 60.05 % at 50 - 500 ug/ml by DPPH scavenging assay,17.57 – 55.27 % by hydrogen radical scavenging assay, and the reducing power was found to be increasing with increased absorbance at 50-500 ug/ml concentrations. In toxicity testing, no toxicity was found at the dose of 100mg/kg.
Conclusion: The study thus proves, RV forte capsule has significant antioxidant activity



European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4734-4743

Abstract: This study was an attempt to establish the extent of increased oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic patients and to evaluate the effect of Cerivastatin, a newer statin on the oxidative stress and antioxidant status.There are two types of statins, Lipophilic and Hydrophilic. Lipophilic statins are widely distributed in different tissues, whereas hydrophilic statins are liver specific. Lipophilic statins include atorvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin, cerivastatin and pitavastatin, while hydrophilic statins include rosuvastatin and pravastatin. The blood samples of 15 subjects (age and sex matched) each from group I (healthy subjects), group II (hypercholesterolemic patients with cerivastatin treatment) and group III (hypercholesterolemic patients without any hypolipidemic drug) were taken and centrifuged for separation of plasma. Plasma was used for the estimation of vitamin E. The separated cells were washed thrice with 0.9 % w/v cold normal saline and used for the assay of percentage hemolysis of RBCs, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and hemoglobin.Levels of oxidative stress were higher in hypercholesterolemic in comparison to control and cerivastatin group. Levels of antioxidants were higher in cerivastatin group than hypercholesterolemic but were lower than controls. From these findings it was concluded that there is an increase in oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemia but it decreased significantly after 2 months of cerivastatin therapy and antioxidant status also improves in patients taking cerivastatin. 

The Effect Of Extracts From The Mushroom Of The Ganoderma Lucidum On The State Of Oxidative Stress

Abilov Pulat Melisovich; Iriskulov Bakhtiyor Uktamovich; Boboeva Zuhra Nurillaevna; Saydalikhodjaeva Sayora Zamanovna; Yusupova Mokhira Tulyaganovna; Mirzaev Dilshod Akhmedovich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1814-1823

This article presents data on such a well-known fungus as Ganoderma Lucidum and its effect on the state of oxidative stress. As is known, under oxidative stress, altered Toll receptors cannot independently recognize microbial agents due to the altered chemical formula of L-galactosamine and thus mediators are not activated. It is also known that Ganoderma Lucidum due to β-polyglucans, which by chemical formula are close to this glycoprotein, can interact with leukocyte receptors and increase the adhesion molecules and leukocyte migration. Modern histological, ultrastructural and biochemical research methods are used. The results are presented and the corresponding conclusions are drawn.

Role of Polyphenolic Compounds in Management of Oxidative Stress Associated With Glaucoma

Chandrashekhar Mahadeo Chakole; Meenakshi Kanwar Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2064-2084

Glaucoma is a first rank common cause of irreversible vision loss. It is also
recognized as a neurodegenerative disease which progress with age, results in optic
neuropathy. The exact cause of glaucoma remains unclear although oxidative stress
considered as one of the reasons for cell death in the retinal ganglion cell and retinal
pigment epithelium. Oxidative stress could result after imbalance between formation and
utilization of reactive oxygen species. Current pharmacotherapy of glaucoma includes
lowering down of elevated level of IOP, which is not sufficient enough to retard
irreversible vision loss in some instances. Hence, alternative neuroprotective therapy is
warranted. Polyphenolic compounds possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties and
also show the neuroprotective effect in an experimental model. Amongst the natural
polyphenolic compounds resveratrol, curcumin, rutin, quercetin, myricetin have been
studied and showed potential as neuroprotection against cell apoptosis. Moreover, the extra
supplement of a polyphenolic compound may also improve antioxidant status, which was
underestimated in glaucoma disorder. Despite the potential, the polyphenolic compounds
yet to explore for clinical use in ocular disorder. Hence it is an excellent opportunity for
the future researcher to transform these substances from lab to clinic as neuroprotectants
in glaucoma.

The Oxidative Effect Of Nlrp3 And Cyp2e1 In Development Of Renal Failure Associated With Hypertension And Diabetes Mellitus Diseases

Alyaa Abdulhadi Salih; Kareem Hamadx Kareem Hamad Ghali2

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 636-644

Renal Failure (RF) is devastating pathology with several causative factors, resulting in dialysis or kidney transplantation needed by end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The progression of RF is closely related to systemic oxidative stress, which causes various complications such as hypertension and diabetic mellitus . The current study was focusing on the oxidative effects of NLRP3 and CYP2E1 gene expression in the pathological development of renal failure disease with hypertension and diabetic mellitus as complications associated diseases. This study involved 100 patients diagnosed clinically and seriologicaly with renal failure 52 males and 48 females, their age from 17 to 80 years . Also the study comprise (18 males and 12 females) healthy volunteers as control group. RNA extracted from blood samples and converted to cDNA which subjected to real-time PCR for detection gene expression . The results detected that Hypertension and diabetic mellitus are the important risk factors that causes and advances renal failure disease . NLRP3 and CYP2E1 have significantly overexpression (1.60 folds and 5.37 folds ) respectively in RF patients compared with healthy group ( p <0.05). However, the expression of NLRP3 and CYP2E1 increase in diabetic mellitus (2.16 and 1.58 ) respectively than hypertension in RF patients with and control group (p<0.05). Diabetic mellitus generate free radical consequently causes ROS, hence elevated expression in oxidative NLRP3 and CYP2E1 genes in diabetic RF patients .

Night Jasmine (Nyctanthes arbortistis) having in vitro antimalarial activity from the leaves – a confirmation from ethnobotanical studies and traditional uses

Dr. Debasis Bisoi; Dr. Ashok Kumar Panigrahi; Dr. Lopamudra Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 6412-6423

Background: Night jasmine (Nyctanthes arbortristis or NAT) is a sacred plant (known as Parijat in Sanskrit) and commonly used traditional medicine. It was observed that the leaves of the plant are used in treating malaria. The present work has made an attempt to make ethnobotanical studies, isolation of the phytochemical constituents and mechanism of the pharmacological actions and therapeutic uses with focus on malaria. Objectives: (1) Identify the plant material for use in traditional medicine. (2)Gather laboratory evidence that the chemical constituents are comparable to standard treatment in malaria. Methods: The leaves of the plant (NAT)) were identified and the sample specimens were kept in herbarium after authentication. The phytoconstituents were identified by column chromatography. The antimalarial activities were studied. The in vitro activity of leaves of NAT was compared with chloroquine (CQ).


Swapna C Senan; Anitha C; Sarala Gopalakrishnan; Dinesh Roy D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1125-1132
DOI: 10.31838/ejmcm.07.09.117

An increased complication rate during or after pregnancy and birth leads to a condition known to the mother or child when High Risk Pregnancy (HRP) and may be for both. An attempt was made here to find the role of TORCH infection in high-risk pregnant women; oxidative stress and somatic DNA damage, leading to congenital anomalies(CAs).The patients were referred from various infertility clinics and maternity centers of Kerala to Advanced Genetic Study Centre (Genetika), Trivandrum, Kerala. Study population includes 170 study subjects and 105 healthy controls. Blood sample was collected for TORCH IgG (ELISA), oxidative stress evaluation (Malondialdehyde by thibarbituric acid assay) and somatic DNA damage (CBMN assay). Among 275 subjects, 170 (61.81%) had the history of high-risk pregnancy with a mean age of 35.65±6.30 years. The control group included 105 women with previous normal pregnancy with a mean age of 34.03±6.10 years. TORCH infections had a significant role in HRP (p-value<0.001). Study group population showed a mean MDA value of 2.95 ± 2.09 and that of control group was1.67 ± 0.70. The mean value of CBMN frequency was 12.44 ± 1.01 in study subjects and that of controls was 9.98 ± 0.58. Study group showed a higher CBMN frequency and MDA value than control group. Proper diagnosis and intervention during early stage can be done by routinely screening of sample for TORCH agents, oxidative stress and somatic DNA damage even if the case is asymptomatic which shows high risk in postnatal periods. This can manage and reduce adverse foetal outcomes efficiently, thus reducing morbidity and mortality.

Sterically Hindered Phenols as Antioxidant

Mankar Viraj H; Chhavi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 3481-3491

Hindered phenolics are the compounds which will act as an antioxidant compared to the general phenolic compounds. Especially BHT compounds are shown here and which modifications will be responsible for the enhancing and reducing the efficacy of the phenolic compounds. These moieties are easily avaliable materials which found mostly in the foods, fruits and vegetables and also in several suppliments. The free radical oxidation of organic substrates is inhibited by phenols.and also involved in recovering from several pathophysiological conditions.In this review mentioned the several phenolic compounds which exhibits the effect of scavenging free radicals in the several pathophysiological conditions and daily life processes.

A Mini Review On Liver Injuries Among Humans Due To Drugs And Consumption Of Alcohol

Sumaira Yousuf; Mahendra P. Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4268-4276

Liver is the most important vital organ that carries out metabolism of body e.g. formation of cholesterol and triglycerides, synthesis of glycogen, formation of blood clotting proteins and bile formation. Hepatic damage and subsequent liver failure due to both unintentional and intentional acetaminophen overdose has afflicted patients for decades and includes the metabolic cornerstone pathways that exist within hepatocytes in the microsomes. The side effects of drugs on the hepatocytes have been overlooked for years. Drug induced liver injury is the most adverse effect observed in clinical practices. It accounts for around half of acute liver disorder. Anti tuberculosis drugs and acetaminophen overdose are the main issues that result in death from curable diseases. Metabolism of isoniazid and acetaminophen (APAP) results in the formation of toxic metabolites that results in the oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) store depletion leads to hepatocellular necrosis and steatosis. Alcohol consumption is also the most common cause of liver cirrhosis. Liver peroxidation is considered to be the major mechanism of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity. To overcome this oxidative stress, there is need of antioxidants that can balance the redox homeostasis of liver by lowering the APAP overdose effect. Consumption of natural antioxidants derived as secondary metabolites from plants in the form of polyphenols and flavonoids prevent oxidative stress. Medicinal plants are best remedies used for hepatotoxicity caused due to oxidative stress. They are cost friendly, easily available and have no mutagenic effect. Herbal medicines form important part of traditional healthcare system of India.

The role of oxidative stress on molybdenum enzymes and ischemic reperfusion injury in hyperuricaemic patients. An infrared spectroscopic study

Mamareli V; Tanis O; Anastassopoulou J; Kyriakidou M; Mamareli CH; Koui M; Theophanides T; Mamarelis I

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 20-25

There are many clinical evidences that hyperuricemia is a risk factor for the development of peripheral carotid and coronary vascular diseases. However, the mechanism of elevated uric acid concentration in biological systems is not yet clear. In the present work Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the mechanism of calcification and plaque formation in carotid arteries in hyperuricaemic patients. Comparison between the spectra of carotid arteries from patients with elevated uric acid values and spectra obtained from patients with normal uric acid values showed structural changes of the characteristic spectral bands in the region 4000-500 cm-1. These changes were related with changes in the concentration of the serum uric acid and the clinical history of the patients. The intensity decrease of the infrared bands in the region 1650-1500 cm-1 was associated with the decrease of the apolipoprotein ratio, ApoI/ApoII, which corresponds to HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) and the regulation of the LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins), which are related to oxidation stress. The infrared band at 1467 cm-1 indicated the presence of urea components as a result of the metabolic pathway. The shape and the intensity of the bands between 1250-900 cm-1 depend on the glycation-end products of the diseases. SEM-EDX chemical analysis showed fibril formation and molybdenum release in hyperuricaemic patients.