Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Depression

Is depression common among Postnatal women? A cross-sectional study on Postnatal depression and its associated factors in North Karnataka

Dr. Jannatbi L Iti, Dr. Rudramma J

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 627-640

Women are more vulnerable to mental disorders like depression during postpartum.  Depression if untreated during postnatal period may adversely affects both mother and child health.
Aims and objectives:
1.         To estimate the proportion of postnatal depression among women attending Maternal and Child Health Clinic in Teaching Hospital.
2.         To determine the risk factors associated with postnatal depression among women attending Maternal and Child Health Clinic in Teaching Hospital.
Methodology: A hospital based cross sectional study was conducted in Maternal and Child Health clinic in Teaching hospital among 100 postnatal women. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was administered to postnatal women to screen for depression by EDPS.
Results: Among 100 study subjects 60% of them belonged to 21-25 years age group and 70% had first pregnancy at the age of 15-20yrs.
Conclusion: The proportion of depression was 15% among postnatal women and predictors of postnatal depression were women with more than one living child and who had female child in the recent delivery. 

Examining Coping Styles Of Nursing Students In Front Of Problems And Solving The Problem Of Depression And Other Mental Disorders

Sevda Ghasemi, Seyedeh Zahra Mousavi Valoukolai, Kosar Kazemi Balef, Seyedeh Saedeh Sadati Abdolani, Somayeh Khajir, Fatemeh Khaleghi Abbasabadi, Fatemeh Moslemi Najarkolaei, Samira Kelvandi, Zahra Gharibi .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 2723-2732

Introduction: Psycho-social abilities enable a person to act positively and adaptively in relation to other people, society, culture and environment and ensure his mental health. One of the goals of this research is to investigate students' coping styles in front of problems and issues.
Methods: The research method is post-event; In this research, the statistical population is all male and female depressed nursing students. The sampling method was carried out as follows: students who considered themselves sad in the self-assessment form and their depression score (≤18 points) was determined in the Beck questionnaire. For the study group, the students whose depression score was obtained in the test (9≥points) were selected for the comparison group; who were assigned to depressed and normal groups after interviewing and matching. Also, the research tools were: Cassidy and Long's problem solving style scale (1996), Beck depression questionnaire (long form) and depression self-assessment scale. In order to increase awareness of how and how to use effective coping styles in problem solving, the researcher participated in relevant educational workshops.
Findings: The findings of the present study confirm that the problem solving style of depressed students is significantly different from the problem solving style of normal students in the following factors: avoidance, helplessness, control, self-confidence, creativity and orientation. This difference has become significant in multi-factor variance analysis at the level of ( <0.01). Also, the comparison of the mean scores of the problem solving style factors of depressed and normal students show that depressed students have obtained more scores in the factors of helplessness, control and avoidance. On the other hand, normal students have higher scores in the factors of self-confidence, creativity and tendency to solve problems in problematic situations. The results of the Ben-Ferroni test showed that the difference between the averages obtained was completely significant ( <0.01).
Conclusion: Inefficient problem-solving styles are known as one of the most significant predictors of depression in the current research, which in the treatment process can clarify the way to identify and treat depression and be effective in reducing its symptoms.

LongiFIT Home DNA Testing For Neuropsychiatric Disorders Like Stress, Anxiety, Depression and Personalised Ashwagandha Dosage for Prevention and Cure: A Review of Recent Development

Gautam Chikkara, Pallavi Mittal and Surendra K Chikara .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 3929-3938

Worldwide 284+ million people suffer from stress, anxiety and depression disorders and modern lifestyle, environments and unhealthy diets are causing an epidemic of stress, anxiety & depression (SAD) disorders. Other risk factors which contribute to SAD disorder are compromised genetics, weak immune system, low response to stress & brain neuroplasticity. Several studies had investigated genes, single nucleotide variation, Indels, large deletions, inversions & triple repeat polymorphism involved in various molecular and biological mechanisms underlying the disease initiation & progression. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 150+ genes and genetic association of 44 risk variants [1, 2] for detection of SAD disorders. Nowadays At-home DNA tests (direct-to-consumer DNA tests) are gaining popularity for wellness and healthy longevity. These tests predict risk for micronutrient & vitamin deficiency, antioxidant activity, neuro-muscular functionality, risk for SAD disorders, efficacy of pharmacologically active herbal formulations for prevention & cure. On the basis of genetic outcome, medicinal plants/ herbs have been greatly employed to combat and reduce stress, anxiety & depression and thereby enhance general wellbeing in recent years. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, fam. Solanaceae) is a most versatile and potential herb of the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as a Rasayana. It is also accredited as a ‘royal herb’ having potential therapeutic applications. There are more than 33,787 publications for genetic markers for SAD & due to health awareness Ashwagandha research has gained scientific importance as evidenced by 77 publications documented since 2010 in NCBI PubMed [3]. The present review concludes with a discussion of prospects for clinical translation of genetic findings based on DNA testing, mode of action & personalized dosage of Ashwagandha as potent anti-SAD medicinal supplement

Prevalence of sleep Quality and daytime Sleepiness among medical student in association with stress, anxiety, depression after Covid 19 Pandemic lockdown in South India: A Cross sectional study

Govindaraj Suganthi, Perumal Srinivasan, Nagarajan Nandha Kumar, Vajiravelu Suganthi, Panneerselvam Periasamy, Sasikala Gunasekaran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 4880-4891

The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and relationships between stress, anxiety, and depression and daytime sleepiness among medical students in the Erode area of Tamil Nadu. Methods: Using a stratified random sample technique, a cross-sectional research of 288 Government Erode Medical College medical students was conducted. The survey was self-administered electronically. The daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and stress, depression, and anxiety were evaluated by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and DASS 42, respectively. Results: Overall, 22.6% of students reported excessive daytime sleepiness. Depression, anxiety, and stress all had prevalence rates of 40.6%, 39.9%, and 29.9%, respectively. 78.5% of people reported having undesirable or poor sleep quality (total PSQI score 5). Epworth Sleepiness Scale Grade and DASS Levels are not correlated (P>0.05). The findings show that women are substantially more stressed than women are (P< 0.05). Stress and poor sleep quality were substantially correlated (P <0.05), indicating that stress level is a significant predictor of poor sleep quality. The study's findings show that students have a high level of stress and poor sleep quality, and they are strongly correlated. We advise creating classes that instruct students on good sleeping habits and coping mechanisms for stressful situations.
Medical students were reported to have a significant prevalence of night-time sleepiness and excessive daytime sleepiness. Overuse of mobile devices was found to be causally related to both excessive daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality. When compared to students who get low quality sleep, the former performed better academically. Those who had low quality sleep showed an escalating pattern of excessive daytime drowsiness. There was a high prevalence of sleep problems, anxiety, stress, and depression among pre-clinical medical students. Those medical students who struggled with their academic performances, poor lifestyle factors, and poor Social and COVID management had significantly higher levels of sleeping disorders, anxiety, stress, and depression.

The Mediating Roles Of Religious And Spiritual Coping Between Religiosity, Spirituality, And Depression Among Medical And Health Science Students.

Usman Jaffer; Che Mohd Nasril Che Mohd Nassir; Rahmah Ahmad H. Osman; Abdul Latif Abd. Razak; Nasreen Allie; Mohamed Ayaaz Ahmed; Mohamad Afiudin Jalaludin; Nursyuhaidah Mohd Kadri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1209-1223

Introduction: Depression is a global mental health issue. Vulnerability for this condition increases in the university student population, specifically medical and health science disciplines. Previous evidence showed that religiosity and spirituality were inversely linked with depression. They have also been predominantly treated as one construct. Still, the mechanisms of these relationships are vague.
Objective: This study aims to investigate mediating roles religious and spiritual coping played on the relationships between religiosity, spirituality and depression among medical and health sciences students.
Methods: A total of 151 medical and health science students were recruited from various universities across Malaysia. The BDI-II, DUREL, Spirituality Scale (SS), RCOPE and SCQ were the measures used in this study.
Results: Religious coping (Positive) was responsible for full mediation between religiosity and depression. Positive spiritual coping partially mediated between spirituality and depression, while negative spiritual coping had a slight partial mediating effect.

A Study On Prevalence Of Anxiety And Depression Among Cancer Patients: A Cross Sectional Study

Dr. Sakshe Jain, Dr. Archana Javadekar, Dr. Bhushan Chaudhary, Dr. Suprakash Choudhury

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 9, Pages 224-229

People who have been diagnosed with cancer have a significantly increased risk of suffering from depression and anxiety.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the levels of depression and anxiety that was found in cancer patients.
Material and Methods: Patients who had just been diagnosed with breast, colorectal, stomach, oesophageal, lung, or thyroid cancer and were planned for surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or combination therapy were evaluated as part of the study from the years 2020 to 2023. Ethical clearance was obtained and informed consent was obtained for initiation of study. Patients who have a previous diagnosis of a psychological condition were not allowed to participate in the trial. The size of the sample was determined to be 150 cases (based on an estimation of 30 percent anxiety or depression in cancer patients with a significance level of 0.05 and a standard deviation value of 0.20).
Results: During the course of the study, there were a total of 150 participants who had recently been diagnosed with breast, colorectal, stomach, oesophageal, lung, or thyroid cancer. Eighty-one (54%) patients had no clinical symptoms of anxiety, 44 (29.3%) mild anxiety, 25 (16.7%) with symptomatic anxiety and these rates were seen in 78 (52%), 40 (26.7%), 32 (21.3%) for depression, respectively.
Conclusion: Those suffering from cancers of the breast and stomach had the highest prevalence of anxiety and depression compared to patients suffering from other types of cancer.

Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Pain Coping Strategies in Women with Breast Cancer

Dr. Pantea Nabian

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1995-2005

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate The Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on depression, anxiety, and Pain Coping Strategies in women with breast cancer.
Methods: The present study is a semi-experimental research wth a pretest-posttest With the control group. For this purpose, 50 people Of women with breast cancer were admitted to the Medical university hospitals of Tehran method Purposive sampling was Selected Randomly in two experimental and control groups were replaced. The experimental group underwent group therapy for 10 sessions of 1.5 hours per week after fully explaining the research and expressing their consent on how to do the work. Demographic statistics, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), and inferential statistics (analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)) were used to perform statistical calculations and data analysis (SPSS 25).
Results: The results showed that Cognitive-behavioral group therapy significantly reduces depression and anxiety in women with breast cancer. Also in the use field of Pain Coping Strategies Between the experimental and control groups, there is a significant difference. 
Conclusion: The results showed that Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy reduces depression and anxiety and increases the use of Pain Coping Strategies in women with breast cancer. 

The Moderating Effects of Religious and Spiritual Copingon The Relationships of Religiosity and Spirituality With Depression Among Medical and Health Science Students.

Usman Jaffer; Che MohdNasril Che Mohd Nassir; Rahmah Ahmad H. Osman; Abdul LatifAbd. Razak; Nasreen Allie; Mohamed Ayaaz Ahmed; Mohamad AfiudinJalaludin; NursyuhaidahMohd Kadri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 28-40

Introduction:Depression is a global mental health issue. Vulnerability for this condition increases in the university student population, specifically medical and health science disciplines. Previous evidence showed that religiosity and spirituality were inversely linked with depression. They have also been predominantly treated as one construct. Still, the mechanisms of these relationships are vague.
Objective: This study aims to investigate moderating roles religious and spiritual coping played on the relationships between religiosity, spirituality and depression among medical and health sciences students.
Methods:A total of 151 medical and health science students were recruited from various universities across Malaysia. Beck’s Depression Inventory second edition (BDI-II) was used to measure depression and depressive symptoms, the Duke University Religion Index (DUREL) was used to measure religiosity, and the Spirituality Scale (SS) was used to measure the beliefs, intuitions, lifestyle choices, practices, and rituals representative of the human spiritual dimension.Whilstthe brief scale of religious coping (RCOPE) and spiritual coping questionnaire (SCQ)were used to assess positive and negative religious and spiritual coping respectively.
Results:Negative religious coping played a moderating role in the relationship between religiosity and depression. Similarly, negative spiritual coping also played a moderating role between spirituality and depression.
Conclusion:These findings give insight into this population. It also provides avenues for psychoeducation and intervention. The ramifications of these findings may be applicable at the society as well as the government and policy making level in Malaysia.  

Impact of second wave of covid-19 pandemic on mental health of health care workers and general population: A comparative study

Bishnoi D, Bhardwaj P, Singh R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9831-9836

With the rise of covid-19 world saw what was unprecedented, and just when we thought we got things under control second wave of covid-19 virus hit us. No one was left unaffected, either directly or indirectly covid caused disruptions in everyone’s lives and thus left with psychological problems in unforeseen majority. Aim of this study was to measure the psychological impact it had on health care workers and general public. Results showed significant differences between the socio demographic profiles of the two groups. Significant difference was found in scores of stress, anxiety, insomnia and depression. This study highlights the need for specialist guided assistance and action towards betterment of mental health of health care workers as well as general public in post covid era.

Effect of Therapeutic Recreation on Mothers Having Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6087-6100

Introduction: Families having children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were the most negatively affected group in terms of depression, anxiety, somatic complaints, burnout and quality of life (QoL). It is known that Therapeutic Recreation Programs have positive effects on depression symptoms and quality of life of individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a one-week therapeutic recreation program on the symptoms of depression and QoL of mothers who have children with ASD.
Method: Fifteen mothers volunteered in this quantitative research, which was performed as a single-group pre-test and post-test experimental design. ASD diagnosed by medical professionals and classified as having moderate or severe ASD according to the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2-Turkish Version (GARS-2-TV). Data was collected via Quality-of-Life Questionnaire-Parent Edition and Beck Depression Inventory before and after the therapeutic recreation camp at a mountain camping center in 2020.
Results: Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test results revealed that the therapeutic recreation program had a positive effect on the levels of depression and ASD related QoL but did not have a significant effect on the general QoL of mothers.
Conclusion: It can be argued that even a one-week therapeutic recreation program provides a significant improvement in the QoL of mothers and, consequently, a decline in their symptoms of depression.

A study comparing socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients of unipolar and bipolar depression

Ravraj Singh Dhaliwal, Kiratpal Singh, Gurtaj Singh Gill, Dalraj Singh Bajwa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8922-8926

Background: To assess socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients of unipolar and bipolar depression.
Materials & methods: 100 patients with confirmed diagnosis of unipolar depression and 100 patients with confirmed diagnosis of bipolar depression were enrolled. Complete demographic details and clinical data of all the patients was obtained. Diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar was confirmed as per the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problem Tenth Revision (ICD-10), were included. A Preformed Performa was made and complete details of all the patients was recorded. Clinical and socio-demographic data of all the subjects was recorded and compared. Assessment of results was done using SPSS software.
Results: Majority proportion of bipolar depression were males (p- value < 0.05). Majority proportion of patients of unipolar group were married and unemployed (p- value < 0.05). Non-significant results were obtained while comparing the socio-economic status among patients with unipolar and bipolar depression. Mean age of onset among patients with unipolar depression was significantly higher in comparison to patients with bipolar depression. Mean duration of illness among patients with bipolar depression was significantly higher in comparison to patients with unipolar depression. Majority of patients of unipolar depression were of mild severity.
Conclusion: It has become more important not to miss bipolarity in patients with first episode depression. Adequate measures should be taken to understand the clinical markers of depression.


Dr.Azarudeen MJ, Dr.Srinath Ramamurthy, Dr.Swetha Chandrasekar, Dr.Bandi Siva Gopal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3642-3652

Background and objectives: Schizophrenia is a recurring psychiatric condition that severely impairs patients' ability to function in all major spheres of their lives. Since the deinstitutionalization policy, families, especially the primary caregiver who bears a heavy physical and emotional strain, are responsible for providing care. According to estimates, caregivers' rates of depression are higher than those of the general population. The primary caregivers' burden of care, their level of depression, and related caregiver factors were all examined in this cross-sectional study.
Methods: After gathering socio-demographic and caregiving information, 60 consenting primary caregivers of patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were evaluated for burden of care and depression using the Burden Assessment Schedule and the Patient Health Questionnaire–9.
Results: A majority of the 35 female and 25 male carers reported experiencing moderate to severe depression, and all had moderate to high levels of burden. More burden was felt by spouses (p=0.0038), older carers (p=0.01), and those with lower educational levels (p=0.01). Depression and caregiving burden had a statistically significant positive connection (p=0.000).
Conclusion: Despite the ease with which psychiatric therapies are accessible in one of India's largest metropolitan areas, caregivers continue to experience stress and depression. This may affect not only the caregiver but also the patient's care and the course of the sickness

A cross-sectional observational study to assess the need for mental health check-up as a part of annual health check-up in health care workers

Dr. Priyanka Gupta; Dr. Saurabh Yakhmi; Dr. Ravi Chand Sharma; Dr. Bhawna; Dr. Amrita Bhatia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 2032-2038

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are the frontline warriors in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic and similar health crises. In developing countries, HCWs face high stress because they have to deal with the increased patient load and limited infrastructure. Long-term exposure to stress, anxiety, and depression may lead to impaired mental health in HCWs. It is, therefore, essential to assess the mental health of HCWs as a part of their annual health check-up. Objective: The present cross-sectional observational study was aimed to assess the mental health of HCWs by analysing the stress, anxiety and depression during their annual health check-up at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Methods: Total 200 participants, including the consultants, and junior and senior resident doctors, were included in the study. The stress level was analyzed using PSS-10, and anxiety and depression were analyzed using GAD-7 and PHQ-9 respectively. Results: The mean PSS-10 score was 9.39 ± 8.53, indicating low stress among HCWs; the mean GAD-7 score was 5.20 ± 4.19, indicating mild anxiety in HCWs and the mean PHQ-9 score was 3.41 ± 3.59, indicating minimal depression among HCWs. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the HCWs faced minimal to mild stress, anxiety, and depression. It is therefore recommended that the mental health check-up should be made a regular part of the annual health check-up in HCWs so that adequate, timely steps are taken to address the same.


Tushar Vishnu Tonde, Yashodeep Gaikwad, Sudam Khedkar, Bagde Arun motilal, Harishchandra rameshchandra Chaudhari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3308-3315

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a group of common metabolic disorders that share the phenotype of hyperglycaemia.
Objectives: To study the co-relation of Depression in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with respect to age, gender, literacy, marital status.
Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Medicine, at a tertiary care Hospital. The study included 543 known diabetes patients coming to our hospital during a period of 12 months. All the cases were then assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) for the presence of depression.
Results: Mean age was 53.01 years and 51.56 years in diabetic cases with and without depression (p-0.18). Prevalence of depression was 19.6% among male diabetics while it was 18% in female diabetics (p-0.65). No association was observed between depression among diabetics with marital status (p-1.0). No association was observed between depression among diabetics with literacy rate (p-0.552).
Conclusion: No association was observed between depression   among   diabetics with age, gender, literacy, marital status.


Mihirkumar P. Parmar, Mankirat Kaur, Gunjan Kochhar, K. Shashi Vardhan Reddy, Rajagopal, E R, Umesh Batura, Sweta Sahu, Jitendra Patel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2376-2390

Background: People living with chronic kidney disease are at high risk of depression, anxiety, frailty, high depression in chronic kidney disease patients is associated with decreased selfcare behaviour, and aim of this review is to check the association between depressions with chronic kidney disease patients. High depression prevalence is there in long term dialysis patients and affect the person life quality so our main objective of this study is to check the depression associated with the long term dialysis.
Materials and Methods: Observational, qualatative, cross sectional, longitudinal, retrospective, cohart, prospective analysis and study is hospital and renal therapy unit, dialysis center based. This study took place in between year 2018- jan to 2022- jun, involving 3235 participants. following instruments is used: sociodemographic, economic and health condition characterization and the subjective frailty assessment (SFA) and patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), depression subscale of the hospital anxiety and depression scale and HQRoL was assesed using the kidney disease of life 36 short form, cross lagged pathway analysis, univariate analysis followed by multiple regression analysis was performed for demographical parameters, clinical conditions and laboratory test, QoL (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-36]), cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]), depressive state (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]), grip strength, and 24-h urine volume, Depressive symptoms measured using BDI-II, Quality of Life measured using the 12-item short-form health Survey (SF-12), Hospitalizations, Mortality, Beck Anxiety Inventory, the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), the beck depression inventory (BDI) and the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS).
Results: Depression is associated with the presence of frailty among patients with CKD on hemodialysis by the finding there was occurrence of physical frailty (73.8%) and depression (93.7%), patients with poor HRQoL were at risk of more symptoms of depression, Biochemical abnormalities like abnormal serum phophate, parathyroid hormone level are related to depression, there is high Qol and recovery by peritoneal dialysis from cognitive failure than patient on hemodialysis. Anxiety symptoms are independently associated with increased risk for mortality and 1-year hospitalization, fitting factorial structure for the Beck-Depression Inventory-II (BDI), in dialysis patients and to assess the relation of these structure dimensions with quality of life (QoL), hospitalization, and mortality by the results median follow-up time was 3.0-3.5 years, during that time 25% deaths occurred. 22% of patients had anxiety symptoms and 42% had depressive symptoms, A higher prevalence of depressive symptoms was found in immigrant compared to native patients (49% vs. 36%), Depression and anxiety were significantly associated with females, low level of education, increased patients' age, retirement, poor financial situation, marital status and co-morbidity by the result 29.4% had depression and 35.9% had anxiety, also Patients with high levels of anxiety had higher levels of depression and those with high depression scores had higher anxiety scores.
Conclusion: The evidence from eight studies gives idea about the depression related to chronic kidney disease patient on dialysis; our review gives idea about the relation depression, anxiety, frailty with the ckd patients on dialysis. High quality studies required to examine depression in dialysis patient.


Farheen Sultana, Ragini Muddasani, Anurag Srivastava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2586-2598

Background: To study the prevalence of anxiety and depression in postmenopausal women attending Mediciti Institute of Medical sciences.
Materials and Methods: Out of 40 consecutive patients presenting to Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Ghanpur with history of menopause, 10 were excluded as they refuse to give consent, and 30 patients were taken into the study. A detailed history of the Patient was taken after taking the consent using the case proforma and were Diagnosed post-menopausal using 1yr criteria after the cessation of last menstrual period , both natural and surgical induced menopause were included, followed by assessment of the patients psychological profile using SCL90, Becks Depression Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety scales.
Results: In the study statistically significant increased rates of anxiety was found to occur in post-menopausal women (P =0.000075). In the study it was observed that Hamilton Anxiety scores were significantly high in surgical induced menopausal women when compared with natural menopause (unpaired T test p= 0.0446). The study also shows that there was a significantly higher incidence of somatization on SCL90 subscale, in surgical induced menopause than natural menopausal women with a P value = 0.0001.
Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference among natural menopause and surgical induced menopausal women on other subscales like OCD, Interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, phobic, Paranoid Ideation, or Psychoticism.

Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Tejinder Singh,Neelam Rathi, Raman Baliyan, Anurag Timothy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10541-10546

Background:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, diffuse
interstitial lung disease of unknown cause that occurs primarily in older adults. Several
causes for IPF have been proposed, including diabetes mellitus, smoking, metal
particles, and sawdust. IPF is the commonest and most severe form of idiopathic
interstitial pneumonia. No curative medical treatment is available for IPF, and lung
transplantation remains the only effective treatment. Psychiatric comorbidities are
common in patients of IPF. Among them, depression and anxiety are more common.
Aim and objective: To study the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis who
visited Chest and TB OPD were recruited in the study. They were assessed in detail for
the presence of depression and anxiety with the help of the Hamilton Depression and
Anxiety rating scale.
Results: A total of 30(60%) patients out of 50 have comorbid depression and anxiety.
Conclusion: Depression and Anxiety were found to be a common problem in patients
with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. A proper address of this issue is important for
management, better outcome, and policymaking in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary

A cross-sectional study to analysis of depression level among frontline health care worker, working at tertiary care canter during COVID-19 at central India

Chouhan Vijay, Churihar Ritesh, Shukla Aanand, Baghel Anil Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 475-479

Background: At the end of 2019 a new viral disease namely covid-19 has occurred which was highly
contagious within a few months it spreads to more than 100 countries. A poor understanding of new
infections and lack of knowledge leads to compromised patient health benefits as well as psychological
stress to front-line health workers. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and level of perception of
health care workers about covid-19.
Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was carried out among front-line health care workers who
work at tertiary health care centers the survey instrument constituted a semi-structured pre-tested
questionnaire. The 29-item questionnaire was divided into two sections. Statistical tool chi-square test
used to investigate the stress, anxiety, and depression with significance set to p<.05.
Results: Out of 100 participants 30 front-line health care workers have minimal depression, 25 mild
depression, 14 moderate depression, 13 moderately severe depression, maximum participants belong to
age group 26-35 (P-value .001). The participant with a child is a total of 67 out of 100 participants who
show a variety of depression, Maximum number of participants is 21 having mild depression P (value is
.010). There total of 57 participants who confident caring covid-19 patient, maximum of 22 participants
who have mild depression (P-value is .000).
Conclusion: As the entire world faced the covid-19 thread and continued to emerge, most frontline health
care workers have a varying degree of depression but according to PHQ-9 no one has severe depression.
Definitive or effective treatment of covid-19 including prevention of this by vaccination is mandatory.
Education intervention, personal protection equipment and appropriate knowledge are urgently needed
to reach frontline health care work beyond the international border and future studies are warranted.


Dr.Tarun Pal, Dr.Chitrakshee Singh, Dr.Gyanendra Kumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5306-5310

As a major virus outbreak in the 21st century, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented hazards to mental health globally. While psychological support is being provided to patients and healthcare workers, the general public's mental health requires significant attention as well. This systematic review aims to synthesize extant literature that reports on the effects of COVID-19 on psychological outcomes of the general population and its associated risk factors. A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus from inception  following the PRISMA guidelines. Relatively high rates of symptoms of anxiety , depression , post-traumatic stress disorder , psychological distress , and stress  are reported in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic . Risk factors associated with distress measures include female gender, younger age group , presence of chronic/psychiatric illnesses, unemployment, student status, and frequent exposure to social media/news concerning COVID-19.The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with highly significant levels of psychological distress that, in many cases, would meet the threshold for clinical relevance. Mitigating the hazardous effects of COVID-19 on mental health is an international public health priority.

Study of quality of life of patients with childhood and adolescent depression

Rajesh S. Narwade, Alka Subramanyam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1226-1234

Background: Depression is common psychological disorder affects about 121 million people worldwide World Health Organization(WHO) states that depression is the leading cause of disability as measured by years lived with disability (YLD) and fourth leading contributor to global burden disease, an estimated 3-4% of India's 100 crores plus population suffer from major mental disorder, in the southeast Asian region, 11% of DALY's and 27% of YLD's are attributed to neuropsychiatric disease. Depression imposes itself not only on adults but it takes its toll on children and adolescents as well. Normally, parents want their children to be happy. Yet despite doing their best to provide and protect them, children may still encounter disappointments, frustrations, or real heartbreak. At times, children may feel sad and needy. However, some children and adolescents seem to be constantly experiencing sorrow, hopelessness, and helplessness. Depression is an illness where the feeling sadness persists and intervene with the child or adolescents functional ability.
Aim & Objective: 1.To study the phenomenology of childhood and adolescent depression. 2.To study the family factors in patients of childhood and adolescent depression. 3.To study the quality of life of patients with childhood and adolescent depression. 4.To study the functional status of patients with childhood and adolescent depression
Methods: Study design: A Cross sectional Observational Study. Study setting: in the Department of Psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. Study duration: October 2015 to June 2016
Study population: The study population included all children or adolescent diagnosed with depression admitted at a tertiary care center. Sample size: 30
Results: most of the study population belongs to the age group of 13 to 15 years (50%) followed by 10 to 12 years (33.35). there was higher number of female (60%) as compared to male amongst study population. there was higher number of nuclear family (80%) as compared to joint family amongst study population. most of the study population had family income of 25000 to 35000 rupees (43.3%) followed by 15000 to 25000 (33.3). Family psychiatry history was present in 16.7% of study population. mean CDI, PedsQL, CGAS and FAD score amongst study population was 27.57 ± 3.730, 52.63±9.701, 67.93±6.068 and 131.67 ±6.266. mean CDI, PedsQL, CGAS and FAD score was higher in female population as compared to male though statistically not significant.
Conclusions: Understanding and recognizing the early signs of depression, as well as the treatment and prevention, helps reduce the global burden that persists from depression among young groups. Families and guardians are in a unique position to provide interventions to promote healthy lifestyles and reduce the likelihood of depression on their children.

Psychological morbidity among post-COVID-19 patients: A cross-sectional study

Dr. Gopal Das CM, Dr. Vijay Raj N, Dr. Anantha Kalyan D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1445-1452

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health threat and is by far the largest outbreak of atypical pneumonia, since the SARS outbreak in 2003. A range of psychiatric morbidities such as persistent depression, anxiety, panic attacks, delirium and suicidality were observed in the post infectious state across the world. Hence, the aim of the study was to understand the psychological status of the patients affected by COVID during their post-COVID follow-up period and to examine the socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with high psychological morbidity.
Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in the post-COVID follow up clinic, at a tertiary care hospital between the months of July 2021-November 2021, using a semi structured proforma and rating scales such as Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) for depression, anxiety and insomnia, respectively.
Results: The study results indicate that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among post-COVID-19 patients was 21.9% and 11.9%, respectively. Insomnia was observed among 21.7% among various socio- demographic and clinical variables examined, it was observed that female gender, patients with ongoing stressors and patients with post-COVID-19 persistent physical symptoms were found to be associated with greater depression and anxiety among the study population.
Conclusion: Persistent physical symptoms and ongoing life stressors are found to be associated with depression and anxiety among post-COVID-19 patients. Hence, periodic screening for individuals with persisting physical symptoms and care for the vulnerable population such as those with ongoing stressors will provide a significant advantage in the follow up of the mental health of the patients affected with COVID-19.


Dr.Saima Sadiq,Dr. Rajesh Chandel,Dr.Heena Mir,Dr. Anil Mehta, Dr Sonali Sharma,Dr Rouf Gul6,Mr.Pawan kumar,Mr. Ravi kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 46-53

AIM: Study aimed to assess the burden of psychological morbidity due to lockdown in
the pregnant females.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was an observational study conducted in the
department of obstetrics &gynecology, GMC Kathua during the covid lockdown period
from June 2020 to August 2020. 100 antenatal patients attending OPD were included
in the study after excluding those with hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, bleeding
pv,IUGR,oligohydramnios,threatened preterm labour, known psychiatric illness or
taking psychotropic medication, prior sleep disorder. The patients were assessed using a
questionnairewhich was framed using various scales such as PHQ-9 for Depression,
GAD7 for anxiety, Perceived Stress Scale and Insomnia severity index , in addition to
incorporating various sociodemographic and obstetrical details.The arbitrary division
of PHQ‑ 9 scores into ratings of minimal (0–4),mild (5–9), and moderate to severe
depression (≥10) suggested by Reddy et al. was used in this study. Cutoff points of 5, 10,
and 15 were interpreted as representing mild, moderate, and severe levels of anxiety on
the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7). Insomnia severity index scored on a fivepoint
Likert’s scale (0 = no problem to 4 = very severe problem). Score of 0–7 depicted
absence of insomnia, 8–14 showedsubthreshold insomnia, 15–21 represented moderate,
and 22–28 showed severe insomnia.

Depression, Anxiety and Stress in healthcare workers (HCWs) during COVID-19 pandemic- an observational study from central India

Mansi Anand, Kavya Rawat, Srikanth Reddy, Hiral Kotadia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1715-1721

Background: Since March-April 2020, India and its overburdened health care services have faced a new challenge of COVID-19 pandemic. HCWs, along with stress of rigorous duties and long work hours have faced additional stress like fear of infection, transmission, alienation and rejection.Burden not only undermines the quality of life of HCWs but also impacts the quality of health services provided by them, increase practice errors, leading to worse outcomes and additional costs. As our hospital was one of the busiest tertiary care centers of central India with maximum patient load, during this pandemic, we initiated this study to assess how mental health of the HCWs is being affected.To measure the level of Depression, Anxiety & Stress in Health care workers (Resident doctors & Consultants) working in a tertiary care centre in central India. To compare the depression, anxiety & stress scores between various factors related to the work profile.
Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study carried out in a tertiary care center in central India. 145 HCWs (resident doctors and consultants) working in COVID wards and ICUs were included in the study. After taking an informed consent, socio-demographic details were obtained and DASS-21 (Depression, anxiety and stress scale) was applied.
Results: 78 (53.7%) of HCWs were males and 67 (46.2%) were females. Majority 97 (66.8%) were from medicine allied branches and 48 (33.1%) from surgery allied branches. Majority [110 (7.6%)] were 1st and 2nd year residents. 72 (49.6%) had more than 4 months of duty. 84 (57.9%) had 1-60 hours of ICU duty. The prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress were 62%, 66%, and 56% respectively.  Out of these extremely severe grades of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms were seen in 30%, 18% and 10% respectively. Significantly higher scores were observed in residents of surgery allied branches (54 +/- 32.5), HCWs who had no previous experience (52.18 +/- 31.8), 1st (56.6+/-34.6) and 2nd (43.2+/-27.6) year residents, total duration of duty upto 2 months (59.12+/-36.4) and ICU duty of 100 hours (62.1+/- 33.2). However the scores decreased in HCWs who had duties of more than 2 months and ICU duty of more than 100 hours.
Conclusion: More than half of HCWs had depression, anxiety & stress. Significantly higher scores were seen in junior residents, more number of ICU work hours and total duration of duties, and the HCWs with no prior experience. Reducing the duty hours, adequate training in intensive care settings and sensitization about various methods to regulate emotions might help to reduce the stress in HCWs in such difficult times.

Assessment of the stress, anxiety, and depression in students during COVID-19 pandemic

Dr Rajveer Basu, Dr Preeti Lahari, Kiran Lahari, Dr Jugvendra Lahari .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1835-1841

Background: shifting of the school classes to online format owing to social distancing
norms led to amplification of academic stress, independent learning pressure, dropouts,
everyday life abandonment, less study chance made researchers focus on assessing the
impact of coronavirus on the mental condition of the students. This requires prompt
intervention as stress can further increase in subjects adopting conventional coping
strategies and in subjects with pre-existing stressors.
Aim: The present study was conducted to assess stress, anxiety, and depression in subjects
at a defined geographical area to assess psychological needs in subjects dealing with
causal factors and the pandemic.
Methods: In 156 subjects, DASS 21 scale was used having 21 questionnaires that were
answered by the subjects themselves and were concerned about stress, anxiety, and
depression. The responses were recorded on a scale of 0 to 4 where 0 meant little time/none
and 3 meant most of the time. The responses were recorded based on symptoms severity in
the last week before answering the questionnaire. The interpretation of the DASS 21 scale
was divided into categories of normal, mild, moderate, severe, or very severe. The collected
data were subjected to statistical evaluation.
Results: For gender, only anxiety was statistically significant (p=0.01) which was higher in
females with the value of 1.72±0.993 compared to males with the value of 1.47±0.881. For
the age anxiety levels were significantly higher in subjects of age ≤ 20 years with 1.76±1.01
compared to ≥ 21 years with the value of 1.52±0.883 (p=0.02). For familial history also
significantly correlated to anxiety with p=0.004, whereas for depression and stress the pvalues
were 0.758 and 0.238 respectively and were non-significant. For family history, it
was significantly related to anxiety with a p-value of 0.12, whereas, it was non-significantly
related to depression and stress with respective p-values of 0.753 and 0.297. The
socioeconomic status was also significantly associated with anxiety with the low
socioeconomic group having a strong association having a p-value of 0.25.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that the depression, anxiety, and stress in
students during COVID-19 was seen ranging from mild to severe levels, whereas, majority
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
ISSN 2515-8260 Volume 08, Issue 04, 2021
of the students showed normal levels of DASS. Also, positive family history of COVID-19
and family income was associated with increased depression, anxiety, and stress in the

Awareness of the Impact of COVID-19 virus on the depression on Population at Saudi Arabia at Makkah in Saudi Arabia 2021

Moaaz Mohammed Fadelelahy, Basem Saad Alghamdi, Molham Emam Badry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3210-3226

      The COVID-19 pandemic in KSA resulted in a nationwide quarantine on March 27th, 2020. This study represents the assessment of rates of depression in the general population of KSA during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has created an unprecedented global crisis, necessitating drastic changes to living conditions, social life, personal freedom and economic activity.  study has yet examined the presence of depression symptoms in the KSA population under similar conditions. Patients at risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory syndrome are characterised by the high prevalence of pre-existing diseases (high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, or cancer), most of them typically present in severely depression patients. Indeed, the biological role of adipose tissue in sustaining SARS-CoV-2 infection is not completely elucidated. Aim of the study: To assessment the awareness of the Impact of COVID-19 virus on the depression on Population at Saudi Arabia at Makkah in Saudi Arabia 2021 Method : Across-sectional study among Population residents in primary health care center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah was conducted using an online questionnaire designed during April 2021. The questionnaire collected socio-demographic characteristics, depression Symptoms in participants before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic (via the PHQ-9 patient depression questionnaire) our total participants were (200). Results: most of the participants (41.0%) were in the age group more than 60 years  follow by the (37.0%)were in the age 30-40 years, the majority of them were female (27.0%) while male(28.0%), regarding  the marital status most of participants married were(44.0%), regarding level of education the majority of participant are Primary/ Intermediate were(35.0%), regarding Chronic Medical conditions the majority of participant are Diabetes were(42.0%) while High blood pressure were(33.0%) , regarding  the Working/studying from home most of participants answer No were(74.0%)while answer Yes were(15.33%).Conclusion: The research's showed increase in the prevalence of mental health problems and depression in the early stages of the pandemic, and these problems were predicted by several specific COVID related variables. Further similar surveys, particularly of those with children at home, are required as the pandemic progresses. In addition Anxiety and depression levels amongst Population at Saudi Arabia in healthcare were found to be high when assessed during the COVID-19 pandemic

Impact of Prevalence of depression among physicians in major hospitals in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Saudi Arabia 2021

Mohammed Hassan Alessa, Nahla Muhammad Hariri, Nedaa Sami Banjar, Hana Mohammed Al-Olayani, Rehab Salem Al-Awad, Dlwl Rabeh Almutairi, Motla Ahmad Abdullah Almowld, Abdulrhman Ahmed Almowalad, Hanan Zakria Esmail Alhawsa, Ghazwah Suliman Mansi Almwaild, Ali Marzook Albajali, Rehab Atiy Alharbi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3382-3398

Physicians are exposed to many stressors, such as the burden imposed by expectations of a high degree of professionalism, responsibility for patient well-being and maintenance of relationships with patients and health workers, depression among physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Saudi Arabia are not well described and their modifiable causes are poorly understood. During their first year of medical residency (internship), of training physicians in the Saudi Arabia suffer at least one depression episode whether there is a similar increase of depression among first year residents Saudi Arabia as well as concerns about medical errors and malpractice litigation. Depression is an emotional disturbance that leads to deterioration of abilities and daily activities; and it is considered to be a major public health problem and a leading predictor of functional disability and mortality. Physicians’ work is characterized by long working hours. Some studies have reported that lengthy working hours can be associated with depression in particular occupational settings. Aim of study: To Prevalence of depression among physicians in major hospitals in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Saudi Arabia 2021. Methods this was a Cross-sectional study among physicians in major hospitals in Makkah Al-Mukarramah Saudi Arabia , this study has be conducted only 3 major hospitals in ministry of health inside the Makkah Al-Mukarramah city (in King Abdul-Aziz Specialist Hospital, King Faisal Hospital and Ajyad General Hospital), a sample size through the epi program was (291) doctors. The researcher has been using a questionnaire covering socio-demographic data and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The socio-demographic data contains 15 multiple-choice questions It has been written in English language and will be valid from 3 consultant.

Stress, Anxiety and Depression among vitiligo patients visiting dermatology clinic.

Malak Abdullah Alshilli, Aref Salem Zaban Alzeyadi, Turki Ali Hamed Almaliki

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3195-3209

Background: Vitiligo has a significant effect on patients’ quality of life; they feel stigmatized and disturbed by their condition. A lot of vitiligo patients, according to reports, suffer from psychological disturbances. The aim of the study is to find the relation between vitiligo and stress, anxiety, and depression and to measure how vitiligo affects the quality-of-life index. Methods of study is a case-control involving fifty patients of both sexes with the diagnosis of vitiligo and fifty healthy volunteers as a control group matched in age, gender, and academic level. Patients were selected from patients who visiting dermatology clinic at King Abdul-Aziz hospital in Makkah Al-Mokarramah. All patients were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) to determine the severity of anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scale to evaluate their quality of life while the control group underwent only the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Results: The prevalence of stress was 76%, anxiety was 78%, and depression was 80%; the difference was statistically significant between patient group and control group regarding stress, anxiety, and depression. Gender had a significant relationship with stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05) (female affected more than male). Also, there was a statistically significant relation between the degree of vitiligo and anxiety (p < 0.05). Vitiligo has a moderate to very severe effect on the quality of life index. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between stress and feeling of embarrassment from vitiligo and clothes choice. Conclusion: Vitiligo is a psych cutaneous disease that does not only affect the patient’s physical status, but also his mental and psychological status.

Prevalence and clinical correlates of depressive disorder in chronic kidney disease patients in a tertiary care hospital

NupurNiharika, Naresh Prasad Yadav, Adil Ali Shakur , Lalit Mohan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1766-1771

Introduction-Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which there is structural or
functional damage to the kidneys and they are unable to function properly. Recent studies
have shown that patients with CKD have three times more of depression thanthose in the
general population. Depression in CKD patientsis also associated with poor quality of life
andadverse clinical outcome. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence
of depression and factors affecting them. Materials & Method-A total of 62 patients of
either gender and aged ≥18 years diagnosed with CKD were enrolled. These patients were
analysed for demographic parameters, stage of CKD, its duration, their co-morbidities and
serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)was used to screen
depression. Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was used to rate
severity of depression. Suicidal ideations were assessed using the modified scale for suicidal
ideation. Result-The mean age of the patients was 52.4 years. Among them 59.6% were male
and 40.3% were females. In age group based analysis, majority (43.5%) of patients were
found to be elderly. The prevalence of depression was more (62.4%) in the age group of 40–
60 years. Among them 45.1 % of them were in CKD stage V and 58% of the patients were
having CKD for ≤ 3 years. Among these patients 46.7% had at least two or more
comorbidities in which 55.1% were suffering from hypertension, diabetes Mellitus &
dyslipidaemia. The level of serum creatinine showed that 51.6% had their levels <5 mg/dl.
Further, we found that 45.1 % of patients among which 37% had severe depression.
However, we found that majority of patients (56.4%) had low suicidal ideations.Conclusion-
The findings of our study suggest that CKD patients should be concurrently evaluated for
depression so that an early diagnosis of depression could be done which may help in
improving the quality of life of CKD patients. Moreover, a standard rehabilitation program
can also be designed which may be important and clinically beneficial for them.

Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: article review

Ghadeer Mohammed Alaidarous, Thamir Abid Y Khayyat, Manal Mohammadsadiq S Qnadeli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3369-3381

Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a common complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes affecting over 90% of the diabetic patients. Due to the toxic effects of hyperglycemia there is development of this problem. It is classically characterized by significant deficits in tactile sensitivity, vibration sense, lower-limb proprioception, and kinesthesia. Painful DPN has been shown to be associated with significant reductions in overall quality of life, increased levels of anxiety and depression, sleep impairment, and greater gait variability. Hence DPN is often inadequately treated, and the role of improving glycemic control in diabetes. Major international clinical guidelines for the management of DPN recommend several symptomatic treatments. First-line therapies include tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin–noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, and anti- consultants that act on calcium channels. Other therapies include opioids and topical agents such as capsaicin and lidocaine. The objectives of this paper are to review current guidelines for the pharmacological management of DPN


Sami Hasan Husseinalali, Sufian F. A. Nairoukh Soubhi Zitouni, Fisal Haritani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1986-1991

The complication of the Thyroid is endless, affecting the lifestyle due to the effect on direct neurological disturbances. Mainly, depression and anxiety are closely linked with hypothyroidism. In this work, initially, we clinically describe Thyroid and its classification. Then we disseminate the genetic causes and the methods involved in diagnosing hypothyroidism. Finally, the effects of different treatments on curing chronic illness have been discussed.


K. Saravanan; S. Hariharan; R. Karthikeyan; B.Krishna Prasanth; Supraja Nagarathinam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1076-1080

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an appreciable impact on public
mental health. Hence continuous monitoring of the population’s mental health
especially during a pandemic demands immediate attention. The COVID-19
pandemic contributing to a rise in depression and anxiety among college students,
with more than one third of them experiencing detrimental mental health challenges.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression
and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic among medical college students.

Structural Equation Model Factors Affecting Suicidal Ideation among Undergraduate Students

Herlina J. EL- Matury; Besral .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2424-2437

The term suicide refers to the experience that one’s life is undeserved that starts with a thought and advances to the actual action to kill oneself or an obsession with self-destruction. This study aimed to construct a structural equation model of factors that affect suicidal ideation among undergraduate students. This study was conducted at 14 colleges at state universities in Jakarta, Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. A sample of 504 students was selected using a stratified random sampling method at 14 colleges. Data was analyzed with structural equation modelling testing. Results: Depression, anxiety, stress, and social support were significant factors that affected students’ suicidal ideation. Low social support was associated with increased suicidal ideation in college students. Depression, anxiety, and stress triggered suicidal ideation in students. Conclusion: Universities need to plan activities that can raise awareness and prevent students from experiencing depression, anxiety, and stress so that students can avoid suicidal ideation


Khakimova Sohiba Ziyadulloevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2327-2329

In patients with radiculopathies of various origins, along with chronic pain syndrome (CHS), psychopathological and autonomic disorders are observed. In groups of patients with radiculopathies, the state of asthenia, anxiety, and autonomic changes was studied using psychological scales [2]. Research on the Spielberg-Khanin scales of reactive and personal anxiety revealed a fairly high level of anxiety. The identification of mild and moderate depression on the Beck scale was especially significant. The results of the Kerdo index indicated damage to the autonomic nervous system in all patients, with a predominance of parasympathicotonic manifestations.

Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Disorders among Nursing College Students in Mosul University / Iraq

Shatha Abdul-Rahman H. Al-Ghurairi; Eman Salem Khaffaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1270-1276

High levels of depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) can adversely influence the academic and clinical performance of nursing students, psychological well-being, and physical health. Large numbers of studies have recognized the factors that related by depression, anxiety, and stress. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress and their levels among undergraduate nursing students in the Mosul University /Mosul/ Iraq. A confidential questionnaire was done in this cross-sectional survey study which is carried out using a depression anxiety stress scale DASS reported by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995a) carried out from 22th of January- 20th of March 2020. Among 800 nursing students analyzed, the age distribution shows that (83%) and (67%) respectively in the third class in morning and evening courses are between age group 22-25 years, 84% and 87% are female in the third class with significant p values. About the prevalence of moderate stress (26%) of third and 25% of second class respectively of morning and evening courses and mild anxiety 26% and 28% respectively of morning and evening courses. Finally, moderate depression was seen among 24% of the fourth class of morning and 35% of second class evening courses. The DAS and their levels among learner nursing students in the Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq had a high prevalence in comparison with others. Prospect research can localize on the need to set up social and mental health screening and hold up services, such as psychotherapy centers in nursing colleges.

The Effect Of Social Media Exposure On Depression And Anxiety Disorders In Facing Covid-19 Pandemic

Aris Widiyanto; Asruria Sani Fajriah; Joko Tri Atmojo; Rina Tri Handayani; Lidia Ekiq Kurniavie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4635-4643

Background: WHO has designated Covid-19 as a pandemic, this has an effect on mental health when people are stuck at home and it is unknown when the social distancing rule ends. This affects the quality of student learning faced with stressors in dealing with lecture material and exposure to Covid-19 information from social media. This study aims to predict the effect of social media exposure on depression and anxiety disorders in health students in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic.
Methode: This research is a cross sectional study with a sample of students majoring in health in Indonesia in May 2020. Data were collected using a questionnaire through an online survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression with Stata 13.
Result: Results from the study found that there was a significant effect of social media exposure on depression (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.05 hingga 2.57; p=0.031) and anxiety disorders (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.18 to 3.40; p=0.008) in dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic.
Conclusion: Exposure to social media during this pandemic can increase the risk of depression and anxiety disorders in college students. So, it is expected that students also need to know the steps to protect themselves from excessive stress and panic in the midst of the Covid-19 outbreak.

Effects of Psychological Distress on Hypertension among Liquefaction Refugees in Petobo Shelter

Herawanto .; Vidyana Aulia Rahma; Muh. Jusman Rau; Sendhy Krisnasari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 89-96

The purpose of this research is to know the psychological disorder in the incidence of hypertension among liquefaction refugees in Petobo Shelter. A cross-sectional design was performed. The total number of patients who visit the health post at a Petobo shelter is 3,079 people taken in accidental sampling. The analysis uses the univariate and bivariate analyses at a degree of confidence of 95% (α = 0.05). The chi-square test results show that anxiety (ρ = 0,031), depression (ρ = 0,008), and stress (ρ = 0,000) are associated with the incidence of hypertension. It is expected that hypertension sufferers should do breathing exercises, perform physical activity and meditation relaxation to avoid anxiety, negative thoughts, also avoiding depression, stress and do interact with someone else so that the mind is not saturated and easy to forget the negative thoughts.

COVID-19's Psychological Impact On Ophthalmologists In India

Dr.Anitha C; Dr. Suresh R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5470-5475

To evaluate the psychological impact on ophthalmologists of the COVID 19 crisis during lock-ups in India. An online study was carried out during the lockout on ophthalmologists. The details collected included population information, address, current professional status, form of activity, marital status, effect on training or practises of COVID-19, and effect on income and living cost power. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measured psychiatric anxiety. Altogether 2,215 ophthalmologists replied. Multivariable research found that at younger age depression was considerably greater. For an age rise of 1 year, the risks of depression declined by 2.86%. Non-practicing ophthalmologists were more concerned about their schooling or professional development, in particular those with difficulties covering living costs. An extraordinarily significant number of ophthalmologists suffer from psychiatric disorders and will need customised psychological treatment of health

Mental Health Issues and Consideration in Post Covid-19 era

M.Yousuf Adam; Dr.Muhammad Amin Wani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6330-6336

Background: Corona virus disease (Covid-19) entered at the end of last year in China, and slowly occupied rest of world. In India, Government declared complete Lockdown in second half of March, soon after three or four months later country slowly lifted Lockdown. But, covid-19 pandemic is still there. Along with biological complication due to covid-19, we suffered with lots of mental health issues due to psychological and economical aspects.
Objective: Aim of this study is to assess mental health status irrespective of gender, age group, location, stress, chronic disease and covid-19 infection. Also, to investigate mean difference between various demographic variables in order to examine most vulnerable people towards mental health illness.
Material and method: Due to covid-19 and social distancing, the researchers were carried this study using demographic variables and the mental health inventory (MHI-38) in internet and social media platform from September 13 to September 23, 2020. The data collected were more than hundred, but the researchers took only hundred respondents to analyse data statistically and the results were interpreted.
Conclusion: The result revealed that mean difference of mental health in relation to gender, age group, and stress were statistically significant and their corresponding p-value were 0.0447, 0.0048 and 0.0001 respectively. Mental health status increases with increase income, and there were no statistical significant in respective to covid-19 testing, location, or chronic disease. The researchers have concluded this study with mental health consideration from latest reviewed paper and mentioned possible strategies to control mental health problem.

Investigation of Depression, Anxiety & Stress Symptoms on Students

Suchismita Pahantasingh; Ranjita Jena; Sarika M L

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1242-1252

The most common psychiatric disorder in young people is depression. Unipolar depressive disorder in young people are common globally but still unrecognized. The incidence is growing sharply following the puberty, especially in girls, and the 1-year prevalence rate at the end of adolescence exceeds by 4%. In middle and low-income nations, the burden is highest. Depression is related to current and potential illness and raises the risk of suicide. A family history of depression and exposure to psycho-social stress were the most important risk factors for depression in young people. Adolescence is a physical, social, sexual and emotional stress phase and it is a topic of concern at this stage of life if there are mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety and stress. The inherited risks, developmental factors, sexual hormones and psycho-social adversity interact in order to increase risk by hormone and associated neural disturbance factors. In this study, the student's executive functions were studied and compared with those of a stable person with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. These scales are structured to measure depression, anxiety and stress in negative emotional states.

The Effect of Social Media Exposure on Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Facing Covid-19 Pandemic

Aris Widiyanto; Asruria Sani Fajriah; Joko Tri Atmojo; Rina Tri Handayani; Lidia Ekiq Kurniavie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 942-950

Background: WHO has designated Covid-19 as a pandemic, this has an effect on mental health when people are stuck at home and it is unknown when the social distancing rule ends. This affects the quality of student learning faced with stressors in dealing with lecture material and exposure to Covid-19 information from social media. This study aims to predict the effect of social media exposure on depression and anxiety disorders in health students in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic. Methode: This research is a cross sectional study with a sample of students majoring in health in Indonesia in May 2020. Data were collected using a questionnaire through an online survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression with Stata 13. Result: Results from the study found that there was a significant effect of social media exposure on depression (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.05 hingga 2.57; p=0.031) and anxiety disorders (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.18 to 3.40; p=0.008) in dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Exposure to social media during this pandemic can increase the risk of depression and anxiety disorders in college students. So, it is expected that students also need to know the steps to protect themselves from excessive stress and panic in the midst of the Covid-19 outbreak.

Systamatic Review On Depression During Covid-19

Ms. Siji mol; Dr.Monisha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5551-5560

In 2020, millions of cases of COVID-19 have been detected all over the world. Different infectious diseases are very frightening as of they can lead to death. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), COVID-19 was a virus that a sick person couldn't fight and infect the healthy ones in a short amount of time. WHO has established recommendations, such as isolation, avoiding close contact, caring for oneself and others, keeping updated about the symptoms and risk, recommending appropriate actions, to contain the infection1. The current study is evaluation of the literature done on the depression during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Scopus database have been used for the selection of the articles. Total 1612 articles have been evaluated for the systamatic review

An Assessment Of Depression, Anxiety And Stress Among Collegiate Athletes

Mr. Sunil Kumar; Mr. Mahendra Singh Parmar; Mr Ashutosh Sharma; Mr. Malkhan Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6396-6399

In this investigation university competitors, who used to participate in between school matches and competitions was chosen as subjects to survey the downturn, tension and stress. the specialist chose thirty (30) players of Lakshmibai public organization of physical training, Gwalior (M.P.). The age gathering of the subjects was run from (20-25) a long time. To quantify despondency, nervousness and worry among university competitors, a poll Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS 42) created by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995) was utilized to assess the downturn, tension and worry of the subjects. The information was gathered from the school players who used to partake in between school matches and competitions. the current examination, uncovers that Anxiety, gloom and stress were unprecedented among university competitors where sorrow has the least mean score (M= 7.60) with standard deviation (SD= 4.13) and nervousness has the most noteworthy mean score (M=9.13) with standard deviation (SD= 5.31) while mean score of pressure was (M=8.66) with standard deviation ( SD= 4.67). the examination additionally shows that the seriousness of gloom, and stress were ordinary in university competitors and the seriousness of tension was gentle in university competitors..

Role Of Increasing Levels Of The Hormone Cortisol In Cognitive Impairment In Parkinson's Disease: Vascular Parkinsonism

Gulnora Sattarovna Rakhimbaeva; Dilshoda Turdikulovna Akramova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 2987-2994

This article is based on a review of the literature and recent clinical studies on changes in plasma cortisol hormone concentrations in cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. The article presents the reasons for the relationship between cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, in particular vascular Parkinsonism and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the results of neuropsychological tests.
Methods: We studied the level of morning plasma cortisol in 68 patients with Vascular Parkinsonism (VP) who were hospitalized in 1st neurology department of TMA in the period from 2015 to the present.The relationship between increased morning plasma cortisol and cognitive impairment was determined.The results of the study were statistically analyzed.Cortisol was determined in all blood samples of patients of the Main and Control groups.The control group consisted of 47 volunteers.
Results: Normal levels of cortisol were observed in 20 patients (29%) with vascular parkinsonism,, moderate increases in cortisol were observed in 37 patients (54.4%), and elevations in cortisol were observed in 11 patients (16.1%). Was determined the relationship between the value of cortisol and the assessment of cognitive impairment.In the main group, a statistically significant moderate inverse correlation was determined between plasma cortisol level and cognitive impairment in VP. When studying cortisol levels in VP, its significant increase is noted than in the control (p <0.05).
Conclusion: Increased levels of the hormone cortisol in Parkinson's disease play an important role in cognitive impairment and during the course of the disease and affect the effectiveness of VP therapy.

Study of Adolescent Stage and Its Impacts on Adolescents

Shelly Agarwal; Ruchi Srivastava; Manisha Jindal; Pooja Rastogi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1369-1375

Youngsters in their teens represent the world's largest age demographic, in a special period known worldwide as the bridge between childhood and maturity in the life cycle. Longitudinal surveys and accurate assessments of teenage activity in both developed and emerging countries are providing new perspectives. Throughout adolescence, physical and psychosocial shifts cause incarnate challenges of centuries and early childhood to appear in human differences in areas such as maturity, academic achievement, self-confidence, peer pressure, and family proximity. The wellbeing and well-being threats to parents are therefore foreseen. Multi-disciplinary methodologies, in particular biological-social science, socio-economic and cultural variability and determinants of positive results needed to raise understanding at that stage. Depression, anxiety, and eating disorders are especially common during the days of the puberty. Adolescents with anxiety or mood disorders may suffer from physical symptoms such as exhaustion or chronic fatigue, dizziness, headache and pain in the abdomen or arms. The five main features of puberty are biological growth and development, an unclear status, increased decision-making, increased anxiety, and self-search. Adolescence is a lifetime with specific needs and rights relating to health and development. It is also a time to develop awareness and skills, learn to control feelings and relationships, and gain qualities and skills that would be necessary for teenage years to be experienced and adult positions to take on.

Various Approaches to overcome Depression: A Review

Anu Kumar; Neha Rathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4684-4694

Depression is a global health problem which is elevating constantly. It affects not just the mood of the patient but also it`s health, behavior and the quality of life. Diagnosis becomes difficult as there is no exact point for it`s confirmation except some symptoms which too vary among patients. The condition can be triggered by various factors such as the surrounding friends and family, social sites, food habits, sleep patterns, food insecurity, childhood traumas, post partum and genetic factors. Since there is a wide range of clinical heterogeneity among patients the treatment approach would depend upon the individual itself. Different patients may show varying efficacy to different approaches. Along with the treatment there is a serious need to promote awareness among people of all age groups regarding various myths of the disorder and make them aware of the seriousness of this rising global health issue. In this review we made an approach to gather information about various treatment approaches available worldwide to fight this disorder as allopathy alone is not feasible to deal with it.


Rashmi Shukla; Dr. Ajinkya Ghogare; Dr. Pradeep Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2113-2121

Background: Schizophrenia is characterized by disordered thoughts, emotions, perceptions, language, sense of self and behavior. Primary caregivers of individuals with Schizophrenia encounter comprehensive care giving challenges that causes physical as well as mental stress and can deteriorate the family functioning. However, if primary caregivers are resilient enough with strong and positive mindset, they can overcome burden associated with patient care and preserve own health and health of family as well.
Aim: To assess the relationship between depression, anxiety, stress and resilience perceived by primary caregivers of persons with Schizophrenia 
Materials and Methods: Primary caregivers of person diagnosed with Schizophrenia disease reporting to OPD and IPD of Department of Psychiatry of Medical College as per DSM-5 diagnostic criteria will be assessed for depression, anxiety, stress and resilience after taking informed consent for the study by applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then psychological scales will be applied on these primary caregivers. The Depression Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21) and Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) scales will be applied and accordingly the points will be given.
Conclusion: We expect to find significant relationship between depression, anxiety, stress and resilience perceived by caregivers of persons with Schizophrenia.

“Association of Cognitive function and Depression with Chronic exposure to Organophosphate pesticides in the Agricultural community of rural area of Wardha District.”

Dr. K. Himabindu Reddy; Dr. Vasant Wagh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2049-2056

vast majority of India’s population (58%), depends on agriculture for their livelihood and a vital part of our agricultural production technology constitutes of Pesticide use. According to a international report in 2013 " India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks 12th worldwide for application of pesticides”. In India ,Maharashtra has been the biggest consumer of pesticides in the last 5 years
Indian agricultural community belongs to the unorganized sector; hence they receive quite little in terms of healthcare and social security. They thus are very vulnerable to loss of income and unavailability of healthcare, despite belonging to an occupation which involves numerous hazardous possibilities.
Chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides is associated with a multitude of ill health outcomes including polyneuropathy, dermatitis, behavioral changes, glucose intolerance & cancer .The Nervous system in particular in more sensitive to the Organophosphate pesticides, so monitoring of chronically exposed people may help prevent the onset of future neurodegenerative diseases.
The aim of this study is to assess changes in levels of Acetyl cholinesterase levels due chronic pesticide exposure, evaluate cognitive function and depression among farmers 
chronically exposed to organophosphorus compounds, and determine the association between them.
Using standardized questionaries, data will be collected about personal habits, work practices, awareness of pesticide exposure adverse effects and among individuals living in area of study, involved in agriculture repeatedly in direct contact with pesticides. Blood samples to assess biomarker (cholinesterase) will be taken and cognitive function and depression assessment will be done using MMSE tool and PHQ-9 / Beck’s inventory.
Data collected over study period will be analyzed and appropriate statistical tests will be used to determine results and draw relevant conclusions.


Deepika. R; G. Sridevi; A.K. Anjali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 501-517

Homesickness is the mental and physical distress caused by the anticipated separation of students from their families. This homesickness may lead to depression, stress, and other psychological problems. The objective of this study is to observe the post-vacation mental state of the students who have been suffering from homesickness in the hostel. In this study, a standardized tool that measures the level of anxiety of the students was used. A questionnaire DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale), containing 21 questions was used which was circulated among 100 -1st-year dental students of Saveetha Dental College who were affected by homesickness. Data collection was done through the administration of Google forms and the data were analyzed in SPSS version-15 using cumulative frequency and percentage analysis. The results of the study showed that the post-vacation period had considerable changes in the student population. The students developed a feeling of positivity, had good energy levels and they were not stressed and anxious and felt enthusiastic during the post-vacation period. Thus the present study concludes that physical and mental stress disorders can only be reduced by spending time with family and home place.

Depression in Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Determinants and Extent in Al-Nasiriyah, Across sectional study

Alaa Hussein Ali Al Nasir

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 35-43

Background: at a global level and among child bearing age women, the first leading disease burden cause is the depression. Nationally, scarce published data was related to the depression prevalence among pregnant especially with hyperemesis gravidarum women. Aim: to assess the depression extent among hyperemesis gravidarum pregnant Thi-Qarnian women. Methodology: A cross sectional, hospital based, analytical study was carried out in two teaching hospitals (Bent Al Huda and Al Habobi teaching hospitals) in from first week of September /2015 to end of July 2016. All attendants sufferer pregnant from HG to the obstetric outpatients included in this study. Based on previous Iraqi study (37.2%) for of depressive symptoms prevalence in pregnant women sample size had been calculated such prevalence rate with precision of 5%, confidence level of 95%, and added extra sample of 10%, to reach to 322. Beck depression inventory-II (Arabic version) (BDI –II score of > 20 depression was considered) had been used as a specialized questionnaire designed for the achieve the aim of the study. SPSS version 23 had been used for data analysis, P


Shifa Jawahar Ali; Gifrina Jayaraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 686-696

Schools and colleges are closed to practice social distancing to reduce the spread of the coronavirus disease. Although online classes are being conducted, some teachers have reported that they do not find the online classes as effective as the real classroom. In online classes, there is reduced student interaction, lack of realistic experience and absence of community feeling. The lockdown is generally considered to have more negative psychological effects due to financial loss, inadequate supplies and fear of life. A cross sectional survey was conducted among students to study the psychosocial impact of lockdown among students.The study population in the study are the students with a sample size of 200. The questionnaire consisted of 31 questions divided into three parts and was shared to students using online survey platform. 17.5% of the students felt that they could communicate to friends the same way as that of regular class, 53.5% did not and 29% partially felt so. 57% of the students felt anxious that their studies are affected during this lockdown, 21.5% did not feel anxious and 21.5% partially felt anxious. Most of the students are showing some symptoms of depression due to the closed schools and colleges and social distancing as a result of lockdown. Hence teachers have to handle them differently after the lockdown ends


G Preethi; Dr. Keerthi Sasanka; Dr. Dinesh Premavathy; Dr. Padma Ariga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 270-275

Aim: The aim of this study is to do a review on celiac diseases and the interlink between celiac diseases and depression.
Introduction: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease which is triggered due to the exposure of dietary gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Often, celiac disease can be associated with depression and many other health disorders. Previous studies have shown that a lifetime depressive symptoms can occur in one third of the celiac patients. Celiac disease can develop at any age. Since celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder, it is associated with other autoimmune disorders. If left untreated, celiac disease can lead to additional serious health problems. Celiac diseases can be treated by natural methods like consuming gluten free food, healing of intestines with aloe vera , paprika, dietary supplements, nutrients etc. The main therapeutic intervention of celiac disease is a gluten-free diet but however now the dietary agents are under active investigation.
Methods : The present study has collected various articles related to the current topic from various internet sources such as PubMed, Google Scholar, PMC, etc..The articles were reviewed between the period 2000 to 2020.
Conclusion: Thus healthcare professionals need to be aware of these ongoing psychological burdens of celiac disease and support patience and recommend a gluten-free diet. This study emphasises whether celiac disease is associated with depression.

Loneliness And Mental Health Among Indian Expatriates In Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

Harikumar Pallathadka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4582-4598

If not addressed with long-term mitigation practices, the high incidence of isolation is
closely correlated with the likelihood of developing mental health problems such as
anxiety, depression, and even vulnerability to suicidal ideation.
According to research, individuals who live away from their ancestral homelands are at a
higher risk of depression and mental health problems. One of the main populations of
expatriates living in the UAE is projected to be the Indian population. It has been proposed
that expatriates, despite appearing to live a happy life, often face a variety of negative
circumstances such as isolation, workplace distress, and worries about occupational
security, all of which contribute to a rise in the prevalence of mental illnesses such as
depression, stress, and anxiety. As a result, the following study sought to determine the
prevalence of isolation, mental wellbeing, and the risk of mental health problems among
Indians working in Sharjah, UAE. A quantitative cross-sectional design was used, along
with data collection on demographics, mental wellbeing, and social functioning, using
self-reported questions l i k e the General Health Functioning-28 and the Social
Functioning Questionnaire. Based on these results, the study was evenly distributed in
terms of their risk of mental health illnesses and a high degree of social functioning, likely
due to the inclusion of both single and non-single participants. Furthermore, demographic
factors such as age, schooling, and occupational levels may be responsible for the
equitable distribution of such risk and high levels of social functioning. Further research
into the role of specific demographic factors in influencing mental health status and social
functioning among Indian expatriates in the UAE is therefore needed.


B. Aishwarya Reddy; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Nivethigaa. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 532-539

Depression In adolescence is linked with a range of adverse outcomes and substantial risk for morbidity
and mortality across the life span. Fast food is a common element of many adolescent’s diets. This leads to
pediatric obesity and the consequence could be increased risk of depression. A diet high in sodium could
develop symptoms of depression in early adolescence and that diet could be a modifiable risk factor for
depression in adolescent patients.The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between fast food
intake and mental health in the adolescent population.An online questionnaire was prepared and circulated
among the adolescent population.The sample size is 100. The data was tabulated and then imported to
SPSS software by IBM and the statistical Chi square test was done.Out of 100 adolescents, 71% were
females and 29% of them were males. 81% of them follow a mixed diet. 90% of the adolescents consume
fast food.The prevalence of consumption of fast food is much higher in the adolescent population. Out of
various types of fast foods, the prevalence of consumption of sweets is much higher in the adolescent
population. And most


Preety Rajesh; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Manjari Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 799-809

Depression occurrence is found to be three times higher in people with diabetes mellitus. Sometimes the majority of the cases with depression are under diagnosed. According to the International diabetes federation, diabetes is the largest global health emergency of the 21st century. A questionnaire was created with a set of ten questions related to diabetic patients and depression. 100 random participants of the age 25- 50 years took the survey and a random sampling method was done. More than half the participants are well aware that depression is common in adults with diabetes (57.5%). 71.3% think that diabetic patients are more anxious than a normal person, 54.5% are aware that using antidepressants in diabetic adults can be risky, 51% think that diabetes can be under diagnosed during treatment and 70% are aware that glucose metabolism will be altered if the doabetic patient is under depression or stress. Awareness about diabetic patients who could possibly be dealing with stress and depression was created.


Ayman Ibrahim Mzjaji, Jalal Ibrahim Mzjaji, Hossam Hassan Esawi, Ahmad Huwaymid Alowfi, Sultan A. Alhazmi, Suhaib Talal Alsulimani, Salman Fudlaldeen Jan, Turki Moghli Alaslani, Fahad Salem Alsolami

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 150-161

Psychiatric disorders in Saudi Arabia, mainly depression are estimated to have high prevalence. More than 6 decades ago, the World Health Organization (WHO) defined health as “a complete state of physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Bircher, 2005 defined health as “a dynamic state of well-being characterized by a physical and mental potential, which satisfies the demands of life commensurate with age, culture, and personal responsibility”. Health has been defined by various authors, who have always emphasized its mental component.In recent years, there has been a sharp increase in the number of older persons worldwide. Globally, more than 350 million people of all ages suffer from depression. Elderly persons are more vulnerable to depression. By the year 2020 depression would be the second major cause of disability adjusted life years lost, as reported by the World Health Organization. depressive symptoms are common among older people and are associated with disability, morbidity and mortality. Depression is a mental illness which causes persistent low mood, a sense of despair, and has multiple risk factors.
 Aim of the study: To assessment the determinant and prevalence of depression among elderly attendees in primary health Care center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah.
Methods:Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among elderly patients attending to clinic in PHC at Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the October to December, 2019, validated questionnaires concerning demographic data and knowledge scores on depression among elderly. Our total participants were (400). Results:show that the Family history of depression (70.0%) is the most common clinical variables also show that of the(45.0%) participants have negative depression , (23.0%) have moderate depression,  and the data ranged from(0to 16)by mean+ SD (7.254+2.88).
Conclusion:Depression is associated with a deficiency in the cognitive state, with familial partner risk being an influential factor that may be preventable. Depression constitutes a health problem among Saudi geriatrics in in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, especially among elderly, those having history of chronic diseases and those having sensory impairment. These results provide insight for all health care workers caring for the elderly, researchers in the field of Geriatrics, and health educators into the particular care needs of elderly patients in Makkah, KSA.