Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Serum magnesium

A Hospital Based Prospective Study to Evaluate the Correlation Between Serum Magnesium Levels and Arrhythmias in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction at Newly Established Tertiary Care Center

Siddharth Chouhan, Vikram Singh, Dinesh Parmar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 2226-2231

Magnesium deficiency leads to the progression of atheromatous plaques which occurs as a result of hyperlipidemia. Myocardial infarction is one of the most common causes of mortality where its prognosis depends upon various factors.This study is designed to know the contribution of magnesium levels in the serum of acute MI patients to the occurrence of arrhythmias.
Materials & Methods: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the Medicine Department, Govt. Medical College, Barmer, Rajasthan, India during one year period. A total of 30 patients of AMI were enrolled in this study. They were diagnosed with AMI on the basis of clinical symptoms, cardiac biomarker levels and/or Electrocardiography (ECG) findings. For all the patients, serum magnesium levels on day 1 and day 5 were measured and its association was observed with the clinical consequences.
Results: In this study group of 30 cases, 25 were males and 5 were female patients with a male-female ratio of 5:1. The mean value of serum magnesium on day-1 those with arrhythmias is 1.62±0.23 those without arrhythmias is 2.03±0.49 (p<0.001). There is a significant difference in the magnesium level in patients with arrhythmias and without arrhythmias. The serum magnesium level in patients with arrhythmia on Day-5 is 1.93±0.26 and in those without arrhythmia is 2.52±0.61. The difference between these two is found to be statistically significant with p- value (p<0.001).
Conclusion: We concluded that patients with acute myocardial infarction with low magnesium levels are more prone to develop ventricular arrhythmias compared to those who are having normal magnesium levels.

Serum magnesium level in type 2 Diabetes mellitus and its relationship with glycemic control and diabetic complications

Sandeep Dhavane, Priyanka Dhavane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 2802-2806

Background: Several studies undertaken in different parts of the world have shown that hypomagnesemia occur at an increased frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes compared with their counterparts without diabetes. As current data suggest adverse outcomes in association with hypomagnesemia, it is prudent to monitor magnesium routinely in this patient population and treat the condition whenever possible. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the serum magnesium levels in type 2 diabetes in this part of our country. Aim & Objective: 1. Serum magnesium level in type 2 Diabetes mellitus and its relationship with glycemic control and diabetic complications.2. To study Clinical profile of type 2 DM. 3. Correlation of Serum magnesium level in type 2 DM with glycemic control and complications. Method: Study design:  Case control study. Study setting:  Department of Medicine at tertiary care centre. Study duration: January 2021 to December 2021. Study population: The study population included 50 diabetics without complications (group I), 50 diabetics with complications (group II) and 100 normal healthy controls (group III). Sample size: 100. Results: Serum magnesium levels were found low in study group as compared to control group. A significant correlation between HbA1C and magnesium levels was seen. The patients with diabetic complications have significantly higher values of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Conclusions: Hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes was associated with poor glycemic control and with increased frequency of long-term complications.

Comparison of serum magnesium levels and sequential organ failure assessment score in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome

Pranav Ravi Kulkarni, Ashok Raja, Ramkumar Murali, Jagadeesan Mohanan*, Prasanna Karthik Suthakaran, Kannan Rajendran, Mageshkumar Sivanesan, Damodharan Jayachandran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 802-809

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory condition which affects multiple systems in the body and often occurs as a response which is immunologically mediated by the protective immune system to infectious agent. Magnesium plays a vital role in sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) The aim of this study is to estimate the serum magnesium concentrations in patients with SIRS in the medical ICU, to correlate with prognosis of SIRS patients by comparision with sequential organ failure assessment scoring and to assess the clinical outcome.
This Observational analytical study was conducted in 100 patients admitted at the medical intensive care unit of Saveetha medical college and hospital, chennai who satisfy the diagnostic clinical criteria for SIRS. Detailed clinical examination was done for each patient. Serum magnesium levels were sent and the results were analysed.
In the study, 100 patients were included. The mean age of the study population was 42. 92 + 16. 69 years. 70 % of the patients in the study group were  male and 30 % were females. The mortality rate in the hypomagnesemia group was 81. 8% where as it was 14.3 % in the  normomagnesemia  group.  There was Significant mortality in the hypomagnesemia group when compared to the normomagnesemia group. The mean duration of ICU stay for patients in the hypomagnesemia group was 5. 424 days and in the  normomagnesemia group  it  was  5.286  days.  Among 66 patients with hypomagnesemia 50 patients required mechanical ventilation and it was 66 %. Among 28 patients in normomagnesemia group, 2 patients required ventilatory support.
Serum magnesium levels have prognostic value in  patients diagnosed as SIRS. Serum magnesium concentration shows association with increased mortality rate. There is significant greater need for mechanical ventilation and increased duration of stay under ventilator support in the patients with lower magnesium levels. There is a significant association in prognosticating the patients with SOFA scoring in hypomagnesemia and  magnesium correction may improve the outcomes in sepsis and SIRS patients.

A Study of Serum Magnesium levels in Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Manjunath M, Krupashree G, Sushma S Biradar , Mohammed Nizamuddin Attar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11023-11029

Background: Tuberculosis, a public health emergency, has continued to be burden for society both in terms of mortality and morbidity. Once diagnosed, the follow up for assessment is usually done clinically or methods which are not very effective or require expertise.

Study of Serum Magnesium in MicrovascularComplications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Kunche Sruthi, AnveshKumar A, MeghaReddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1206-1216

Background: Magnesium is a critical ion that is essential for life. It is intimately
involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions. It also has important endocrine functions and
is required for protein synthesis. Studies have shown that magnesium levels are lower in
patients with diabetes compared with non-diabetic controls. Hence this work was
undertaken to evaluate the relationship between serum magnesium and diabetes
mellitus without and with microvascular complications. Aim: To compare the serum
magnesium levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with and without micro vascular
complications. Objectives: To estimate serum magnesium levels in type 2 Diabetes
mellitus, to correlate serum magnesium level in type 2 diabetics with and without micro
vascular complications.
Materials and Methods: Serum magnesium levels of 60 patients having type 2 diabetes
with microvascular complications (cases) compared to 60 patients with type 2 diabetes
without microvascular complications (control).
Results: Mean duration of diabetes (yrs) was significantly high in cases (3.58) than
controls (10.15) (p<0.001). FBS and PPBS did not show significant difference between
controls and cases. HbA1c (%) was significantly higher among cases (9.93±2.50) than
controls (8.98±2.26). Serum magnesium levels were significantly lower among cases
(1.46±0.32) than controls (1.92±0.25). Hypomagnesaemia did not significantly differ
between various sub groups of micro vascular complications.
Conclusion: Serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients with
microvascular complications than in diabetic patients without microvascular
complications. Hypomagnesemia was more common in diabetics with poor glycemic

Serum Calcium-Magnesium Ratio In Patients With Senile Cataract At A Tertiary Care Hospital In Puducherry Population

Ramachandran Kaliaperumal; Ramesh Venkatachalam; Prithiviraj Nagarajan; Satheesh Kumar Sabapathy; Kumar Rangarajalu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1154-1160

Background: Cataract is a leading cause of visual impairment and the senile cataract is
the most common type. The role of Serum calcium to magnesium ratio (Ca-Mg ratio) in
the pathogenesis of age-related or senile cataract remains unclear.
Objectives: The objective of the present study is to estimate serum calcium, magnesium
and their ratio levels in Senile cataract patients compared to normal healthy individual
without cataract and to find out association of serum magnesium and calcium-magnesium
ratio with risk of senile cataract.
Subjects and methods: This case-control study consists of 90 Age-related cataracts (ARC)
as cases and 90 age and gender matched normal healthy individuals without cataract as
controls (age group above 45 years). The ARC patients were sub-grouped into nuclear
cataract (NC), cortical cataract (CC), posterior sub-capsular cataract (PSC) and mixed
cataract according to WHO cataract grading system. Serum calcium was determined by
Arsenazo III method and serum magnesium by xylidyl blue method using Hitachi 902
Results: The study shows significantly decreased concentration of serum magnesium and
increased concentration of calcium-magnesium ratio (p<0.001) in ARC when compared to
control. Pearson’s correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation of serum
magnesium with calcium was observed. Serum calcium-magnesium ratio was statistically
identified as risk factors in ARC patients by using Multivariate logistic regression analysis
(odds ratio, 5.177; 95% confidence interval, 0.483–2.805; p=0.006).
Conclusion: Decreased serum magnesium concentration and increased serum calciummagnesium
ratio were significantly associated with a high risk of cataract formation in
patients with age-related cataract.

Serum Magnesium Level in Patients With Chronic Renal Failure

Nitin N. Jadhav; Hardik Mahendra Kumar Patel

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 80-85

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an overall medical issue, influencing a huge number of people. Magnesium (Mg ++) is the fourth most abundant and second most important intracellular extract in the body. In patients with CKD and end stage renal disease (ESRD), Mg ++ homeostasis may change. The present study is to assess the levels of serum magnesium in chronic kidney disease patients. The current cross-sectional study was performed to assess serum magnesium levels in cases with CKD and to detect the correlation of serum magnesium with clinical features and severity of renal impairment. The serum magnesium among patients with CKD had hyper magnesium. The serum magnesium level rises as kidney function deteriorates. There is significant fall in serum magnesium level after dialysis. Its estimation helps in evaluating conservative treatment and dialysis in CKD. Hence early evaluation and treatment of underlying cause for CKD is necessary to prevent further complication and kidney damage.