Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Covid 19


Dr. Divyarani M N , Dr. Manoranjan U D , Mr. Jagadish

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3052-3057

Background: Thrombocytopenia in covid 19 patients were important for treatment and management of the disease. Main objective of the study was to assess thrombocytopenia and its association with disease severity among covid 19 patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 patients from April 2020 to December 2020.Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected. Thrombocytopenia has been implicated in patients infected with SARS Cov 2. Results: Among 160 patients, majority were males with mild severity. Platelet count were decreased in severe cases when compared to mild and moderate severity cases and found to be statistically significant(p<0.05).Conclusion: platelet count was an independent risk factor for COVID 19 patients.


Dr. Disha Shah, Dr. Amlendu Nagar, Dr. Sheetal Singh, Dr. Nivedita Prajapati, Dr. Vinit Jain .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 442-450

COVID19 outbreak has become a pandemic worldwide. There has been a fairly high rate of clinical recovery among Covid patients but complete resolution or sequelae in terms of radiological findings need to be studied.
1. To understand the common pulmonary sequalae , time taken for complete resolution and factors affecting the resolution process in covid-19 patients who have been discharged after recovery, with Chest HRCT follow up.
This is an observational study which included a total of 100 discharged patients diagnosed with covid-19 by RTPCR at Index Medical College, Hospital & Research Centre, Indore-MP-India, from March 15 to June 30-2021.All the patients underwent an initial chest CT scan done 3-5 days after the onset of symptoms ,followed by serial CT scans done at discharge and at 1st, 2nd and 3rd weeks after discharge. The radiological characteristics and patterns on CT chest were studied and a CT severity scoring was done for all the scans.
GGO were the most common pattern seen (88%) on chest CT at discharge followed by fibrotic bands (61%) with the right lower lung (85%) most commonly involved.61% of patients showed complete resolution at the end of 3rd week after discharge indicating that COVID 19 induced pulmonary damage is reversible in majority of cases with no long term sequalae. However 39 patients demonstrated residual abnormalities. Older patients are at high risk for residual pulmonary lesions and there is no gender predilection. Patients having comorbidities like hypertension, diabetes or bronchial asthma were not at a higher risk of developing pulmonary sequalae.
The resolution of most lesions by 3 weeks after discharge implies gradual resolution of inflammation with re-expansion of alveoli and perhaps the reversible nature of the lesions of Covid -19.

Study of High-Resolution Computed Tomography Findings in Covid -19

Prashanth Chikkahonnaiah, Varshini J., Abdullah K. K., Suhail Azham Khan,Sanjay P.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 4778-4787

Background:Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel corona virus
called SARS-CoV. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test
remains the reference standard to make a definitive diagnosis. However few COVID-19
patients with pulmonary involvement on computed tomography have negative results of
RT-PCR, owing to limitation of nucleic acid detection technologies, sampling errors and
low virus load. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the key features of HRCT
imaging in patients with COVID 19. Aims and objectives: To study various HRCT
findings in COVID 19 patients.
Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was done from January 2021 to June 2021
at department of Respiratory medicine at tertiary care hospital in Mysore. The study
included 100 patients who were laboratory confirmed cases of Covid 19 and who were
subjected to HRCT chest as per guidelines.
Results: In our study, we found that, 24 (24%) patients had 0 lobe involvement and the
rest 75 (75%) had at least one lobe being involved. 48 (48%) patients had all 5 lobes
involved. Of the 76 patients, who had abnormality in HRCT, showed sub pleural 48
(63.1%) involvement, Centro parenchymal involvement in 2 (2.6%), both were involved
in 26 (34.2%).The most common pattern being GGOs with or without consolidation
with a total distribution of (71%), other findings included to be interseptal thickening
[22%], pure consolidation with air bronchogram [8%], nodular thickening [3%],
cavities [3%].
Conclusion: Presence of GGO with or without consolidation should be considered as a
strong suspicion of COVID 19 and patients be treated accordingly.

Mucormycosis in COVID: A pandemic induced epidemic in World’s diabetic capital

Dr Fayaz A. Wani, Dr Ishan Tikoo, Dr Aashish Mahajan, Dr JB Singh, Dr Deepika Dewan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1051-1058

Background: Mucormycosis is a rare disease of immunocompromised adults largely
restricted to the diabetic community with uncontrolled hyperglycaemia. In the second
wave of Covid, in multiple cities over the Indian Peninsula, this much dreaded “black
fungus” has afflicted many individuals who suffered from covid or were recovering
from it.
Aim: To establish the risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic sensitivities,
radiological survey of different types of mucormycosis in SARS Cov 2 patients.
Methods: Seventeen patients with covid infection admitted in tertiary care hospital with
diagnosed mucormycosis between Nov 2020 to June 2021 via histopathological or
culture confirmation. This is a cross-sectional observational study where detailed
assessment of clinical profile, biochemical markers and sensitivities of diagnostic
procedures was done. The data then collected and was made into a master chart and
subjected to statistical analysis. Fischer exact test was used for statistical anaylsis.
Result:In total of 17 patients,mean blood glucose levels were compared at the onset of
symptoms of covid and mucormycosis werestatistically significant with (P=0.001). Out
of 17 patients, 11 were rhino-orbital mucormycosis, four had rhino-orbito-cerebral
mucormycosis and 2 had pulmonary mucormycosis.HbA1c >8 had significant
correlation(P=0.009) with rhino-orbital and rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis
whilehigher total dosage of steroids was associated with pulmonary mucormycosis (P=
0.015. Sensitivity of culture was 64.7% in our study while histopathology was
considered gold standard.
Conclusion: Our study shows strong correlation between the long term as well as short
term glycaemic control with the onset of rhino-orbital mucormycosis while dosage and
duration of steroids with pulmonary mucormycosis.

Behavioural insight of resident doctors into COVID-19 pandemic: A cross sectional study

Dr. Shreyasi Tendolkar,Dr.Sanjibani Panigrahi,Dr.Pooja Shatadal, Dr.Ritambhara Mehta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1078-1091

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak has been declared as a global pandemic by WHO. It
has placed an unprecedented burden on health systems and authorities.In this complex
context, their knowledge and attitude towards the pandemic can influence their psychological
state and information about their behavioral insights can be valuable to ascertain effective
strategies to reduce overall burden and tackle the crisis better 3.
Aims: To assess knowledge, risk perceptions, preventive behaviors and psychological
variables regarding COVID-19 in Resident doctors.
Methodology: A list of all resident doctors working in New Civil Hospital were informed
about the study and after obtaining an informed consent, they were asked to fill the WHO tool
for Behavioral insight. After collecting data, statistical analysis of the data was done using
appropriate Statistical test like z test, chi-square test.
Results: A total of 110 doctors participated in the study.Depression was very low (14.7%) to
extremely low (38.2%) in majority of doctors. In our study, 9% of the doctors attributed their
psychological burden of worries and fears to losing someone close to them in the pandemic.
Conclusion:Since most participants use almost all sources for gathering information about
covid-19, regular updates should be provided by media and relevant authorities, regular group
meetings, trainings to disseminate knowledge about guidelines and recent treatment protocols
should be organized by the concerned tertiary care hospitals.


Dr. Hema.HA,Dr. Shruthi Jayaram, Dr. Ravi. S, Dr. Lakshmeesha.T

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2034-2039

Introduction: A significant proportion of patients who had COVID-19 have experienced symptoms persisting even weeks after recovery from the acute phase of infection. For some patients the symptoms were mild but few have experienced moderate to severe symptoms hampering their daily routine. Studies to know the long term effects of COVID-19 are needed to effectively plan healthcare delivery.
Aim: To know the persistent symptoms in patients who were discharged from a dedicated COVIDhospital’s intensive care unit (ICU).
Materials and Methods: In this cohort studyfour hundred and forty six patients with laboratory confirmed COVID 19, who were treated and discharged from intensive care unit(ICU) between April 2019 to Nov 2019 were included. The telephonic survey was done four times in three months after being discharged. First follow up was on the15th day of discharge, second on the first month of discharge, third follow up on the second month of discharge and the fourth at the end of third month. Patients were asked to retrospectively recollect the symptoms which were present during the acute phase of the disease and if those symptoms or any new symptoms are present now.
Results: Tiredness(fatigue), dyspnea, cough and chest pain were the common symptoms observed. Among 446 patients followed up, 37.4% had no symptoms at the first follow up and 87% were symptom free by the end of third month. 26.09% complained of tiredness at the 15th day of discharge, but only 4.4% of them complained of this symptom at the end of third month. Dyspnea was seen in 21.5% of patients in the first follow up and by the end of third month none of them had dyspnea. There was a gradual decline in number of patients having cough from 19.5% in the first follow up to 0.24% in the last follow up. Chest pain was seen in 7% of the patients on the 15th day of discharge and was seen only in 0.24% of them at the end of third month. Out of 446 patients followed up for a period of three months we observed a mortality of 6.27%.
Conclusion: Patients experience persistent symptoms even after recovering from COVID 19infection and getting discharged from intensive care unit. There is a need for follow up and assessment of discharged patients to know to what extent these symptoms have affected them physically and mentally.

Demographic profile and outcomes of pregnant patients admitted with Covid-19 infection in a tertiarycare hospital in Himachal Pradesh, Indiaduring the first wave

Dr.Sourya Kanti Das, Dr.Harharpreet Kaur, Dr.Savita Kapila

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2356-2361

Aim: To determine the demographic profile of pregnant females with COVID-19 infection.
The outcome and prognosis in pregnant women with COVID-19 infection was also
Method and material:The study included 38 pregnant women with COVID-19 infection and
hospital admission for at least 24 hours. Cause of admission was classified as obstetric and
COVID-19-related. All the patients were COVID positive and were referred from other
centres/ hospital to this facility andwas admitted to this hospital for delivery. Primary
outcomes included maternal admission to intensive care unit (ICU), COVID-19 pneumonia,
maternal mortality. The information on socio-demographic factors, pre-gestational chronic
diseases (including cardiac, renal, endocrine, psychiatric, hematologic and autoimmune
disease, cancer and HIV)and mode of delivery was collected.
Results:The mean age of the patients was 28.8±6.2 years. The mode of delivery for
60.5%patients(23) was normal vaginal delivery and lower segmentcaesarean section in
39.5%(15) patients.94.7%(36) patients were asymptomatic in the present study. Maximum
patients in the present studywere hospitalized for 3-5 days.
Conclusion: COVID-19 infection was associated with higher rates of caesarean section in
pregnant women. However, COVID-19 cannot be considered as an indication for
caesareansectiondelivery. Patients with increased age have more days of hospitalization than
younger patient.

Correlating inflammatory markers with clinical profile and final outcome in patients with Covid 19 admitted to a tertiary care setup

Dr. Mallikarjun HP,Dr. Ashwin DK,Dr. Ashitha B,Dr. Ramya Bhat S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2296-2303

Background: The ongoing worldwide Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a huge threat to global public health1. COVID-19 represents a spectrum of clinical severity ranged from asymptomatic to critical pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and even death. Therefore, full monitoring the severity of COVID-19 and effective early intervention are the fundamental measures for reducing mortality.
Accumulating evidence has suggested that inflammatory responses play a critical role in the progression of COVID-19 3. Inflammatory responses induce the release of cytokines and chemokines. These cytokines and chemokines then attract immune cells and activate immune responses, leading to cytokine storms and aggravations4. Several inflammatory markers have some tracing and detecting accuracy for disease severity and fatality. But the results are inconclusive, with various studies giving different results. Our study intends to correlate levels of inflammatory markers with severity of Covid 19 infection and its final outcome.
Methods and materials:This is a retrospective study which includes 818 patients admitted to our hospital during the second wave of Covid 19 pandemic with confirmed Covid 19 infections by RTPCR. Admitted patients included mild disease to severe Covid 19 infections. Those patients who have received standardized treatment according to hospital protocol were included in the study. Data was collected and entered in pre-designed proforma. Results obtained will be compiled in excel sheet and will be analyzed statistically.
Results: Total of 818 patients were admitted to our hospital between May to July 2021. Of which 341 had mild disease, 241 had moderate disease, 237 patients had severe disease on presentation.While looking into the final outcome of the disease, 175 patients died due Covid 19 pneumonia or its complication, 52 patients were discharged with oxygen support.  Of 237 patients with severe disease 150 patients had CRP levels >75mg/dl. Of 175 patients who died, 121 had CRP levels >75 mg/dl. Of 237 patients with severe disease, 122 of them had D-dimer >1000 ng/ml. Of 175 patients who died with Covid 19, 103 of them had d-dimer levels >1000 ng/ml.CRP and D-dimer were significantly increased in patients with severe disease and in patients who died of Covid 19 with p value <0.0001.
Conclusion: Increasing levels of CRP and D-dimer were good predictors of severe disease in Covid 19. Also, increased levels of CRP and d-dimer were suggestive of poorer outcome of the disease in terms of mortality and morbidity in Covid 19 infection.

Transformation Of Learning For Early Childhood Education Through Parent Assistance In The Pandemic Covid-19

Juliana .; Rudy Pramono; Rizaldi Parani; Arifin Djakasaputra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2192-2206

The 2019 corona virus disease (Covid-19) outbreak that hit countries in the world, presents its own challenges for educational institutions, especially early childhood education. To fight Covid-19, the Government prohibits gathering, social distancing and physical distancing, wearing masks and always washing hands and maintaining cleanliness. The Covid-19 pandemic has disrupted conventional learning processes. So we need a solution to answer these problems. Online learning is an alternative that can solve this problem. This study aims to determine strategies that can be applied in the learning transformation process through parental assistance in online learning for early childhood education children during the Covid 19 pandemic. The research method used is a descriptive qualitative approach. Data collected through observation, interviews and documentation. Interviews were conducted with 7 informants including the principal, parents of students and teachers. In this study, the sample determine using purposive sampling technique. The results showed that the model of parental assistance in online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic at Kingdom School, namely (1) parents ensure children and pay attention to material from the teacher, (2) accompany children when making homework, (3) people parents take part in any material provided by the teacher, (4) parents are also involved in online learning from the teacher. Meanwhile, the obstacles faced by parents in accompanying young children in online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic are not maintaining children's enthusiasm, not giving enough time, bad mood children and children bored and distracted by other things such as toys. The solution is First, by means of communication with the teacher. Second, creating a positive atmosphere. Third, enforcing discipline and Fourth, making learning videos for children.

The Effect of Nation Branding “Thoughtful Indonesia” upon the Decision Process of International Tourists to Visit Indonesia in New Normal Era / amid the Covid-19 Pandemic

Ira B Hubner; Juliana .; Nova Irene Bernedeta Sitorus; Rudy Pramono

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3362-3373

The tourism sector is one of the sectors that has suffered the most losses due to the Covid-19 pandemic, namely the impact on travel supply and demand. Travel restrictions and flight cancellations and reduced flight frequencies have significantly reduced the supply of both domestic and international tour packages and trips amidst the continuing decline in demand. This poses additional downside risks in the context of a weaker world economy, geopolitical, social and trade unrest, and unequal performance among the travel markets. In an effort to reach and increase the target of foreign-tourist visits to Indonesia and compete with other countries, the government is more aggressively promoting the “Wonderful Indonesia” nation branding in order to be able to compete with other countries, and provide a better perception for foreign tourists; a good perception affects the number of tourist visits. However, during the COVID-19 Pandemic, the Government issued a new nation brand, namely “Thoughtful Indonesia” which will become a nation branding for Indonesian tourism during the COVID-19 period. This study aims to analyze the effect of nation branding "Thoughtful Indonesia" on the decision to visit Indonesia during the new normal period or after COVID-19 pandemic. This research uses descriptive and verification types of research. The sampling technique used in this research was probability sampling. Based on the research and analysis and hypothesis testing, it is concluded that nation branding has a positive effect on visiting decisions.

Impact Of COVID 19 On FM Services And Strategies To Overcome This Situation In GCC Countries

Bader Al Rashdi; M. Ramaswamy; Asif Mahbub Karim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 526-534

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries) face the dual shock of a pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (COIVD 19) and a collapse in oil prices. GCC countries many times experienced fluctuations in oil price and learnt how to deal the situation. However, the COVID-19 outbreak, being a new one, has created a lot of concern among GCC countries. This pandemic is causing turbulence to the economies of the GCC countries. Major industries that have been impacted in GCC countries due to COVID-19 pandemic include Energy, Aviation, Food & Beverage, Chemical, Retail & E-commerce, Travel & Tourism among others. Besides a major downfall in oil demand has been reported across the globe due to the effect of COVID-19. Due to this, many oil productions sites have been shut down or has to decrease production in the region. The closure of the industrial and commercial activities because of the pandemic would certainly affect their economies. Facility management (FM) constitutes a branch, jointly representing real estate market with property management and asset management. It plays a crucial role in economic activities in region as FM services are involved in all industrial and commercial activities. The Facility Management (FM) market in GCC countries has witnessed robust growth during the last few decades due to rapid economic activities in this region. It is an established fact in FM services manpower cost dominates the total cost whereas material cost plays vital role in construction industries. Majority of work forces in GCC countries in FM sector is migrant people from the Globe. CCC countries are showing actions that they are capable of acting effectively to contain the health and economic impacts of the pandemic within their own borders, albeit with marked shortcomings when it comes to protecting migrant workers. It is estimated that approximately 23 million migrant workers are living GCC countries . These millions of migrant workers across the Gulf face uncertainty as host countries lock down, employers withhold wages or mull redundancies, and strict coronavirus containment measures lead to deportations and confinement. This will have series impact on FM sector. In this paper a detail study the impact of COVID 19 on FM sector in GCC countries is reported. Strategies to overcome the crisis are listed along with the means and recommendation to implement the strategy.


Dr.Vignesh D; Dr. Lokesh. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5687-5693

The existing pandemic of COVID-19 has developed an unimaginable, socially hostile climate for citizens. Against the context of this exogenous shock, we analysed the relationship between risk-taking, trait resilience and state anxiety, under which the relationship between trait resilience and risk-taking moderates with state anxiety during the pandemic, and using the principle of combined prospects. In a survey of 515 people in the U.S. we test risk taking by means of a comportment assessed and evaluate trait anxiety, five main characteristics and other demographics. Study of a regression showed that age moderates the correlation between risk and anxiety and that highly resilient, risk-tolerant people have lower anxiety than less resilient people. In the other hand, older people with a higher longevity, are less prone to threats than their younger and least resilient opposites. Studies are minimal and further research is proposed.


Dr. Ardhanaari M; Dr.Anita Harry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5664-5670

After the 2019 pandemic Coronavirus (COVID-19), caused by Extreme Acute RESS 2 coronavirus syndrome was identified (SARS-CoV-2), our ways of managing ourselves socially and on a regular basis have changed unprecedentedly. The sudden isolation from education, social life and recreational sports has had great impacts on children and teenagers. In certain cases, domestic abuse has also increased. Due to heightened anxiety, changes in their diet and school dynamics, fear or even lack of a component of the issue1,2, stress has a direct effect on their mental health. Our purpose is to address the need to supervise and treat persons in various areas and to alert public health and government agents. We hope that effective and prompt action will minimise harm to your mental health as a result of the side effects of this pandemic.


Dr. Suresh R; Dr. Archana S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5332-5340

Latest proof shows that in humans, SARS-CoV-2 proliferates and fades symptomatic or asymptomatic infected individuals, the etioloidal agent that induces COVID-19. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 can be discharged and even opened through wastewater and sanitation systems on site. SARS-CoV-2 can be spread by the inhalation of polluted aerosols and goutlets in waste water plumbing systems in particular in heavily inhabited suburban areas in the case of faeces, waste water or wastewater systems on-site. Potential faecal-oral transfer has also been proposed along the human gut-wastewater diet spectrum. The detection in the human gastrointestinal tract, faeces, and untreated wastewater of SARS-CoV-2 RNA suggests probable COVID-19 faecal-oral transmission 1–4. A second line of recent evidence is extracted from a series of experiments focused on an overview of shelled disease, indicating SARS - COV-2 is prone to facal oral transmission and has a rigid shell and low shell disorder. The transmission path between faecal and oral has also gained substantial interest lately as an alternate transmission pathway but there is still no epidemiological data to support this theory. There could be a fast propagation of the pandemic via several COVID-19 transmission pathways.

Economic Impacts Of Covid 19

Brian Thomas; Dr Swaroopa Chackole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5812-5819

The first cases of COVID-19 flared up on late December in Wuhan, which is a popular  city in the Hubei province of the Chinese nation .This virus is seen particularly in animals, most particularly in bats, camel,cows and certain species pigs .Although it is known that transmission of viruses from animals to the human population is quiet rare, on one hand it is said that this new mutated version of the virus has most likely originated from bats. Whereas on the other hand research has shown that pangolins may be the culprit. Although it is still not known how the virus transmitted to human beings, some reports trace the evidence of first case back to an animal market in Wuhan. This could be the most probable reason how SARS-CoV-2 started to transmit .Close contact with an infected person within 6 feet apart is the common mode of transmission of this virus .The virus is most infectious when an individual’s symptoms reach the peak level. Moreover ,carriers are another major reason for the spread of this infection as they don’t experience any symptoms. Some studies recommends, less than 15% of contamination are from individuals showing no symptoms. Although most instances of COVID-19 are not fatal, it can cause indications that become serious causing demise in certain people.
The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has caused various implications apart from the spread of the disease itself and the efforts made by the people to contain it. As the  infection has spread worldwide, due to the rising concerns of the virus of the infection it has affected the supply side and resulted in diminished profits of various business.33% of the world population was under quarantine which has invariably resulted in the downfall of economic activities .Production deficiencies were also witnessed due to hoarding of goods in a panic buying spree in various grocery stores and supermarkets.In addition to this, the excessive use of various products such as sanitizers ,mask and other sanitary need products have disrupted logistics and created further chaos. Surprisingly the demand for medical equivalents have drastically increased. 

A Review Study On Relationship Among Covid-19 And Inflammation

Mr.Ponnazhagan .; Dr.Amarendiran .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5440-5444

In reality, numerous research works have begun to report the metabolic function of COVID-19 shifts. Characteristically characterised are I decline in low-density (LDL-c) and high-density (HDL-c) cholesterol lipoproteins, (later proportionate with the gravity of the symptoms), and (ii) a mild rise in the populating T-assistance cell populations (CD3+T, CD4+T) and (iii) CD8+T lymphopenia. Further, in seriously ill patients the overall counts of White Blood Cells (WBC) is considerably higher, with a macrophage activation syndrome that was supported by the existence of the bronchoalveolar monocyte recruitment chemokines.


Dr.Aishwarya S; Dr.Nithya P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5611-5618

The 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by extreme ART 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has easily spread all over the world. At the end of June 2020, there were more than 5 million confirmed cases and over 500,000 deaths. The features of this disease show that SARS-CoV-2 can be spread by droplets extended during close contact and fomites. Potential airborne distribution was also envisaged in healthcare facilities because of such aerosol-generating practices 1,2. After identification of the virus in stools, the position of the fecal–oral route in indoor environments must still be determined. Nevertheless, it remains important that fomites, direct contact and the alleged fecal–oral path are of relative significance. In clinics, there has also been major contamination. The CDC Weekly 2020 reports that 1716 of 44,672 COVID-19 cases in China reported their presence by 11 February, 2020. In order to protect health staff, it is also important to consider the risk of infection in a hospital setting.

Awareness And Practice Of Infection Control Protocol During Covid-19 Pandemic In Dental Clinics In Southern India- An Original Research

Dr. Abhishek Pandey; Dr. Smita Dutta; Dr. Rahul Maria; Dr Ambika K Nandini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6527-6539

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has forced dentists to prepare themselves by updating their knowledge and receive training to face the present and after effects of COVID-19. The present survey was thus conducted to assess the knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and preparedness of the dentists in India about COVID-19.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among registered dentists in south India. A self-administered, anonymous, questionnaire comprising of 25 close- ended questions was circulated to gather the relevant information. A total of 1120 dentists submitted a response, out of which 1000 complete responses were included in the statistical analysis. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used for inter-group statistical comparison.
Results: 80% of the dentists had a fair knowledge about the characteristics of COVID-19. 61% and 50% of the dentists had taken infection control training and special training for COVID-19, respectively. 52% of the dentists had the perception that COVID-19 is very dangerous. Only 42% of the dentists were willing to provide emergency services to patients. Most of the dentists had an opinion that there is a need to enhance personal protective measures.
Conclusion: In the present study, South Indian dentists have presented satisfactory knowledge with adequate awareness as the majority of them had a fair level of knowledge with significantly higher knowledge among female respondents and those with post-graduation studies. As we are going through an evolutionary phase where new advances are expected to evolve, dentists will definitely emerge successfully out from the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.

A Review of Coronavirus Transmission

Dr. Maheswari K; Dr. Anand V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5326-5331

Earlier in December 2019, a novel extreme coronaviral syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Region, China. The World Health Organisation announced the epidemic as an international disaster in public health on 30 January 2020. As of 14 February 2020, there were 49,053 laboratory-confirmed fatalities and 1,381 deaths worldwide. Many governments have become at risk of contracting illness after implementing a series of prevention steps. We performed a literature review of resources accessible to the public to synthesise pathogen and emerging disease awareness. This literature review analyses the causative cause, pathogenesis and immune reactions, epidemiology, detection, care and managing methods for the epidemic, regulating and preventing.

Compare the Vital Concepts of Mother of All Pandemic Spanish Flu and COVID-19: A Promising Review

Gomathi Swaminathan; Srikanth Jupudi; Sathish R; Roshan NS; Gowramma B; Kalirajan Rajagopal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1466-1483

In every century, few invisible infectious diseases create an alarm to the entire world and which leads to extermination of the population. In 1918 and 2019, the world has tackled truculent diseases such as mother of all pandemic Spanish flu and COVID 19. The mortality rate of Spanish flu was greater than in the first world war. After 100 years’ same history was repeated in 2019 through COVID 19.  Suddenly a huge number of pneumonia cases were reported in the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China. These two outbreaks make medical, social and financial burden to the entire world. This kind of sudden pandemic breaks mental health and creates panic, anxiety and depression. Pharmaceutical preventive measures are not supported during both pandemics which was rectified by non-pharmaceutical preventive steps like lockdown, quarantine, wearing facemask and gloves, washing hands and applying sanitizer, follow the social distancing, closing cinema hall and schools, avoiding mass gathering in 1918and 2019-2020. The main objective of this review is to compare and summarize the concepts of both pandemics and how the people of the world need to come together and fight against common enemies, to warrant that we have the best scientific resources necessary to bring this outbreak to an end.


Subaraman M; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr. Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 549-560

The COVID-19 epidemic in China is a world health threat. So far now it is the largest outbreak of atypical pneumonia since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003. Within weeks of the onset of COVID-19 the total number of cases and deaths exceeded those of SARS .SARS is similar to COVID-19, and SARS is a beta-coronavirus that can be spread to humans through intermediate hosts such as bats, though the actual route of transmission of COVID-19 is still debatable. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020. It has been debated among the political leaders claiming that there is error from the part of WHO in giving a wrong impression at the golden hour where the pandemic could have been averted. A survey conducted with a self prepared questionnaire comprising 15 questions with a sample of 100 people of Tamil Nadu state. The questionnaire was prepared with questions comprising of covid 19 and who January WHO report, these questions help to determine perception on COVID-19 and WHO January report and that help to depict their knowledge and awareness on this topic and what is their critical perception of the role of WHO in handling the COVID pandemic. WHO plays a role in the process of updating the methods to prevent and cure the pandemic outbreak COVID-19. WHO is found to test the positive and negative responses shown by the possible methods present against COVID-19 and displays the most trusted method among the available methods.In the previous study, more than half of the participants are found to show high concern about swine influenza pandemic. In the present study, around 71% of the participants are aware of the COVID-19 pandemic and the controversial role played by WHO in spreading the COVID-19 pandemic. This study concludes that during this pandemic outbreak most of the participants are aware of the role of WHO in the process of controlling and updating information related to the global pandemic condition. It is evident from this study that people are sceptical about the role played by WHO in managing COVID-19


Apurva Choudhary; Smiline Girija AS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 467-475

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) reached pandemic world-wide especially in Italy
from early March 2020. Many factors were under discussion among public health experts for the
exorbitant mortality rate in Italy than other countries. A coordinated global response was desperately
needed to prepare health systems to meet this unprecedented challenge in Italy. This review illustrates
predictions, chronic comorbidities, effects of COVID 19 on Italian health system. Covid disease affecting
the elderly population with co-morbidities, the same was associated in the mortality rate among elder
population in Italy in a greater rate. The mortality rate in Italy was also higher due to the asymptomatic
cases not being tested and isolated with initial screening. The most serious outcome of COVID 19
pneumonia was recorded among the population in Italy. Exhausted number of ICU’s beds, ventilators and
respirators revealed their un-preparedness for the covid-19 pandemic. This review thus focuses on the
various factors to be considered in future pandemics by analyzing the covid - 19 pandemic in Italy.

Extroverts And Quarantine A Survey

Obuli Ganesh Kishore. S; V.Vishnu Priya; A. Jothi Priya; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2772-2788

Based on how people mingle with the society they can be classified as introverts,extroverts and ambiverts.Extroverts are people who are basically more active socially and gain attention.Introverts are people who don’t get mingled so much and they stay in a very small circle,they just live to show that they exist.Ambiverts are people who are not extroverts or introverts,they adapt and be how they have to be in places.This study is to to know about the mindset of extrovert individuals at this time of lockdown and quarantine. A self structured questionnaire containing 19 questions was circulated through online google forms link.The survey population contained 100 people.The responses obtained were statistically analysed in SPSS software and the results were depicted in the form of pie charts and graphs.The overall result shows that it is getting tougher day by day for the extroverts to stay home during this lockdown in quarantine as they usually weren’t this ideal.Hence this study can be used to plan for tasks that could keep these extroverts engaged and make it easy for them to abide by the laws in times of national emergencies and pandemics.


Thirukumaran .; Ganesh Lakshmanan; R.Gayatri Devi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 492-500

Coronavirus is a newly discovered infectious disease, most people infected by coronavirus experience respiratory illness and require special treatment for recovery. Older people underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease diabetes chronic respiratory disease develop serious illness.National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have been varied, and have included containment measures such as lockdowns, quarantines, and curfews. More than 6.15 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 371,000 deaths. More than 2.63 million people have recovered from the virus.The most affected countries in terms of confirmed cases are the United States, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Turkey and China. The main aim of this study is to determine and rank the measures adopted by each country to fight against covid 19. An online survey was conducted with a self-structured questionnaire comprising 10 questions that were distributed through the google docs. The sample size of this study was 100. The results were analysed by performing the statistical software “SPSS VERSION 20”. The data was represented in the pie chart form. From this study population, 88% of the study population agreed that Covid 19 has to be controlled by all means. Nearly 70% of the population follows social distancing and 56% of them follow self isolation if they have symptoms and every country is working hard to contain it and minimise its impact. It is very important to prevent covid-19, because there is no vaccine found for treatment, preventive methods vary, and have measurements like quarantine, lockdown, curfews, sanitising our hands after coming home, using personal protective equipment. This study helps us to get knowledge about the measurements taken by different countries to control covid-19 and creates awareness on how to prevent covid-19.