Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Prevalence


Dr . Ahmed Abdulameer Ibrahim M . B . Ch . B; Dr . Jawad K . al-Diwan MBChB, MSs, DCN , FIBMS , FFPH.; Dr . Riyadh Al-Rudainy , MB , FICMS / CM3

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 366-374

This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distinguish kinds and related factors
of Mental Disorders among elderly people attending Geriatric Clinic, Baghdad, Iraq.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study conducted and a systematic random sampling technique
was used to select 320 elderly people. We collected data on basic demographics and associated
risk factors using a questionnaire filled through self-reported questionnaire. Mental disorders
(MDs) were defined according to Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) with a cutoff score
of 20+. Accredited tools used by WHO were utilized to identify mental disorders kinds. Results:
The prevalence of MDs in the study sample was 24.4%. The prevalence of MDs types were:
Depression 16.6%, anxiety 12.8%, dementia 5.3%, substance abuse 2.5%, suicide thoughts
5.6%, and suicide attempts 2.5%. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the
determinant factors of elderly MDs revealed the following significant factors: Aging, smokers,
living depends on others, loneliness and social isolation, visual impairment, economic state
deterioration, neglect and mishandling, and chronic diseases are the determinant factors of
elderly MDs. Conclusions: Mental disorders are wide spread among elderly people and
enhanced elderly mental health care services should be provided


Suvonov K.J .; Adilov U.X .; Kuryazov A.K.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2863-2870

The aim was to study the prevalence and risk factors of dental disease development in
pregnant women living in different Uzbekistan regions. The prevalence and intensity of dental
caries among pregnant women are 1.3 times higher in the Urgenchdistrict of the Khorezm
region compared to the Kibray district of the Tashkent region. These figures increase with
each subsequent pregnancy. The same pattern is observed for periodontal and oral mucosa
diseases. The most significant medical and biological factors contributing to the development
of dental diseases in pregnant women were age, several pregnancies, intergenerational period,
course and terms of pregnancy, the presence of extragenital diseases. Among medical and
social risk factors, the most significant were education, living conditions, oral hygiene,
sanitary culture, and medical activity of pregnant women.

Prevalence of Refractive Errors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Northern India

Kumari Ragni; Srivastava Mrinal Ranjan; Janarthanan Salai Dhavamathi; Awasthi Anan Aanchal; Dubey Gaurav; Chandra Mahesh; Kumari Vibha; Avinash V Prabhu; Garg Pragati; Janardhanan Rajiv

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 91-98

To determine the prevalence of refractive errors among the type 2 diabetic population through a community-based study conducted in Lucknow.
Background of the study: Diabetes prevalence is on the increase rapidly the epidemic proportions during development as well as the world developed. Refractive error in the diabetic population is considered a leading cause of visual impairment.
Methods: A total of 437 patients (> 40 years old) with type 2 diabetes were examined via complete eye screening tests, including objective autorefraction. Spherical equivalent refractions of both eyes were reported. Data collected include age, gender, general medical information, and serum biochemistry.
Results: The mean refraction was −0.84 ± 2.59 D. Prevalence rates were determined for astigmatism (63.8%), hyperopia (1.4%) & myopia (0.2%). 34.6% of the patients were emmetropic. Age is an essential factor for all refractive errors. Correlation showed that every increase of one year of age and one percent of HbA1c is associated with 0.05 D (P = 0.003) and 0.14D (P = 0.04) shift in hyperopia, respectively.
Conclusions: This study provides epidemiological data on refractive errors in a North Indian diabetic population in Lucknow, India. The astigmatism prevalence is higher than the reported rates in the diabetic population compared to hyperopia and myopia. The second major finding was emmetropia.Refractive errors, Type 2 diabetes, Prevalence, Community-based stud

Disability And Severity Of Playing Related Soft Tissue Injuries Among Professional Guitar Players: A Cross Sectional Survey

Shahanawaz SD; Tolgahan Acar; Vamsi Krishna Gannamaneni

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4767-4771

Background of study: Soft tissue injuries include pain, weakness, numbness, and tingling sensations involving the muscles, ligaments and tendons. The etiological factors of these injuries can be professional, personal, environmental, and psychosocial. These disorders in musicians are designated as playing related soft tissue injuries. Aim of Study: To investigate the disability and severity of playing related soft tissue injuries among professional guitar players. Methodology The cross sectional survey was conducted from February 2017 to June 2018 after taking ethical approval from institutional ethical committee. The participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were recruited through convenient sampling technique and informed consent was taken. A structured anonymous questionnaire and validated scales like Disability Arm Shoulder and Hand Scale (DASH), Neck Disability Index (NDI), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were used for data collection. The results was assessed by using IBM SPSS Version 20.0. Results: In this study 98 participants were included constituting 50 (51 %) females and 48 (49 %) males. The highest prevalence site of pain was wrist 57% followed by back 26 %, shoulder 22 % and elbow 21 % while least pain was reported in neck 7 %. Likewise, When Compared with DASH score was more than to ODI and NDI score was lower with significant difference assessed at 95% confidence interval (p < 0.05) Conclusion: This study concludes severity of soft tissue injuries are more prone in guitar players. The common sites was in wrist, shoulder, back. Proper technique, postural education, warm up and cool down will benefit in reducing the risk of injuries.


Kaviya. L; Dr. Anjaneyulu K; Dr. Jayalakshmi Somasundaram

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1043-1057

Rubber dam was introduced by Dr.Barnum in the 1860 s, the main advantage of using rubber dams in endodontics include patient protection from medicaments, aspiration of endodontic instruments, tooth debris, and irrigating solutions. The aim of the study to determine the prevalence and frequency of rubber dam usage during endodontic procedures among dentists in the state of TamilNadu, India.A survey was conducted among 101 dentists in the state of Tamil Nadu, India by preparing a set of questions, and the answers were collected through an online survey method.In this survey, 82.2% feel comfortable to use a rubber dam,36.6% never use a rubber dam to pediatric patients,89% always use a rubber dam to adult patients,61.4% not using rubber dam for all cases of RCT,73.8% need to gain knowledge about rubber dams through training programs,23.8 % told patients discomfort was a reason for not using a rubber dam, 80.2% not using rubber dam while taking X- rays,45.5% take more than 5 mins for applying a rubber dam to patients,63.4% told it is easily available for clinical usage.The present survey shows there is a low prevalence of its usage during endodontic treatment. Greater emphasis should be placed on the advantages of using rubber dams in clinical dentistry at dental school and through continuing dental education for practitioners to update their knowledge


K. Thirumagal .; Sheeja Varghese; Ravindra Kumar Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2010-2020

patients who underwent frenectomy/ frenotomy for high frenal attachment in a dental hospital from June 2019 to March 2020. No gender or age restrictions were. 99 patients were included in the study. Digital case sheets were reviewed and the following data including the details like patients gender, age, site of high frenal attachment, reason for frenectomy were extracted, tabulated and analysed statistically with Chi square test using SPSS version 20. Among those 99 frenectomy cases. The males were ( 43.4%) and females were (56.6%). The prevalence of frenectomy was more in female gender as compared to male gender. The common reason behind frenectomy was spacing (61.6%) and the more common site of high frenal attachment was S2 (Maxillary anterior sextant) (55.5%) compared to S5 (Mandibular anterior sextant). There was a significant difference in the reasons for frenectomy between site(p < 0.05 )and sites underwent frenectomy and age of the patient(p < 0.05).No significant difference in the reasons for frenectomy between males and females (p > 0.05). From the study it can be concluded that the common reason for frenectomy is diastema and the reasons for frenectomy is influenced by the site of high frenal attachment and the age of the patients.


Anjana. G; Dr. Gheena. S; Dr.R. Balakrishna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1341-1345

Dental caries(DC) is one of the most prevalent oral diseases of health concern often affecting adolescents.Dental caries is a biofilm mediated,diet modulated, multifactorial, non communicable,dynamic disease resulting in net mineral loss of hard fissure of the oral cavity. It is determined by biological, physiological, behavioural and environmental factors of an individual. As a consequence a carious lesion is produced. People of all ages are affected by dental caries.Adolescents are individuals between 10-19 years old and proven to have a high caries experience. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of Dental caries among 10-19 years old patients visiting Saveetha Dental college between june 2019-april 2020. A total of 5445 patients data was analysed from their case records and analysed for incidence among gender,correlation with age.It was found that out of 5445 patients,3021 patients(73%) were male and 2412 patients(25%) were female and 2 patients(2%) were transgenders.Patients of the age group of 13-19 years had more incidence and the age group of 14-15 year old had least incidence. Within the limitations of this study it can be concluded that male patients have more DC than female patients among the 10-19 years age group in an outpatient population of a Dental College.


Sharwini Baskar; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 748-763

Pregnancy has some physiological changes which complicate the process of diagnosis and treatment. Over 200 million people suffer from anaemia especially among women of reproductive age. Anaemia is a major health problem among pregnant and non-pregnant women. Anaemia during pregnancy is considered as a public health problem especially in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined anaemia during pregnancy as a haemoglobin concentration of less than 11g/dl. In severe anaemia, the haemoglobin level is 6g/dl. Anaemia threatens both mother and foetus. The causes may be multifactorial, such as nutrient deficiency, parasitic infections or chronic infections. It may also be due to acute blood loss. It may also depend on geographical location and economic status. The effects of anaemia on mothers are tiredness, weakness, dizziness and affects the immune system. In children, it may cause preterm delivery, low birth weight. On both the mother and the fetus it can cause mortality and morbidity. Intake of balanced diet and awareness programmes on anaemia is a measure to prevent anaemia. This study is to evaluate the awareness and prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted containing a set of self-developed questionnaires. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software. The results are analysed and tabulated. The result was gained as follows, 25% of the participated population‟s haemoglobin level is less than 11, 75.89% of the population participated are aware that anaemia can affect pregnant women, 66.07% of the population agree that haemoglobin level less than 11 can cause anaemia. From the study, it is obvious that there is an awareness between the effects of anaemia during pregnancy.


Amina Mehrin Bano; Dr.Hemavathy O.R; Sri Rengalakshmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 955-962

Orofacial infections of odontogenic origin have long plagued mankind. The discovery of the miracle drug
by fleming in the year 1928 and the routine use of penicillin after the landmark discovery of the powder
form of the antibiotic by florey and chain leading to significant change in the management of odontogenic
infection .The spread of infection is governed by factors such as impaired host defence, the virulence of
microorganism, functional abnormalities of the host and a lack of or delayed treatment. the microbiology
of odontogenic infections in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals has been found to be variable. Though
the effects of diabetes can affect infection severity , length of hospital stay, susceptibility to antibiotics
and outcome of treatment is unassured . Differentiation in antibiotics prescribed is also observed.The aim
of the study was to analyse the prevalence of the use of antibiotics among diabetic and non-diabetic
patients in a south indian dental university clinic . The list of all diabetics and non diabetics patients
treated for pain, dental infections , swelling were retrieved by reviewing 86000 patient records who have
visited the hospital during the study periods from june 2019 to march 2020 from the university
database.Data tabulation was carried out in Excel. The data was imported and transcribed in Statistical
Package for Social sciences version 16(SPSS,IBM corporation). Descriptive analysis was carried out.A
total of 9128 patients were included in the study based on treatment done of which 580 patients(6.3%) had
diabetes mellitus. Only 3.5 % of the male population and 2.8% of the female population has
diabetes.Amoxicillin 93.2% was found to be the most frequently prescribed antibiotics among nondiabetic
patients and diabetics patients 1.6% .A combination of metronidazole and amoxicillin was
prescribed to 0.5% of the whole study population .A combination clavulanic acid and
amoxicillin(augmentin )was prescribed to 4 % of the total diabetic study population and 0.4% of the nondiabetic
study population that is about.The relation between the diabetic status of a patient and the
antibiotic prescribed showed a significant statistical relationship in a Pearson's Chi square test with p value
of 0.001(p<0.005).The prescribing practises in dental offices can be improved by increasing awareness
among dental practitioners about the recommended guidelines for prescribing antibiotics . The most
commonly prescribed antibiotics among diabetic patients was Augmentin (4.08%) and for non diabetics it
was amoxicillin (93.25%). .


Purva Verma; S.P Saravana Dinesh; Naveen M. Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1996-2002

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of missing permanent first molars in the South Indian population who reported for orthodontic treatment to a dental hospital. A total of 550 OPGs of patients who reported for orthodontic treatment to the hospital were assessed for missing permanent first molars.The data was retrieved from the extensive electronic database record of the hospital. Descriptive analysis was done to represent the data. Prevalence of missing permanent first molars was found to be 5.8%. A significant percentage of the orthodontic population have missing permanent first molars. A thorough clinical examination, from an orthodontic perspective will help formulate a better treatment plan.

Depression in Hyperemesis Gravidarum: Determinants and Extent in Al-Nasiriyah, Across sectional study

Alaa Hussein Ali Al Nasir

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 35-43

Background: at a global level and among child bearing age women, the first leading disease burden cause is the depression. Nationally, scarce published data was related to the depression prevalence among pregnant especially with hyperemesis gravidarum women. Aim: to assess the depression extent among hyperemesis gravidarum pregnant Thi-Qarnian women. Methodology: A cross sectional, hospital based, analytical study was carried out in two teaching hospitals (Bent Al Huda and Al Habobi teaching hospitals) in from first week of September /2015 to end of July 2016. All attendants sufferer pregnant from HG to the obstetric outpatients included in this study. Based on previous Iraqi study (37.2%) for of depressive symptoms prevalence in pregnant women sample size had been calculated such prevalence rate with precision of 5%, confidence level of 95%, and added extra sample of 10%, to reach to 322. Beck depression inventory-II (Arabic version) (BDI –II score of > 20 depression was considered) had been used as a specialized questionnaire designed for the achieve the aim of the study. SPSS version 23 had been used for data analysis, P


Nor Syakirah binti Shahroom; Arthi Balasubramaniam; Iffat Nasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1081-1090

Dental erosion is a public health problem as it may affect various age groups and gender. It may lead to dentin hypersensitivity and eventually pulpal exposure if the erosion is severe and not treated which causes pain. Therefore, the study was done to find the association of gender with dental erosion. A retrospective study was conducted using University hospital patient records from July 2019 - March 2020. A total of 149 case sheets were reviewed. The data variables such as socio-demographic data, presence of dental erosion and number of teeth involved with dental erosion were retrieved and analyzed. Results were present with frequency distribution and chi-square test for association. Dental erosion was prevalent in males (64.4%) than females (35.6%). The age range of the patients included in the study was 21-80 years old out of which 21-40 years (14.8%), 41-60 years (57%) and 61-80 years (28.2%). Erosion in maxillary teeth involving 0-5 (85.8%) was the highest followed by 6-10 (14.1%) and erosion in mandibular teeth involving 0-5 (87.9%) was the highest followed by 6-10 (11.4%) and 11-15 (0.7%). There was no statistically significant association between gender, age with dental erosion in maxillary and mandibular teeth (p>0.05). Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that dental erosion was prevalent in males of early 60’s and there was no association between gender, age with dental erosion in maxillary and mandibular teeth.


Keerthika Saravanan; Arthi Balsubramaniam; Santhosh Kumar MP

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1091-1098

It has been established that smoking is a very different addiction to break. Many smokers persist in
tobacco use for several years and cycle through multiple periods of remission and relapse Smoking is not a
single event process and relapse is an ordinary component of this process. International guidelines have
greatly emphasized on relapse prevention. Very few studies examine the association between the number
of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and physiological
distress. This study aims to evaluate association between peer pressure and relapses during tobacco quit. A
retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 75,000 patient records of University hospital for a period
of nine months from June 2019 to March 2020. About 150 case reports containing information on tobacco
dependence and quit rate (in terms of number of relapses) were retrieved and analysed. Descriptive
statistics was done to present the sociodemographic details. Chi-square association was done to find the
association. Most of the participants (34%) were in the age group 29-38 years, followed by 49-59 years
(26%), 19-28 years (24%) and 39-49 years (16%). About 13.3%, 20%, 4%, 10% of 19-28 yrs, 29-38 yrs,
39-48 yrs and 49-59 yrs of patients respectively had peer pressure during their quitting process.About
11.3% 20%, 8.67 and 13.3% of patients in the age group 19-28 yrs, 29-38 yrs, 39-48 yrs and 49-59 yrs had
no relapses during the quitting process.No significant association between age and number of relapses
(p=0.746; not significant). Hence proving no influence of age on relapse during quitting process. About
28% of patients with peer pressure and 25.3% without peer pressure had no relapse during quitting.
However 19.3% and 27.3% with and without peer pressure had >1 number of relapses. during their
quitting process,No significant association of peer pressure in relapse (p=0.295, not significant). No
influence of peer pressure on relapse during the quitting process. Peer pressure is not much influencing the
number of relapses during the quitting process, however a watch over this factor to be taken in account
during cessation counselling


B Vivek Babu; Dhanraj M; Samuel Raj Srinivasan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1370-1376

Dental injuries result in functional , esthetic and psychological disturbance accompanied by great concern.Traumatic dental injuries are due to the physical impact on a tooth and its surrounding tissues which may be direct or indirect trauma to the teeth may result either injury of pulp, with or without damage of crown or root displacement of the tooth from the socket. The most frequent causes of these injuries are falls, sport activities, bicycling, traffic accidents. A cross sectional retrospective study of, study population will 100 adult patients visiting Saveetha Dental College and Hospital with tooth fracture . Data was gathered and analyzed. The data was tabulated and Chi square analysis done using IBM SPSS software version 20. With the limited population and parameters of this study, there is a more prevalence of tooth fracture in male over females .The most common tooth involved in fracture is 21.Traumatic dental injuries are recognized as a public dental health problem worldwide.