Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : VISA

Surveillance of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) from a teaching hospital, Bhubaneswar, India

Sarada Prasad Sahu, Dr. Asish Malla, Rajesh Kumar Lenka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1945-1951

Background: Glycopeptides such as vancomycin are frequently the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For the last 7 years incidence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VISA and VRSA respectively) has been increasing in various parts of the world. The present study was carried out to find out the presence of VISA and VRSA in the Department of Medicine, IMS and SUM Hospital Bhubaneswar.
Methods: A total 1681 staphylococcal isolates consisting of 783 S. aureus and 898 coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) were isolated from different clinical specimens from various outpatient departments and wards. All S. aureus and 93 CoNS were subjected to MIC testing (against vancomycin, teicolplanin and oxacillin); Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) vancomycin screen agar test, and disc diffusion testing.
Results: Out of 783 S. aureus two S. aureus strains were found to be vancomycin and teicoplanin resistant (one strain with MIC 32 g/ml and the other strain with MIC 64 g/ml); six strains of S. aureus have shown to be vancomycin intermediate (two strains with MIC 16 g/ml and four strains with MIC 8 g/ml); and two strains with teicoplanin intermediate (MIC 16 g/ml). One CoNS strain was resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin (MIC 32 g/ml), and two CoNS strains were intermediate to vancomycin and teicoplanin (MIC 16 g/ml). All VRSA, VISA and vancomycin resistant CoNS had shown growth on BHI vancomycin screen agar (vancomycin 6 g/ml).
Conclusion: The present study reveals for the first time emergence of VISA/VRSA from this part of world and indicates the magnitude of antibiotic resistance in and around the study area. The major cause of this may be unawareness and indiscriminate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

A Detailed Analysis On Evolution And Influencing Factors On Plastic Money

Nagalakshmi. M; Dr.V. Andal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1243-1251

Banking is evolving long way from the days of the medieval money lenders counting coins on the bench to the present scenario, where it’s hard to trace the trail of money from the beginning.Plastic money is to make payment system cashless. Plastic money includes credit cards, debit cards etc. The Plastic Money in the form of cards have been actively introduced by banks in India in 1990's. But it was not popular among Indian consumers at the time of its introduction.This is a study done to gather the evolution of plastic money – the origination and the functioning of the cards till date. The study also includes various types of cards introduced in various time periods and also identifies the factor that influence the usage of plastic money among consumers using Chi-Square Test.