Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Philosophy


Jafar Kholmuminov; Juraev Narzulla

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 297-307

The philosophy of Sufism reached the highest level due to the theosophical doctrine of the great philosopher, theologian, poet, one of the great representatives of the philosophy of Sufism, known as “Sheikh ul-Akbar” - “The Greatest Sheikh” Mukhyiddin ibn al-Arabi (1165-1240) inspired by the views of Haq im at-Termizi. The theories of Ibn al-Arabi about “Vahdat Ul-Woojude” (Unity of Being) and Inson al-Kamil - the Perfect man embraced the entire Muslim East and positively influenced the views of Western philosophers. Also, in the history of Sufism, the doctrines of the Tariqata Khojagon, which was founded by Khoja Yusuf Hamadani and Khoja Abduholik Gijduvani (1103-1218), then perfected by Khoja Bakhouddin Naqshband (1318-1389) and named Nakshbandiya and spiritually unified the regions of Mavanranakhr , was not left without the influence of the philosophy of “Wahdat ul-wujud” (Unity of Being) Ibn al-Arabi. Representatives of the Naqshbandi doctrines such as: Khoja Muhammad Porso Bukhoriy, Khoja Ubaidullo Ahror Vali, Mavlyana Abdurahman Jami, Alisher Navai, Khoja Mahdum Azam and Ahmad Sirhindi also made a significant contribution to the development of the ideas of “Vahdat Ul-Woojude” (Unity of Being) .

Nephrology between Reductionism and Complex Systems: the Role of Philosophy – Review of Evidence and Opinion

Natale Gaspare De Santo

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 59-69

Nephrology emerged as autonomous discipline in the 1950s, after the publication of the landmark treatise of Homer Smith entitled The Kidney Structure and Function in Health and Disease (1951). The official foundation took place in 1961. For decades, during the collection of the critical mass of data that granted its autonomy, Nephrology investigated acid–base and electrolyte disorders. However, driven by biopsy, dialysis machines and transplantation its growth has been unstoppable in terms of journals, articles, books, meetings, number of specialists, clinical divisions, university chairs, and specialty schools. The most propulsive force has been, however, the switching of the focus from the care of dialysis patients to the >10% of the population who, in a country, suffer from silent or overt disease leading to chronic kidney disease, requiring a demanding and costly therapy consuming 2–3 % of the total health budget. Historical analysis disclosed that Nephrology as a specialty was born and nurtured in contact zones with other disciplines. These include chemistry, physics, pathology, immunology, pharmacology, genetics, engineering, pediatrics, geriatrics, oncology and cardiology and many more. However research focused on kidney disease, although still lush and appealing, is felt to be stagnant. Another approach based on complexity and holism rather than on strict reductionism – indispensable to provide successful care – may better serve future needs. The potential of complexity is explored along with new techniques, Big Data, and a wider use of artificial intelligence, as well as the links with philosophy, and Systems Biology, Systems Medicine, Systems Pharmacology.