Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : covid 19


Relevance Of Antibiotic Overuse: Covid 19: Super Gonorrhea: A Review

Dr. Srikanth Reddy Karra; Dr. Thummala Lakshmi Vengamamba; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Fawaz Abdul Hamid Baig; Dr Ambika K Nandini; Dr. Asfar Zeya; Dr. Mahendra Azad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1277-1281

Uncontrolled use of antibiotics to treat Covid-19 has unfortunately led to a revolt in
cases of super gonorrhoea, a sexually transmitted infection (STI) which may even
become incurable. "Gonorrhea "superbug" had been reported by several countries,
including France, Japan and Spain, and this year also in the UK and Australia. The WHO
states that cases of gonorrhoea may become even more resistant to the most common
recommended treatment like azithromycin. These are extensively drug-resistant
gonorrhoea with high-level resistance to the current recommended treatment for
gonorrhoea like (ceftriaxone and azithromycin) including resistance to penicillin,
sulphonamides, tetracycline, fluoroquinolones and macrolides. New cures for gonorrhea
are urgently needed as people who are infected with it will infect others and accelerate
microbial resistance.

Economic Impacts Of Covid 19

Brian Thomas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3054-3060

The first cases of COVID
19 flared up on late December in Wuhan, which is a popular
city in the Hubei province of the Chinese nation .This virus is seen particularly in
animals, most particularly in bats, camel, cows and cer tain species pigs .Although it is
known that transmission of viruses from animals to the human population is quiet
rare, on one hand it is said that this new mutated version of the virus has most likely
originated from bats. Whereas on the other hand resea rch has shown that pangolins
may be the culprit. Although it is still not known how the virus transmitted to human
beings, some reports trace the evidence of first case back to an animal market in
Wuhan. This could be the most probable reason how SARS CoV 2 started to transmit
.Close contact with an infected person within 6 feet apart is the common mode of
transmission of this virus .The virus is most infectious when an individual’s symptoms
reach the peak level. Moreover ,carriers are another major reason for the spread of this
infection as they don’t experience any symptoms. Some studies recommends, less than
15% of contamination are from individuals showing no symptoms. Although most
instances of COVID 19 are not fatal, it can cause indications that becom e serious
causing demise in certain people.
The emergence of COVID
19 pandemic has caused various implications apart from the
spread of the disease itself and the efforts made by the people to contain it. As the
infection has spread worldwide, due to the rising concerns of the virus of the infection
it has affected the supply side and resulted in diminished profits of various
business.33% of the world population was under quarantine which has invariably
resulted in the downfall of economic activities .Prod uction deficiencies were also
witnessed due to hoarding of goods in a panic buying spree in various grocery stores
and supermarkets. In addition to this, the excessive use of various products such as
sanitizers ,mask and other sanitary need products have d isrupted logistics and created
further chaos. Surprisingly the demand for medical equivalents have drastically
increased.

Covid 19 In Geriatric Population

Gautam Rajesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3068-3075

From the most recent studies and census suggests that covid 19 has been adversely affecting the geriatric population on a large scale. Therefore government officials have been imposing various preventive measures and create awareness among the old age group individuals to follow them.
The prime focus should always be towards the elderly individuals as they are more susceptible to various kinds of respiratory disorders or pneumococcal manifestations. The covid19 pandemic is affecting the global population on a drastic scale. Older individuals are facing most of the challenges throughout the world. Their waning immune functions and physiological alterations in the body through their years play a prime role in combating such pandemic situations. Hence supporting and protecting such individuals should always be our concern at all times. There are studies suggesting that over 90% of the mortality rate are among the age group of 60 and above.
Also 8/10 death toll occurs in patients with at least one morbid condition which includes hypertensive disorders or any other respiratory illness. Personal habits too play a role in such situations as for eg: smoking causes a lot of morbid conditions such as ca lung or respiratory depression in old age which can worsen during the pandemic. Social workers and health professionals should concentrate more on the older age groups and aware them about their safety precautions. Social distancing wherever possible should be taken care of. Usage of masks while stepping outside home and using sanitizers wherever necessary is mandatory especially of geriatric population.
The given article below highlights and describes the effect of covid in geriatric population. It also protrudes various preventive measures to be undertaken as well as psychological impacts and presentation in elderly and how to control them..

To Assess The Level Of Compliance Of Healthcare Personnel At AVBRH Wardha With Respect To Appropriate Hand Hygiene Practices.

Prachi Ramteke; Dr. Rupali Naik; Dr. Vandana Gudhe

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3675-3685

Background
As we all know that washing our hands while its dirty is our daily cleaning
practice. We wash our hands to clean our dirts or soiled particles present on our palm
which directly comes into contact with oral cavity or say through our mouth, nose, eyes,etc.
So as to prevent any sort of infection we all h ave to clean or wash our hands properly and
maintain proper hand hygiene. Hand washing is simply rubbing our both the palms of
hands with soap or liquid such as water. Poor hand hygiene at the time of intrapartum and
newborn care may lead to the increase d eath rates among newborns and results in sepsis.
The emergence of novel CoV 19, comes with the very newly strategies for the reduction of
transmission. These strategies are very preventive and supportive. Finally , some of the
recommendations has considered to reduce the effect of transmission among HCWs.
Objectives
 To analyze the drift or direction of hand hygiene practices over a period of 2
months.
 To assess the knowledge, attitude & practice towards the "hand washing" in
hospital.
 To identify factors that motivate the spread of antimicrobial resistance.
 To identify the hand washing methods which are commonly used by healthcare
worker's.
Methodology
This observational study will be conducted to assess the level of compliance
of healthcare personnel at AVBRH hospital and practices of hand washing among HCWs.
Expected
Result s We expect to get good results about proper hand hygiene within
healthcare workers as to reduce rate of
transmission We expect to observe compliance with
hand hygiene to be overall good. Awareness of hand hygiene among the HCWs to be high
and good. Alcohol based hand rubs, hand sanitizers, water and soap should be available
all time.
Conclusion
By taking in considerati on for future, hand sanitizers should be available as
this is very much effective on the viruses such as SARS CoV 2 and COVID 19,etc.

Knowledge, Attitude, And Practice Of Medical Staff Toward Covid-19: Sample From Baghdad.

Sahar Abdul-Hassan Al- Shatari; Hassan Hadi Al kazzaz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 117-129

Coronavirus disease pandemic 2019 (COVID-19) is the worst global event after the Second World War. No trustable drugsor vaccine had been discovered for COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic.The study pointed to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among employee in Baghdadhealthfacilities.A cross-section study online survey was conducted from 27th May -19th July 2020, by using of Google-form questionnaire through the emails and social media (Telegram,Viber, WhatsApp, Facebook) or by hand to hand as a hardcopy. Medical-staff in our study had access to the online-link of the questionnaire. The answers Downloaded from the electronic-form of Questionnaire (Google-form) to the computer as an excel file and important to SPSS ver. 23 to be analyzed,frequencies, and percentages calculated.One hundred and seven medical staff (doctors, dentists, and pharmacists) enrolled in this study. The highest percentage of participants was female 72(67.3%), aged 30-39 years 36(33.6%), married 69(64.5%), working in hospital 52(48.6%), family medicine Specialty 30(28.0%), senior 36(33.6). with much-information and good-practice 59(55.1%). A highpercentage of the participants had correct information inDroplets Mode of transmission 103(96.3), Old age as risk group 105(98.1%). The participant's attitude toward partial Quarantine; the highest percentage think it'sincorrect and must stop completely 44(41.1%). Tow-third of them wereworking in quarantine lounges 68(63.5%).Health workers in Iraq neededfurther updating education and training programs about COVID-19 disease. There is a shortage of personal protective equipment in health care facilities.

A DETAILED REVIEW OF IMPACT OF SARS 2 ON THE CHILDREN

Dr.Parimala K .; Dr.Nagalakshmi J .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5602-5610

In Wuhan City (Hubei, China) in December 2019, an outbreak of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred and spread quickly around the globe. The World Health Office (WHO) has announced a pandemic in the novel epidemic of the coronavirus on 11 March 2020. The Chinese Government has recommended that schools across Germany be closed to avoid the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Lockdown is one of the most commonly used methods in India to manage COVID-19 distribution. Children are deprived from social contact and association in lock-down conditions and are thus vulnerable to mental disorders. This current review therefore aimed at identifying the effect of COVID and lockdown on children1–3.

AFTER THE GLOBAL CRISIS COVID 19 EXISTENTIAL POWER OF FEELING AS AN INALIENABLE RIGHT OF HUMAN LIFE

Rakhmat KARIMOV; Khurshid TOSHOV; Mukhayyo TULAGANOVA; Rauf BEKBAEV

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1607-1614

The article examines and analyzes the problem of the existential power of human
feelings, which can radically affect the sociocultural life of an individual. At the same time,
the right to life of the person himself, who is an existential, rational being, is his unique
achievement, coupled with the possession of individual feelings that qualitatively affect the
worldview and the life process of the individual. According to existential philosophy, the
explanation of the meaning of life is closely intertwined with society, the state, nature,
thereby defining the laws of the whole universe. However, for the person who thinks and
feels, the world emerges as a personal, living experience. The article shows that a person
not only appears, but also realizes himself as a unique part of our world. The dual nature
of man is considered. Communication, guilt, willpower - all these are special aspects in a
person’s life that can lead him to a feeling of true freedom. As a result, one of the
unequivocal conclusions is that feeling and only feeling can realize a real life in people.

SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC AND INNOVATIVE THINKING OF YOUNG PEOPLEAFTER THE GLOBAL CRISIS COVID 19

Farfieva Komola; Islamova Dildora

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2880-2895

In this article it was discussed the role of socio-psychological factors
influencing the scientific and creative thinking and behavior of young people.
The authors discussed the psychological characteristics of modern media
coverage and the role of social media in influencing the maturity, thinking,
and behavior of young people. They focused on the benefits of messages in
the information space among young people and the formation of a culture of
using different messages on social networks.

A Review Study On Relationship Among Covid-19 And Inflammation

Mr.Ponnazhagan .; Dr.Amarendiran .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5440-5444

In reality, numerous research works have begun to report the metabolic function of COVID-19 shifts. Characteristically characterised are I decline in low-density (LDL-c) and high-density (HDL-c) cholesterol lipoproteins, (later proportionate with the gravity of the symptoms), and (ii) a mild rise in the populating T-assistance cell populations (CD3+T, CD4+T) and (iii) CD8+T lymphopenia. Further, in seriously ill patients the overall counts of White Blood Cells (WBC) is considerably higher, with a macrophage activation syndrome that was supported by the existence of the bronchoalveolar monocyte recruitment chemokines.

Awareness And Practice Of Infection Control Protocol During Covid-19 Pandemic In Dental Clinics In Southern India- An Original Research

Dr. Abhishek Pandey; Dr. Smita Dutta; Dr. Rahul Maria; Dr Ambika K Nandini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6527-6539

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has forced dentists to prepare themselves by updating their knowledge and receive training to face the present and after effects of COVID-19. The present survey was thus conducted to assess the knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and preparedness of the dentists in India about COVID-19.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among registered dentists in south India. A self-administered, anonymous, questionnaire comprising of 25 close- ended questions was circulated to gather the relevant information. A total of 1120 dentists submitted a response, out of which 1000 complete responses were included in the statistical analysis. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used for inter-group statistical comparison.
Results: 80% of the dentists had a fair knowledge about the characteristics of COVID-19. 61% and 50% of the dentists had taken infection control training and special training for COVID-19, respectively. 52% of the dentists had the perception that COVID-19 is very dangerous. Only 42% of the dentists were willing to provide emergency services to patients. Most of the dentists had an opinion that there is a need to enhance personal protective measures.
Conclusion: In the present study, South Indian dentists have presented satisfactory knowledge with adequate awareness as the majority of them had a fair level of knowledge with significantly higher knowledge among female respondents and those with post-graduation studies. As we are going through an evolutionary phase where new advances are expected to evolve, dentists will definitely emerge successfully out from the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Economic Impacts Of Covid 19

Brian Thomas; Dr Swaroopa Chackole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5812-5819

The first cases of COVID-19 flared up on late December in Wuhan, which is a popular  city in the Hubei province of the Chinese nation .This virus is seen particularly in animals, most particularly in bats, camel,cows and certain species pigs .Although it is known that transmission of viruses from animals to the human population is quiet rare, on one hand it is said that this new mutated version of the virus has most likely originated from bats. Whereas on the other hand research has shown that pangolins may be the culprit. Although it is still not known how the virus transmitted to human beings, some reports trace the evidence of first case back to an animal market in Wuhan. This could be the most probable reason how SARS-CoV-2 started to transmit .Close contact with an infected person within 6 feet apart is the common mode of transmission of this virus .The virus is most infectious when an individual’s symptoms reach the peak level. Moreover ,carriers are another major reason for the spread of this infection as they don’t experience any symptoms. Some studies recommends, less than 15% of contamination are from individuals showing no symptoms. Although most instances of COVID-19 are not fatal, it can cause indications that become serious causing demise in certain people.
The emergence of COVID-19 pandemic has caused various implications apart from the spread of the disease itself and the efforts made by the people to contain it. As the  infection has spread worldwide, due to the rising concerns of the virus of the infection it has affected the supply side and resulted in diminished profits of various business.33% of the world population was under quarantine which has invariably resulted in the downfall of economic activities .Production deficiencies were also witnessed due to hoarding of goods in a panic buying spree in various grocery stores and supermarkets.In addition to this, the excessive use of various products such as sanitizers ,mask and other sanitary need products have disrupted logistics and created further chaos. Surprisingly the demand for medical equivalents have drastically increased. 

A DETAILED REVIEW ON THE TRANSMISSIBILITY OF COVID

Dr.Aishwarya S; Dr.Nithya P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5611-5618

The 2019 Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by extreme ART 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has easily spread all over the world. At the end of June 2020, there were more than 5 million confirmed cases and over 500,000 deaths. The features of this disease show that SARS-CoV-2 can be spread by droplets extended during close contact and fomites. Potential airborne distribution was also envisaged in healthcare facilities because of such aerosol-generating practices 1,2. After identification of the virus in stools, the position of the fecal–oral route in indoor environments must still be determined. Nevertheless, it remains important that fomites, direct contact and the alleged fecal–oral path are of relative significance. In clinics, there has also been major contamination. The CDC Weekly 2020 reports that 1716 of 44,672 COVID-19 cases in China reported their presence by 11 February, 2020. In order to protect health staff, it is also important to consider the risk of infection in a hospital setting.

PNEUMONIA: Natural History Laboratory Abnormality In COVID 19

Linny Luciana; July Kumalawati

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2687-2694

Introduction: COVID19 is a new disease caused by the SARS CoV 2 virus which became pandemic in 2019. In October 2020, COVID 19 cases in Indonesia continued to increase, reaching 304,007 cases. The mortality rate of this disease is 3.6%. This disease shows many symptoms such as asymptomatic, fever, cough, diarrhoea, severe shortness of breath.
Case: 53 years-old man with fever for five days with cough, sore throat, and tightness. Physical examination revealed a temperature of 38 °C and bilateral lung crackles with ground-glass opacity of the right lung in pulmonary CT scan. PCR results obtained positive SARS-CoV 2.
Discussion: In the early phase of COVID19 infection, complete peripheral blood tests tended to be normal with a mild increase in CRP. When ARDS occurs, there is a significant decrease in absolute lymphocyte, and increased CRP levels. The decreased Hb levels accompanied by increased LDH is suspected hemolysis of erythrocyte. Other laboratory examination shows an increase of acute phase reactants such as D dimers, fibrinogen, and ferritin that indicate a severe inflammatory state. By the progression of the disease, laboratory abnormality such as decreased absolute lymphocytes and increased inflammatory markers happened on the 12th day after symptoms.

A REVIEW STUDY ON SYMPTOMATIC OR ASYMPTOMATIC INFECTIONS OF COVID-19

Dr. Suresh R; Dr. Archana S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5332-5340

Latest proof shows that in humans, SARS-CoV-2 proliferates and fades symptomatic or asymptomatic infected individuals, the etioloidal agent that induces COVID-19. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 can be discharged and even opened through wastewater and sanitation systems on site. SARS-CoV-2 can be spread by the inhalation of polluted aerosols and goutlets in waste water plumbing systems in particular in heavily inhabited suburban areas in the case of faeces, waste water or wastewater systems on-site. Potential faecal-oral transfer has also been proposed along the human gut-wastewater diet spectrum. The detection in the human gastrointestinal tract, faeces, and untreated wastewater of SARS-CoV-2 RNA suggests probable COVID-19 faecal-oral transmission 1–4. A second line of recent evidence is extracted from a series of experiments focused on an overview of shelled disease, indicating SARS - COV-2 is prone to facal oral transmission and has a rigid shell and low shell disorder. The transmission path between faecal and oral has also gained substantial interest lately as an alternate transmission pathway but there is still no epidemiological data to support this theory. There could be a fast propagation of the pandemic via several COVID-19 transmission pathways.

Developing Of The Modernization Paradigm And The Ideas Of Neoconvergence After The Global Crisis Covid 19

Khakim Tukhtaev; Mavluda Yokubova; Dilmurod Ernazarov; Mirkomil Atavullaev; Tunis Khojiev

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 6118-6125

The authors attempt to analyze the emergence and development of the modernization paradigm in social and humanitarian science, its transformation from the description of society’s transition from traditional to modern to the formulation of the principles of “catch-up” development of third world countries. Furthermore, the authors try to illustrate the limitations of the society of modernity and model of modernization development that determined rethinking of the theory of social modernization from the point of view of the threats and challenges for the future of human civilization. Modern society is experiencing a new phase of changes; its specificity is described by the concept of the risk society and reflexive modernization. The authors emphasize the special role of philosophy in the process of becoming reflexive attitude of the individual and society to modernization and risks.

A Review of Coronavirus Transmission

Dr. Maheswari K; Dr. Anand V

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5326-5331

Earlier in December 2019, a novel extreme coronaviral syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Region, China. The World Health Organisation announced the epidemic as an international disaster in public health on 30 January 2020. As of 14 February 2020, there were 49,053 laboratory-confirmed fatalities and 1,381 deaths worldwide. Many governments have become at risk of contracting illness after implementing a series of prevention steps. We performed a literature review of resources accessible to the public to synthesise pathogen and emerging disease awareness. This literature review analyses the causative cause, pathogenesis and immune reactions, epidemiology, detection, care and managing methods for the epidemic, regulating and preventing.

Impact Of COVID 19 On FM Services And Strategies To Overcome This Situation In GCC Countries

Bader Al Rashdi; M. Ramaswamy; Asif Mahbub Karim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 526-534

The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries) face the dual shock of a pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus (COIVD 19) and a collapse in oil prices. GCC countries many times experienced fluctuations in oil price and learnt how to deal the situation. However, the COVID-19 outbreak, being a new one, has created a lot of concern among GCC countries. This pandemic is causing turbulence to the economies of the GCC countries. Major industries that have been impacted in GCC countries due to COVID-19 pandemic include Energy, Aviation, Food & Beverage, Chemical, Retail & E-commerce, Travel & Tourism among others. Besides a major downfall in oil demand has been reported across the globe due to the effect of COVID-19. Due to this, many oil productions sites have been shut down or has to decrease production in the region. The closure of the industrial and commercial activities because of the pandemic would certainly affect their economies. Facility management (FM) constitutes a branch, jointly representing real estate market with property management and asset management. It plays a crucial role in economic activities in region as FM services are involved in all industrial and commercial activities. The Facility Management (FM) market in GCC countries has witnessed robust growth during the last few decades due to rapid economic activities in this region. It is an established fact in FM services manpower cost dominates the total cost whereas material cost plays vital role in construction industries. Majority of work forces in GCC countries in FM sector is migrant people from the Globe. CCC countries are showing actions that they are capable of acting effectively to contain the health and economic impacts of the pandemic within their own borders, albeit with marked shortcomings when it comes to protecting migrant workers. It is estimated that approximately 23 million migrant workers are living GCC countries . These millions of migrant workers across the Gulf face uncertainty as host countries lock down, employers withhold wages or mull redundancies, and strict coronavirus containment measures lead to deportations and confinement. This will have series impact on FM sector. In this paper a detail study the impact of COVID 19 on FM sector in GCC countries is reported. Strategies to overcome the crisis are listed along with the means and recommendation to implement the strategy.

A REVIEW ON HEALTH CARE ACESS DURING COVID 19

Dr.Rajesh R; Dr. Radhika

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5645-5651

COVID-19 pandemic raises the risk of symptoms exacerbation and recurrence by added stressors and diminished service coverage in individuals with existing and remitted substance use disorder (SUD). Mutual service agencies and addiction network centres have expanded access to remote rehabilitation help sessions. However, systematic experiments have not yet been carried out in order to examine online rehabilitation support to inform best practises1–3. Without such experiments the risk-to-benefit ratio indicates an analysis of applicable literature which is taken into account in the light of future challenges and disadvantages. Provided that access to resources by SUD is restricted in person as a result of COVID-19 safeguards, online recovery assistance meetings can help minimise a vital public health issue while a public health pandemic continues.

Compare the Vital Concepts of Mother of All Pandemic Spanish Flu and COVID-19: A Promising Review

Gomathi Swaminathan; Srikanth Jupudi; Sathish R; Roshan NS; Gowramma B; Kalirajan Rajagopal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1466-1483

In every century, few invisible infectious diseases create an alarm to the entire world and which leads to extermination of the population. In 1918 and 2019, the world has tackled truculent diseases such as mother of all pandemic Spanish flu and COVID 19. The mortality rate of Spanish flu was greater than in the first world war. After 100 years’ same history was repeated in 2019 through COVID 19.  Suddenly a huge number of pneumonia cases were reported in the end of 2019 in Wuhan, China. These two outbreaks make medical, social and financial burden to the entire world. This kind of sudden pandemic breaks mental health and creates panic, anxiety and depression. Pharmaceutical preventive measures are not supported during both pandemics which was rectified by non-pharmaceutical preventive steps like lockdown, quarantine, wearing facemask and gloves, washing hands and applying sanitizer, follow the social distancing, closing cinema hall and schools, avoiding mass gathering in 1918and 2019-2020. The main objective of this review is to compare and summarize the concepts of both pandemics and how the people of the world need to come together and fight against common enemies, to warrant that we have the best scientific resources necessary to bring this outbreak to an end.

A SYSTAMATIC REVIEW ON EFFECT OF COVID ON CHILDREN

Dr. Ardhanaari M; Dr.Anita Harry

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5664-5670

After the 2019 pandemic Coronavirus (COVID-19), caused by Extreme Acute RESS 2 coronavirus syndrome was identified (SARS-CoV-2), our ways of managing ourselves socially and on a regular basis have changed unprecedentedly. The sudden isolation from education, social life and recreational sports has had great impacts on children and teenagers. In certain cases, domestic abuse has also increased. Due to heightened anxiety, changes in their diet and school dynamics, fear or even lack of a component of the issue1,2, stress has a direct effect on their mental health. Our purpose is to address the need to supervise and treat persons in various areas and to alert public health and government agents. We hope that effective and prompt action will minimise harm to your mental health as a result of the side effects of this pandemic.

SYSTAMATIC REVIEW ON THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG COVID 19 AND ANXIETY

Dr.Vignesh D; Dr. Lokesh. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5687-5693

The existing pandemic of COVID-19 has developed an unimaginable, socially hostile climate for citizens. Against the context of this exogenous shock, we analysed the relationship between risk-taking, trait resilience and state anxiety, under which the relationship between trait resilience and risk-taking moderates with state anxiety during the pandemic, and using the principle of combined prospects. In a survey of 515 people in the U.S. we test risk taking by means of a comportment assessed and evaluate trait anxiety, five main characteristics and other demographics. Study of a regression showed that age moderates the correlation between risk and anxiety and that highly resilient, risk-tolerant people have lower anxiety than less resilient people. In the other hand, older people with a higher longevity, are less prone to threats than their younger and least resilient opposites. Studies are minimal and further research is proposed.

A Review On Impact Of Social Distancing During The Covid-19 Pandemic

Dr.Subha V.J; Dr. Dayanithi B S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5536-5541

The first outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei, China identified of the COVID-19 is certainly an unexpected tragedy. About nine million confirmed cases have been recorded worldwide due to the highly contagious nature of the coronavirus 1. The findings of accelerated trials since COVID-19 have demonstrated that individuals are vulnerable to pandemic-related psychiatric disorders, including depressive thoughts, anxiety and depression symptoms and post-traumatic symptoms. Moreover, almost all countries around the world have pursued a social isolation strategy in order to reduce the epidemic transmission. This measure, however, compromises our social activities and connections. Therefore it cannot be overlooked its impact on human psychological wellbeing. Since our research is little understanding of the fundamental mechanism of its effects, COVID-19 aims to examine the behavioural disorders associated with this indicator and the role it plays.

KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS AND IMPACT OF EPIDEMIC OUTBREAK AMONG UNDERGRADUATES

Pinky Ruskin; Venkatesh .; Preetha. S; KeerthiSashank. L

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2107-2117

Extraordinary measures have been taken to control the quick spread of the covid-19. People's adherence to control measures is affected by their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards covid-19 during the rapid rise of outbreak. A self developed online questionnaire was created and was completed by the participants. The questionnaire consisted of 12 questions regarding the knowledge towards covid-19 and also it includes the questions on confidence in winning the battle against covid-19. Most undergraduate students are knowledgeable about covid-19, optimistic attitudes and preventive practices towards covid-19. Health education programs aimed at improving covid-19 knowledge that are helpful for the undergraduates to hold optimistic attitudes and maintain appropriate practices.

Extroverts And Quarantine A Survey

Obuli Ganesh Kishore. S; V.Vishnu Priya; A. Jothi Priya; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2772-2788

Based on how people mingle with the society they can be classified as introverts,extroverts and ambiverts.Extroverts are people who are basically more active socially and gain attention.Introverts are people who don’t get mingled so much and they stay in a very small circle,they just live to show that they exist.Ambiverts are people who are not extroverts or introverts,they adapt and be how they have to be in places.This study is to to know about the mindset of extrovert individuals at this time of lockdown and quarantine. A self structured questionnaire containing 19 questions was circulated through online google forms link.The survey population contained 100 people.The responses obtained were statistically analysed in SPSS software and the results were depicted in the form of pie charts and graphs.The overall result shows that it is getting tougher day by day for the extroverts to stay home during this lockdown in quarantine as they usually weren’t this ideal.Hence this study can be used to plan for tasks that could keep these extroverts engaged and make it easy for them to abide by the laws in times of national emergencies and pandemics.

CHLOROQUINE AS A PROPHYLACTIC AGENT FOR COVID-19 INFECTION - A SURVEY AMONG SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

Keerthana. B; Dr.R.Gayatri Devi; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 822-831

COVID 19 being the deadliest disease all over the world regarded as the pandemic, the hope of every people is to get an effective medication that can counter it. There is a strong belief that chloroquine may help in controlling the virus. It is taken as an oral preparation. Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine is a drug class 4- aminoquinoline. Chloroquine is contraindicated in people with heart disease or diabetes. It has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause toxicity easily.A derivative of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine was synthesised first in 1946. Chloroquine is primarily used to prevent and treat malaria in areas where malaria remains sensitive to its effects. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared consisting of 10 questions and was distributed to a random population through Google docs and we got almost 100 responses. About 63% of the participants are aware of COVID-19 and chloroquine. SPSS software was used to analyse the data for descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis for association with gender. About 50% of the participants' perception is that chloroquine will protect them from COVID-19, and are aware that hydroxychloroquine and other forms of chloroquine are undergoing a clinical trial of COVID-19. If it succeeds it will have a big impact on the current crisis.

Lessons Learnt From The Covid-19 Pandemic In Italy.

Apurva Choudhary; Smiline Girija AS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2583-2594

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) reached pandemic world-wide especially in Italy from early March 2020. Many factors were under discussion among public health experts for the exorbitant mortality rate in Italy than other countries. A coordinated global response was desperately needed to prepare health systems to meet this unprecedented challenge in Italy. This review illustrates predictions, chronic comorbidities, effects of COVID 19 on Italian health system. Covid disease affecting the elderly population with co-morbidities, the same was associated in the mortality rate among elder population in Italy in a greater rate. The mortality rate in Italy was also higher due to the asymptomatic cases not being tested and isolated with initial screening. The most serious outcome of COVID 19 pneumonia was recorded among the population in Italy. Exhausted number of ICU’s beds, ventilators and respirators revealed their un-preparedness for the covid-19 pandemic. This review thus focuses on the various factors to be considered in future pandemics by analyzing the covid - 19 pandemic in Italy.

HAS W.H.O DONE AN ERROR WITH COVID- 19 IN REGARDANCE WITH ITS JANUARY- 2020 REPORT ON HUMAN TO HUMAN TRANSMISSION- A SURVEY ON A POPULAR PERCEPTION

Subaraman M; Dr.Ganesh Lakshmanan; Dr. Gayathri R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 549-560

The COVID-19 epidemic in China is a world health threat. So far now it is the largest outbreak of atypical pneumonia since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in 2003. Within weeks of the onset of COVID-19 the total number of cases and deaths exceeded those of SARS .SARS is similar to COVID-19, and SARS is a beta-coronavirus that can be spread to humans through intermediate hosts such as bats, though the actual route of transmission of COVID-19 is still debatable. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020. It has been debated among the political leaders claiming that there is error from the part of WHO in giving a wrong impression at the golden hour where the pandemic could have been averted. A survey conducted with a self prepared questionnaire comprising 15 questions with a sample of 100 people of Tamil Nadu state. The questionnaire was prepared with questions comprising of covid 19 and who January WHO report, these questions help to determine perception on COVID-19 and WHO January report and that help to depict their knowledge and awareness on this topic and what is their critical perception of the role of WHO in handling the COVID pandemic. WHO plays a role in the process of updating the methods to prevent and cure the pandemic outbreak COVID-19. WHO is found to test the positive and negative responses shown by the possible methods present against COVID-19 and displays the most trusted method among the available methods.In the previous study, more than half of the participants are found to show high concern about swine influenza pandemic. In the present study, around 71% of the participants are aware of the COVID-19 pandemic and the controversial role played by WHO in spreading the COVID-19 pandemic. This study concludes that during this pandemic outbreak most of the participants are aware of the role of WHO in the process of controlling and updating information related to the global pandemic condition. It is evident from this study that people are sceptical about the role played by WHO in managing COVID-19

AWARENESS OF VARIOUS MEASURES TAKEN BY DIFFERENT GOVERNMENTS IN CONTROLLING COVID-19 PANDEMIC-A SURVEY

Thirukumaran .; Ganesh Lakshmanan; R.Gayatri Devi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 492-500

Coronavirus is a newly discovered infectious disease, most people infected by coronavirus experience respiratory illness and require special treatment for recovery. Older people underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease diabetes chronic respiratory disease develop serious illness.National responses to the COVID-19 pandemic have been varied, and have included containment measures such as lockdowns, quarantines, and curfews. More than 6.15 million cases of COVID-19 have been reported in more than 188 countries and territories, resulting in more than 371,000 deaths. More than 2.63 million people have recovered from the virus.The most affected countries in terms of confirmed cases are the United States, Spain, Italy, France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Turkey and China. The main aim of this study is to determine and rank the measures adopted by each country to fight against covid 19. An online survey was conducted with a self-structured questionnaire comprising 10 questions that were distributed through the google docs. The sample size of this study was 100. The results were analysed by performing the statistical software “SPSS VERSION 20”. The data was represented in the pie chart form. From this study population, 88% of the study population agreed that Covid 19 has to be controlled by all means. Nearly 70% of the population follows social distancing and 56% of them follow self isolation if they have symptoms and every country is working hard to contain it and minimise its impact. It is very important to prevent covid-19, because there is no vaccine found for treatment, preventive methods vary, and have measurements like quarantine, lockdown, curfews, sanitising our hands after coming home, using personal protective equipment. This study helps us to get knowledge about the measurements taken by different countries to control covid-19 and creates awareness on how to prevent covid-19.

Statistical Analysis on Novel Corona Virus: COVID-19

Vimal Kumar M N; JAYA R; Rubesh C M; Aakash Ram S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 95-103

A novel coronavirus, 2019nCoV is identified as the root cause for such a deadly outbreak causing respiratory illness. Due to its widespread impact on the global community, stringent measures were implemented to reduce the effect of the outbreak; self-precautionary measures like using face-masks, hand hygiene, and self-quarantine; environmental measures were insisted to follow and also surface cleaning and community measures to prevent the widespread. The pandemic evolved in China towards the end of 2019 and COVID 19 started to spread all over the globe like a typical wildfire capturing over 190 countries. It grows in a human body with common symptoms like common cold leading to respiratory problems and at times even death. The virus grows exponentially. So, based on the symptoms and the activity of the virus various measures have been implemented. The death rate peaked in the USA and Iran at the end of March and due to comorbidities and many medications has helped in cutting down the numbers. The rate of spread did not shoot up in countries like India due to preventive and cautious care and also due to reduced human contact from the countries with incidence or spread of the vector to other countries.

CHALLENGES FACED BY CHINA ON COVID-19

Hiranya . S; A.Jothi Priya; V.Vishnu Priya; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2230-2235

COVID-19 disease is caused by coronavirus, a dreadful virus which affected China on December 19 in the city of Wuhan .In humans , these viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to death.Most people infected with this virus have mild to moderate respiratory illness. This dreadful disease is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.Older people and those with underlying medical problems like cardiovascular disease,diabetes,chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness.The spread of disease is rapid from one country to another.In most of the studies it is being told that the death rates are increasing due to coronavirus.There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat coronavirus. To review the challenges faced by china on covid19. The literature review is planned using a database like pubmed from the years 2015-2020 to know about the challenges faced by China

PROS AND CONS ON THE MEASURES TAKEN BY THE INDIAN GOVERNMENT TO CURB THE MENACE OF COVID 19 - A REVIEW

S. Padmaja; Smiline Girija AS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 253-259

Aim: This review gives an overview on the pros and cons of the measures taken by the Indian government and also its impact on the public health and economy.
Materials and methods: The review is done by collecting and analyzing the articles from pubmed, google scholar and other government websites and were analysed. Period of the article retrieval ranges from Jan to May 2020 with proper inclusions and exclusions on the articles towards the data.
Results: When the articles were analysed pros outweigh the cons of the measures and had severe impact in the control and spread of Covid 19. Social distancing and lock-down measures were such measures taken with significant reduction in the covid 19 transmission. But they also resulted in certain specific adverse effects like disruption in the supply of basic amenities, fall of economy and unemployment.
Conclusion : We conclude that the public must strictly abide by the government measures since it has resulted in certain unforeseen events, albeit, advantageous results too. Together with the public support, the menace of covid-19 can be put to an end.

COVID-19: ITS INCIDENCE AND RECOVERY AMONG GLOBAL POPULATION - A REVIEW

Soorya Ganesh; Dr. Lavanya Prathap; Dr. V.Vishnu Priya; Dr. Preetha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 285-291

Background:
Coronavirus disease 2019 is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome . The
disease was first identified on december 2019 in Wuhan,the capital of China Hubei province and has since
spread globally resulting in the ongoing 2019-2020 coronavirus pandemic. Most recently,the middle east
respiratory syndrome coronavirus(MERS-COV)was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. In a timeline
that reaches the present day which is an epidemic of cases with unexplained low respiratory infection
detected in Wuhan,the largest metropolitan area in China’s Hubei province which was first reported to the
WHO country office in China,on dec 31,2019.
Aim:To review the incidence and recovery of COVID-19 pandemic outbreak among the global
population.
Materials and methods: This is a literature review conducted using article sources from databases-
Scopus and PubMed from september 2019 to April 2020. The articles are screened for data extraction and
the characteristics of studies are tabulated. The collected data is analysed and the results are reported.
Results and Conclusion: The findings of the review suggests that the recovery cases are less compared
to active cases,because it is so contagious which represents the average number of people to which a single
infected person transmits the virus is relatively high.

Awareness On Impact Of Quarantine Lockdown On Environment During Covid-19

S. Ganesh; Vishnu Priya.V; A.Jothi Priya; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2739-2755

The outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly across the world. To control the rapid dispersion of the virus, many countries have imposed national lockdown policies to practise social distancing. This has led to reduced human activities and hence primary air pollutant emissions, which caused improvement of air quality as a side-product.A well structured questionnaire containing 16 questions was circulated among College students. The questionnaire has covered basic demographic data such as age, gender and about the awareness of change in the environment during lockdown. Results show that human activities were lowered significantly during the period. This reduction in human activities has played a significant role in the improvement of the environment. Although the lockdown has contributed to a positive impact on air quality, it is important to take into account the negative impacts on social aspects, considering the deaths caused by COVID-19 and also the dramatic economic effects. From this study we may conclude that there is awareness among college students and this helps in improving the environment during normal days.

LESSONS LEARNT FROM THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN ITALY

Apurva Choudhary; Smiline Girija AS

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 467-475

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) reached pandemic world-wide especially in Italy
from early March 2020. Many factors were under discussion among public health experts for the
exorbitant mortality rate in Italy than other countries. A coordinated global response was desperately
needed to prepare health systems to meet this unprecedented challenge in Italy. This review illustrates
predictions, chronic comorbidities, effects of COVID 19 on Italian health system. Covid disease affecting
the elderly population with co-morbidities, the same was associated in the mortality rate among elder
population in Italy in a greater rate. The mortality rate in Italy was also higher due to the asymptomatic
cases not being tested and isolated with initial screening. The most serious outcome of COVID 19
pneumonia was recorded among the population in Italy. Exhausted number of ICU’s beds, ventilators and
respirators revealed their un-preparedness for the covid-19 pandemic. This review thus focuses on the
various factors to be considered in future pandemics by analyzing the covid - 19 pandemic in Italy.

AWARENESS AND KNOWLEDGE OF HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE AMONG PUBLIC

A.Sankari Niveditha; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 476-485

The aim of the study is to create awareness and knowledge of Hydroxychloroquine among the general public. Hydroxychloroquine (CHQ) was first recognized as a potent antimalarial agent. It was used for the prevention and treatment of acute attacks of malaria. Hydroxychloroquine is FDA-approved to prevent and treat malaria and also to treat the autoimmune disease, rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Quine advanced forms are chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine used for antimalarial treatment. Hydroxychloroquine has immunomodulatory effects and it may cause retinopathy. A survey was conducted among the general public during the pandemic COVID 19. The study setting was an online setting with a varied population. The sample size included 100 people and predominantly were South Indian population. The sampling method was a simple randomized method. Both the gender were included and the population was above 18 years. From the study, we come to know that 55% of people are aware of the drug hydroxychloroquine. 47% of the people were aware of the side effects of the drug hydroxychloroquine. 92% of people had knowledge about India exploring drugs to foriegn nations. 91% of people agreed that hydroxychloroquine along with common antibiotics can be used for the treatment of COVID 19. 43% of people are aware of the contraindications of the drug. Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine can cause abnormal heart rhythms such as QT interval prolongation and rapid heart rate called ventricular tachycardia. Patients with other health issues are at higher risk when receiving these medications. Hence from the study we can conclude that the study population has only minimum knowledge and awareness about the drug hydroxychloroquine. This study helps in improving the knowledge and creating awareness among the people.