Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : uric acid


Vanama Lakshman sai, Mahesh Mahadevaiah, Ankit Singh, D. Prabhath Suraj, Aditi Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 1446-1456

To correlate and measure Serum Phosphorus, Vitamin D3, Uric acid levels in Patients of Acute Ischemic Stroke in first 24 hours.
MATERIAL & METHODS: Analytical Cross Sectional study involving data from 112 patients visiting JSS Hospital, Mysuru over a period of 18 months. 56 patients admitted to JSS Hospital with the diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke were compared with a control group comprising 56 patients. The presence of ischemic stroke was confirmed based on clinical signs, symptoms, brain CT Brain, and MRI stroke protocol. Blood samples were taken from  the patients in both the group in the first 24 h of admission to measure serum phosphorus, vitamin D3, calcium, and uric acid levels.
RESULTS: Totally 112 patients were registered for the study of which 56 were cases and 56 were controls. Serum phosphorus, vitamin D , serum uric acid levels of both the groups were analyzed and result was suggestive of elevated serum phosphorus and uric acid in stroke cases with significant p value (p<0.0001) whereas serum vitamin D level was low in stroke patients with significant p value (p<0.0001). Correlation of Serum Phosphorus , vitamin D and uric acid were independently associated in acuteischemic stroke .
CONCLUSION: The study states that Serum phosphorus, Serum Vitamin D and Serum Uric acid were associated with the development of Ischemic stroke suggesting that inflammation and the dysfunction of the vascular endothelium could lead to stroke. By considering all these parameters in high-risk individuals developing stroke one can predict the early recognition of stroke and take necessary preventive steps and thus decreasing the morbidity and mortality of the disease.
These biochemical blood parameters are easy to estimate and easy to interpret the results and cost effective, this can be used in resource poor setting situations compared to inflammatory markers such as Interleukins and cytokines.

Study on serum uric acid in patients with Metabolic Syndrome at a tertiary care hospital in Tamilnadu

Jercy Grace, Kalpana B, P Soundara Rajan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1782-1788

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a set of interrelated clinical disorders, including dyslipidemia, central obesity, glucose intolerance, and high blood pressure. Hyperuricemia is known to cause various inflammatory diseases via uric acid deposition in the joints. Present study was aimed to study serum uric acid in patients with metabolic syndrome at a tertiary care hospital in rural Tamilnadu. Material and Methods: Present study was comparative, observational study, conducted in patients of age > 18 years, either gender, case of metabolic syndrome (cases) & healthy, age & gender matched subjects (controls). Results: In present study 400 cases & age, gender matched 400 controls were participated. We noticed that systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar & triglycerides were significantly higher among patients with metabolic syndrome as compared to controls & difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). While, high-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol & low-density lipoprotein (mg/dL) were comparable in both groups & difference was not significant statistically (p>0.05). In patients with metabolic syndrome higher levels of uric acid (6.78 ± 1.05) were noted as compared to controls (5.16 ± 0.95), difference was statistically significant (p<0.001).In patients of metabolic syndrome higher levels of uric acid were noted in patients with BMI > 30 kg/m2 (6.17 ± 1.02 vs 4.81 ± 0.92), Fasting Blood Sugar ≥100 (6.29 ± 1.09 vs 4.92 ± 0.99), blood Pressure ≥130/85 (6.27 ± 1.13 vs 5.29 ± 1.01) & triglycerides > 150 mg/dL (6.05 ± 0.99 vs 5.53 ± 1.21), difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Elevated levels of uric acid were seen in patients with metabolic syndrome and also in components of metabolic syndrome such as body mass index, fasting blood sugar, blood pressure & triglycerides


Swapnarani Seedipally, Malathi Verabelly, Anees Sultana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2840-2847

Background: Physiologically calcium plays a critical role in function of smooth muscle and its deficiency can cause increased blood pressure. Magnesium is a cofactor in several enzymes, cause vasodilatation and helps in neurochemical transmission. Besides magnesium and calcium, hyperuricemia may induce hypertension by impairing nitric oxide generation
Objective: To compare serum calcium, magnesium and uric acid levels in women with pre-eclampsia and normal pregnancy
Methods: Hospital based Comparative Cross sectional study was carried out among 60 (30 pre-eclampsia and 30 normal pregnant women) aged 18-35 years between 20 weeks till term gestation for 18 months. Proteinuria, serum Calcium, Serum Magnesium, and serum Uric acid were measured using standard procedures.
Results: Majority were (40%) 25-29 years, (53.3%) were overweight, 46.6% had 36-38 weeks of gestation. 56.67% were Primi. 60% had severe preeclampsia. Proteinuria was seen in all with 46.67% had 2+. Pulse rate, SBP and DBP were significantly higher among the cases compared to controls.  Serum calcium was significantly lower among preeclampsia women and serum uric acid was significantly higher.  However there was no statistically significant difference between serum magnesium levels among preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. There was no statistically significant difference between pulse rates. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher in severe preeclampsia group. Serum Calcium and magnesium were significantly lower in severe preeclampsia group.
Conclusion: Preeclampsia was found to be associated with low calcium levels and higher serum uric acid levels. But it was not found to be associated with the serum magnesium levels.


Dr. Madupathi Anil Babu, Dr. Brungi Ashajyothi, Dr. Tatikonda Karuna Sree, Dr. Abhigna Sai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 552-568

Background: Pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, a condition with numerous maternal and foetal consequences, can be avoided. By measuring serum uric acid levels, the condition can be detected early on and its progression can be stopped. In India, the prevalence of PIH varies from 5% to 15%. Fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, spontaneous or iatrogenic premature delivery, respiratory distress syndrome, and admission to neonatal intensive care are all significantly linked to preeclampsia. Preeclampsia prediction may aid in classifying women into high risk groups so that surveillance can be stepped up and preventative treatments can be started.
Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this research is to investigate the role that serum uric acid plays as a predictive factor in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The purpose of this study is to determine the function that serum uric acid plays in the determination of hypertensive problems in pregnancy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of blood uric acid as a potential predictive predictor of maternal and foetal problems related with hypertensive diseases of pregnancy.
Methods: Patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy who came in for antenatal checkups between 24-32 weeks and had blood pressure readings of more than or equal to 140/90 mmHg but did not have proteinuria were included in a study that was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology at the Modern government maternity hospital in Petlaburz. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were met by these patients. As part of the standard evaluation, the level of uric acid in the serum was determined for each and every hypertensive patient. Recording was done for both the maternal and perinatal outcomes.
Results: In the current study, 46 (46%) of the 100 women with HDP had elevated serum uric acid levels. Of the 64 women who had pre-eclampsia, 34 (53.1%) had high serum uric acid levels. The median serum uric acid level was 6.2mg/dl, with an SD of 1.8. Numerous maternal and postnatal problems, including eclampsia, abruption of the placenta, HELLP syndrome, and foetal growth restriction, were linked to hyperuricemia in HDP patients.
Conclusion: Patients who have been given a diagnosis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and who also have hyperuricemia are at an increased risk for a variety of different maternal and perinatal complications.

A study of serum uric acid levels in metabolic syndrome

Dr. Vanja Swarna Latha, Dr. Jonnadula Mohana Lakshmi, Dr. Maraju Sireesha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3708-3714

Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is the association between uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome in individuals undergoing general health screening. Serum uric acid levels have been reported to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that hyperuricemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, on the other hand, many studies argue that the observed association between uric acid and atherosclerosis is attributable to an indirect association of hyperuricemia with cardiovascular risk factor or clustering of these metabolic and hemodynamic risk factors, designated “metabolic syndrome”.
Materials and Methods: The study comprised of metabolic syndrome cases visiting the general medicine outpatient at Government General Hospital, Guntur. Age and sex matched healthy volunteers served as controls. Total 100 out of which 50 cases and 50 controls. Physical Parameters like Waist Circumference (WC), Blood Pressure, Systolic (SBP) & Diastolic (DBP) and Biochemical parameters like Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) and Lipid profile Total Triglycerides (TTG), Total Cholesterol (TCH), HDL Cholesterol (HDL-C). Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed using the diagnostic criteria provided by the International Diabetes Federation.
Results: The total numbers of study participants were 100. Out of them 50 cases of central obesity were selected with increased waist circumference and 50 age and sex matched controls were selected with normal waist circumference. Out of 50 obese individuals metabolic syndrome was detected in 23 (46%) of subjects, in 14 (60.86%) of men and in 9 (39.1%) of women and hyperuricemia was detected in 21 (42%) of individuals. The overall serum uric acid (SUA) analysis in the 50 obese group, 21 (Twenty one) are with increased SUA levels. The mean± standard deviation values of all physical (waist circumference, blood pressure) and biochemical parameters (FPG, lipid profile, SUA) of obese group when compared to controls were statistically highly significant.
Discussion: In the present study risk analysis was done among the obese group (waist circumference >90cms in men and >80cms in women) and control group who were non obese. The difference between all the variables (physical and biochemical) of both groups based on the standard error of difference was statistically significant and also the p value (<0.001) that was obtained from Student t test was statistically significant.
Conclusion: in the present study, an elevated serum uric acid concentration was found to be correlated with hypertension, insulin resistance and the risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

Correlation of Clinical, Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Women with Severe Preeclampsia and Maternal Outcome: An Observational Study

Guruprasad Hosamani,Dr. Niranjan C. S., Anuja Sagamkunti, Sushrit A. Neelopant, Rashmi M. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 292-301

Background: To find correlation of clinical, hematological and biochemical parameters
in women with severe preeclampsia and maternal outcome and to study the maternal
and perinatal outcome in severe preeclampsia and.
Materials and Methods: The study was done in the Department of Obstetrics and
Gynaecology, Raichur Institute of Medical Sciences, Raichur. 140 patients with blood
pressure ≥ 160/110 mm of hg with proteinuria or Blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm of hg
with proteinuria of ≥ 2+ were involved in the study. Statistical analysis was done by
applying chi-square.

Relationship Between Serum Uric Acid Level And Ischemic Stroke In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Nassiriyah City


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2193-2202

Background: The role of serum uric acid as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is controversial and there is little information about it.
Aim of the study: This study was done to estimate serum uric acid levels in diabetic patients with ischemic stroke and to assess its risk factor potential.
Methods: It is a case control study carried out in the medical ward at Al Hussein Teaching Hospital at Al Nassiriyah city at southern of Iraq from June 2018 till December 2018, carried on 119 patient mean ages is 61.89 years. 56 of them was diabetic patients with ischemic stroke were enrolled as a case group and compared with 63 non diabetic patients presented with ischemic stroke also as a control group, Serum uric acid levels were measured in cases and controls (within 24 hours of stroke). The results were statistically analyzed and studied with other risk factors.
Results: Mean serum uric acid level in cases was 6.02 mg/dl where as it was 5.34mg/dl in controls. Hyperurecemia found in 25% of cases , with significant statistical association with increase in TG Cholesterol level p value is0.028 , and hyperurecemia was significant only in old age diabetic (p value less than 0.05) .
Conclusions: There was no significant statistical association between Serum uric acid level and stroke in type 2 DM, but it found to increase other risk factor for stroke especially in old age group , so it can be considered as a risk factor for ischemic stroke in type 2 DM.

Study and Comparison of Renal Function tests in Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia with Normal Healthy Pregnant Women

Brungi Asha Jyothi, Madupathi Anil Babu, P.Vineela

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11693-11699

Background:Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder, which occurs only in pregnant women during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and is associated with raised blood pressure and proteinuria. It rarely presents before 20 weeks of gestation like in hydatidformmole.Eclampsia is a syndrome with one or more episodes of convulsions in association with preeclampsia .In India, the national incidence of hypertensive disorders   is 15.2%,with incidence in nulliparous women being four times greater than in multipara.With severe renal involvement, glomerular filtration may be impaired and the plasma creatinine concentration may begin to  rise.Elevated uric acid is another component of the preeclampsia. Although hyperuricemia does correlate with maternal morbidity, there is an even stronger association of uric acid with the risk for small birth weight infants and with overall foetal mortality. The hyperuricemia of preeclampsia has been variably suggested to be associated with lactic acidosis, altered renal functions or oxidative stress.AIM: To Study and compare renal function tests in Pre-eclampsia and Eclampsia with normal healthy pregnant women and assess the ante-partum severity in both the diseases.
Materials and Methods: Study was conducted on 70 pregnant women admitted with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and 35 normal pregnancy patients in between 19-26 yrs of age in third trimester of pregnancy.
Results: There is a increase in Diastolic blood pressure in mild pre-eclampsia and significant increase in severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsiapatientswhen compared to controlsThere is a increase in serum uric acid in mild pre-eclampsia and significant increase in all parameters insevere pre-eclampsia and eclampsia patientswhen compared to control.
Conclusion: There is a derangement of parameters of RFT in severe preeclampsia and eclampsia.But there was no significant elevation in mild pre-eclampsia.Persistant Renal parameter that  increased was Uric acid. These can be taken as a predictor of the disease.

Prediction of chemical composition of urinary calculi in vivo based on CT attenuation values: An analytical study

Aravind Murugesan, Mossadeq A, Govardhanan R, Ratna Vasanthan S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 978-985

Introduction: Chemically, stones are of various types including calcium stones, uric acid
stones, struvite stones and cystine stones among others. Each pathophysiological group has a
predisposition to form certain kind of stones. Hence, knowledge of the chemical composition
of the stone that a patient forms can and does direct the management of the patient.
Objectives: To evaluate if the chemical composition of urinary stones can be predicted with
mean Hounsfield Unit (HU) value on computed tomography (CT).
Methods: This is prospective and analytical study conducted in the Department of Radiology
of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. Patients diagnosed with urinary stones who had a
non-contrast CT done and had stone retrieved were included in the study. The predominant
chemical composition of the stone was analysed by X-ray diffraction crystallography.
Results: Fifty-one stones of four types were studied. Statistically significant (p<0.001)
differences were seen in the mean HU, maximum HU and median HU values between all the
four types. No significant difference was observed in the difference between periphery and
core HU values. Hierarchy of density among the stone types correlated with previous studies
but absolute measurements varied among different studies.
Conclusion:Mean HU of urinary stones correlates with their chemical composition. Calcium
oxalate monohydrate, calcium oxalate dihydrate, uric acid and hydroxyapatite stones can be
differentiated on their CT attenuation parameters if a database of attenuation characteristics
for stones of known composition is built for given scanner and protocol.


Pradeep Kumar Gupta; Himanshu Agarwal; Saurabh Singhal; Keerti Manocha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1169-1173

Aim: To find the level of uric acid in patients of chronic liver disease and its correlation, if any, with etiology
and other parameters.
Materials and Method: This was a prospective study conducted on North Indian population admitted in
Department of Medicine during the period of 2020 and 2021. A total number of 50 patients diagnosed with
chronic liver disease were included in this study. A detailed history was elicited from the patients regarding
their present complaints; associated symptoms; alcohol intake, smoking, previous history of hypertension,
diabetes mellitus, arthritis, hypothyroidism, any cardiac illnesses and chronic drug intake. All patients
underwent an ultrasonogram abdomen and estimation of serum uric acid levels. Waist circumference in males
and females was measured. Glycemic and Body mass index were recorded. Serum uric acid level was sent for
analysis on the day of admission and was followed up.
Results: Out of 50 subjects, 38 (76%) were males and 12 (24%) were females. Mean ± SD uric acid (mg/dl)
among the study subjects was 6.69±2.92. Normal uric acid (3.1-5) was revealed among 24% of the subjects
while higher uric acid/hyperuricemia was reported among 38 (76%) subjects. Mean uric acid was 4.03, 5.17
and 8.94 among the subjects having CTP class A, B and C respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed
significant positive correlation between uric acid and total bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT and CTP Score.
Conclusion: Elevated serum uric acid level might be a risk factor for the incidence of chronic liver disease.
Hyperuricemia may act as a surrogate marker for assessing the prognosis of CLD.

The Association between Uric and Ascorbial Acid Serum and Lichen Planus Pathogenesis

Sara Mohamed Mohamed; Sahar Mohamed Abd El fattah; El-Sayed Mohamed Galal; HodaAbdeen Ibrahim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 489-494

Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a common disorder whose etiopathogenesis is not clear.Recently, it has been suggested that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the underlying mechanism of LP. Free radicals have an important involvement in the underlying mechanism of lichen planus and also various skin diseases. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum uric acid (UA) levels as a measure of the antioxidant defense status in lichen planus patients.
Methods: A case control study was performed on 17 patients with lichen planus and 17 healthy subjects as a control group. We estimated Serum level of uric acid and ascorbic acid using ELISA.
Results: The mean of serum levels of uric acid and ascorbic acid was lower in patient group compared to healthy group with no significant difference between the two studied groups.
Conclusion: Lichen planus pathogens are not specifically affected by antioxidants as uric acid and ascorbic acid. However, in addition to other interactive variables, the difference in the level of serum for these anti-oxidants between lichen planus patients and healthy subjectsalbight not important– may suggest their involvement.

The Importance Of Uric Acid Level In Patients With Persistent Kidney Disease Of Predialysis Stages

Dano A. Egamberdieva; Botir T. Daminov; Iroda A. Ruzmetova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3417-3429

The study explores theory of relativity of acid levels with nephritic function, moreover as its role as a prognostic marker of cardio tube risk in chronic excretory organ diseases within the course of variable regression analysis, taking into consideration the adjustment of potential risk issues, the amount of uric acid was found to be a major factor influencing calculable capillary vessel filtration rate. The results of this study showed that elevated humor uric acid levels are related to the next risk of kidney malfunction.

Effect Of Endovascular Revascularization On Renal Function

Botir T. Daminov; B.A. Alyvi; Shavkat K. Muminov; Lola T. Daminova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3444-3453

To research the short-term and long-term effect of coronary artery stenting on renal function. In patients with coronary heart disease within 3 months after endovascular revascularization-preserving renal dysfunction, despite the normalization of creatinine concentration.

Comparative Study of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity Of Methanolic Leaf Extracts Of CalophyllumBlancoi (Bitaog), Diospyrospilosanthera (Bolongeta) and Syzygium Cumini (Duhat)

Jan Asuncion; Mariane May Domingo; Rave Harvey Sienna; Zhaine Marille Villa; Jennifer Anne Loyola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4077-4086

Gout is characterized as an inflammation and warmth in the joints. It is associated with hyperuricemia wherein an upregulation of xanthine oxidase in purine degradation leads to increased levels of uric acid in the blood. Gout is not fatal. However, it affects one’s quality of life. Thus, this research primarily focuses in determining the inhibitory activity of xanthine oxidase in the methanolic leaf extract of bitaog (Calophyllumblancoi), bolongeta (Diospyros pilosanthera), and duhat (Syzygiumcumini) in gout. A quantitative-experimental research method was used in the study and the data were obtained by measuring the percent inhibition of the samples using UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 290 nm. The results showed that the methanolic leaf extract of above stated plants exhibited exemplary inhibition in comparison with the standard drug, allopurinol. The IC50 value determines the ability of the inhibitor to decrease the biotransformation of a substrate. The principle behind IC50 is, the lower the value the higher the inhibition. The bitaog (Calophyllumblancoi) trials have the lowest IC50 value with an average of 124.3 after the standard drug, followed by bolongeta (Diospyros pilosanthera) have an average of 155.3 IC50 value. Then duhat (Syzygiumcumini) showed the highest IC50 an average of 208.8.The bitaog (Calophyllumblancoi), next to allopurinol, showed the highest inhibition among all the extracts followed by the bolongeta (Diospyros pilosanthera). The least inhibitory activity was observed in duhat (Syzygiumcumini). Hence, it can be concluded that bitaog (Calophyllumblancoi), bolongeta (Diospyros pilosanthera), and duhat (Syzygiumcumini) can inhibit xanthine oxidase using in vitro analysis

“Evaluating Salivary pH, Uric acid, & CReactive Protein levels in Completely Edentulous patients before and after wearing Complete dentures incorporated with and without 7.5% Chitosan nanoparticles” – An Interventional Study


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2132-2137

Abstract: Background: Saliva plays major part in oral well-being of complete denture
users and also considered a very important biomarker for overall body health and indicates
several biomolecules just like blood to give useful information and monitoring of diseases
and health .Denture stomatitis is a common finding in complete denture wearers and
analysing salivary ph, Uric acid & C-reactive protein levels through saliva collection will
help in its early diagnosis and treatment. Chitosan, a biomaterial nanoparticle
incorporated into dentures gives it antifungal and antimicrobial effect. Having
antimicrobial and regenerative properties it is of interest in dentistry and already being
used in toothpastes, mouth rinses and dental dressings.
Objectives: To evaluate salivary ph , Uric acid & C-Reactive protein levels before and after
complete denture insertion with and without addition of Chitosan nanoparticles &
Comparatively evaluate the outcome.
Method: 15 complete denture patients incorporated with Chitosan nanoparticles will be
tested for salivary ph, C-Reactive protein & Uric acid levels. Saliva samples will be
collected from subjects immediately before the insertion of complete dentures and after 24
hrs and compared with Control groups not containing Chitosan.
Results: This study shows antifungal and antimicrobial effect of Chitosan in Complete
dentures which implies less fungal activity post denture insertion leading to less denture
stomatitis cases proving effectiveness in preventing Denture stomatitis.

Serum Uric Acid Level and Severity of Ischemic Stroke

Aparna P. Patange; Kapale R.J.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 86-89

A stroke is the third most common cause of death and the fourth most common cause of infection. Stroke is characterized by the WHO as a clinical condition involving the rapid development of clinical indications of a central aggravation of cerebral capacity lasting more than 24 hours or causing death without a clear reason other than a vascular source. In the present study, a large part of the cases of intense ischemic stroke were found among the males. In the present study, mean cholesterol values, triglyceride values are directly proportional to the severity of the ischemic stroke, among the study subjects. In the present study, 8% cases died, while 92% discharged at home. The current study proved the association of serum uric acid levels with the severity of the acute ischemic stroke.