Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Hypothyroidism


ASSOCIATION OF DUAL ENDOCRINOPATHY WITH SEVERITY OF PREECLAMPSIA - A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

Sudhaa Sharma; Natasha Gupta; Sunita Jamwal; Atul Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1867-1877

Introduction: Hypertensive disorders complicate 5-10 percent of all pregnancies and contributes greatly to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Women with gestational diabetes are at increased risk of preeclampsia and worsens the fetal prognosis. Thyroid hormones seem to be important in placentation and regulation of early pregnancy, partly explaining the association between hypothyroidism and preeclampsia. Incidence of both hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes was found significantly higher in women with Preeclampsia Induced Hypertension. There are few studies worldwide to establish the association between Preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism in pregnancy. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association of dual endocrinopathy in pregnancy with severity of preeclampsia. Study Design: Prospective Observational Cross-sectional Study Material and Methods: 400 patients who met inclusion criteria and consented for the study were recruited in the study from November 2015 to October 2016 in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology , SMGS Hospital, Govt Med College Jammu. All patients underwent relevant blood and urine tests. They were grouped into 2 groups – mild and severe preeclampsia. The association of two groups with dual endocrinopathy (hypothyroidism and gestational diabetes mellitus) was studied. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test was employed to determine association of dual endocrinopathy with severity of preeclampsia. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, majority of patients i.e. 70.50% (282 out of 400) were in the mild preeclampsia group and only 29.50% (118 out of 400) were in the severe preeclampsia group. According to present study, 14.4 % of severe preeclampsia patients had dual endocrinopathy while only 7.8 % of mild preeclampsia patients had dual endocrinopathy. This association was calculated using Chi-Square Test and was statistically significant (P value = 0.042).

PATTERN OF ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING IN HYPOTHYROID FEMALES OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE GROUP – A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

Dr. Sabha Malik; Dr. Saba Musharaf; Dr. Natasha Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 2204-2208

Introduction: Thyroid dysfunction may have profound effect on the female reproductive system. Hypothyroidism results in change in cycle length and amount of bleeding leading to oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, polymenorrhea, and menorrhagia Objective: This study was conducted to see menstrual patterns in hypothyroid females of reproductive age group in Kashmir, Jammu & Kashmir. Study Design: Prospective cohort study Material and Methods: 50 patients who presented to OPD with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding in Dept of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, SKIMS, Kashmir were recruited. Statistical Analyses: Data presented as percentages for qualitative variables. For continuous variable, student ‘t-test’ was applied and to see for association among the variables , chi-square test was used. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In our study among hypothyroid reproductive women, most common pattern of AUB was menorrhagia that was around 58% (29/50) followed by polymenorrhea 22 % (11/50). Hypomenorhea, oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea were present in 8%, 6 % and 6 % respectively. Conclusion: In hypothyroid females presenting with AUB, menorrhagia is the most common abnormal pattern of bleeding followed by polymenorrhea. Hypomennorhea, oligomennorhea and amenorrhea were less common.

Ionised And Total Calcium In Hypothyroid Postmenopausal Women

Monisha M; Swetha R; AnandaVayaravel C

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3346-3351

Background:Hypothyroidism,is a common endocrine disorder manifestingwith altered mineral metabolism.Hence we designed this research to compare the levels of total and ionised calcium in postmenopausal women with thyroid dysfunction. Materials and methods:This is a case control study with 75 hypothyroid postmenopausal women and 25euthyroids.Triiodothyronine(T3),Thyroxine(T4) level, Thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH)and serum total and ionised calcium were analysed. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software.Results:Postmenopausal women with hypothyroidism showed a significant reduction in total and ionised calcium levels with increase in duration of disease. Correlation analysis with calcium (total and ionised) showed a significant negative correlation for TSH and positive correlation for T3 and T4.Conclusion:Decrease in total and ionised calcium level in postmenopausal women with hypothyroidism was observed in our study. It was considered to be due to reduced intestinal absorption and increased renal loss which is worsened by dysfunctional thyroid. Evaluation of mineral status in hypothyroidism may support early prediction and prevention of osteoporosis in postmenopausal population.

Prevalence of thyroid disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus in South Indian Population.

Harikrishnan S; Yuvaraj Maria Francis; Balaji Karunakaran; Kumaresan . M; Gunapriya Ragunath

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3329-3334

Introduction: Diabetes is a common problem seen in one third of the population. Prior studies reveal that many patients also have associated thyroid dysfunction. However there are not many published studies on these in India. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in diabetics is 2-3 times more than non diabetic patients. Blood glucose is affected by high thyroid levels or low thyroid levels. When thyroid levels are high, there is elevation of blood glucose. This is because the body uses up insulin faster due to acceleration of general metabolism by thyroid. When there is hypothyroidism, the insulin is used up slower, so blood glucose can get reduced. Thyroid hence, play an important role in maintaining regular blood glucose and insulin levels. Anytime it is out of control, it could cause abnormal glucose levels. Uncontrolled Hypothyroidism causes weight gain while uncontrolled hyperthyroidism causes weight loss. These weight changes can also alter the glycemic control in diabetics. Overall diabetes and thyroid dysfunction causes unpredictable changes in glucose levels. So, thyroid abnormality the easily correctable disease between these two - thyroid and diabetes should be screened for and corrected in every diabetic. Before we start screening for thyroid dysfunction in diabetics, we should know the prevalence of the disease in our settings. Aim: This study aims to uncover the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among diabetics in an urban diabetic clinic in south India. Methodology: In this retrospective study, data of 724 patients with diabetes who attended an diabetic clinic in saveetha Medical College and Hospital from September 2018 to May 2019, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone were tested for were included. The inclusion criteria are: Diabetes - both known and newly diagnosed in whom TSH has been done within the last one year. The exclusion criteria are: Age less than 20 years, patients on drugs that can affect thyroid function tests and are pregnant. Results: Thyroid disorders were found in 136 out of the 724 diabetic patients. Most common thyroid abnormality among diabetics was hypothyroidism 123 (16.9%) followed by hyperthyroidism 10 (1.4%) and sub clinical hypothyroidism 3(0.4%). Prevalence of thyroid disorders was found to be more in females. Conclusion: To conclude, every fifth patient with type 2 diabetes will havea thyroid disorder. 9 out of 10 patients with thyroid disorder in diabetes mellitus will suffer from hypothyroidism. Though subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism are seen in diabetics, it is relatively uncommon. A clinical protocol of screening all diabetics for thyroid function at initial evaluation will help in diagnosing and treating the disease earlier.

Effect of Maternal Hypothyroidism During Gestation and Lactation in Female Rats on Thyroidal and Testicular Functions of Their Male Offspring at Puberty

Sarah J. S .; Jassim M. A. Alkalby

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1890-1900

Maternal hypothyroidism, is a deficiency of the transfer of thyroid hormones from the mother to the
fetus. This study was designed to investigate the effect of induced hypothyroidism in female rats during
gestation (G), lactation (L) and gestation and lactation (G+L) on thyroid and testicular functions of
their male offspring at puberty. The hypothyroidism state was induced by administration of
propylthiouracil (PTU) (0.2) mg/kg b.w/day orally to three pregnant female rats’ groups during
different physiological state as follows: gestational group (treated from day 6 till parturition),
lactational group ( treated from parturition till weaning) and gestational and lactational (treated from
day 6 of parturition till weaning), in addition, to pregnant control group which received distilled water
(D.W) only. All offspring were weaned at 30 days age and six male offspring of each group were
chosen randomly and left without treatment until puberty (60 days) postnatal. Blood samples were
collected to the measurement of serum level of some hormones including thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH), thyroxin (T4), triidothyronine (T3), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), and folliclestimulating
hormone (FSH). Thyroid glands and testes were removed for histopathology study. The
results of hormonal analysis revealed a significant (P≤0.05) increase of TSH concentration in G and L
groups and a significant (P≤0.05) decrease of T4 in all treatment groups while a significant decrease in
T3 was recorded in the G group compared with the control group. Histopathological results showed
histological changes in both thyroid glands and testes in G, L, and G+L groups. The present study
concluded that the different maternal hypothyroidism periods have a nearly different impacts on
offspring male rat, where the G group was the most affected than others.

Effect of Maternal Hypothyroidism During Gestation and Lactation in Female Rats on Thyroidal and Testicular Functions of Their Male Offspring at Puberty.

Sarah J. S; Jassim M. A. Alkalby

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5809-5819

Maternal hypothyroidism, is a deficiency of the transfer of thyroid hormones from the mother to the fetus. This study was designed to investigate the effect of induced hypothyroidism in female rats during gestation (G), lactation (L) and gestation and lactation (G+L) on thyroid and testicular functions of their male offspring at puberty. The hypothyroidism state was induced by administration of propylthiouracil (PTU) (0.2) mg/kg b.w/day orally to three pregnant female rats’ groups during different physiological state as follows: gestational group (treated from day 6 till parturition), lactational group ( treated from parturition till weaning) and gestational and lactational (treated from day 6 of parturition till weaning), in addition, to pregnant control group which received distilled water (D.W) only. All offspring were weaned at 30 days age and six male offspring of each group were chosen randomly and left without treatment until puberty (60 days) postnatal. Blood samples were collected to the measurement of serum level of some hormones including thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxin (T4), triidothyronine (T3), testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Thyroid glands and testes were removed for histopathology study. The results of hormonal analysis revealed a significant (P≤0.05) increase of TSH concentration in G and L groups and a significant (P≤0.05) decrease of T4 in all treatment groups while a significant decrease in T3 was recorded in the G group compared with the control group. Histopathological results showed histological changes in both thyroid glands and testes in G, L, and G+L groups. The present study concluded that the different maternal hypothyroidism periods have a nearly different impacts on offspring male rat, where the G group was the most affected than others.

Association Of Oral Lichen Planus And Thyroid Disease - A Case Control Study

Manthra Prathoshni.S; Muthukrishnan Arvind; Visalakshi Ramanathan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3137-3149

Introduction: Lichen planus, is a chronic autoimmune, mucocutaneous disease affecting the oral mucosa besides the skin, genital mucosa, scalp and nails.The exact etiology of oral lichen planus is unknown. The disease most commonly affects middle-aged females. Oral lichen planus usually presents as white striations (Wickham's striae), white papules, white plaque, atrophic , ulcerative, erosive or as blisters. There is a well established correlation between oral lichen planus and liver disease. Opinion amongst researchers vary on terminology of lichen planus and lichenoid drug reaction . Recent literature reported association between lichen planus and thyroid disease.
Aim: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the association between oral lichen planus and thyroid disease and its prevalence amongst patients visiting our dental institute.
Materials and methods: 67 case sheets of patients, diagnosed with oral lichen planus between June 2019 and March-2020 were retrieved from the electronic database . Collected data were entered into the Excel sheet and was analysed using SPSS analysis.
Results: Results showed a positive association between oral lichen planus and thyroid disease, mainly hypothyroidism (7.46%). Females were more affected than males (53.7%).The erosive variant of oral lichen planus was more prevalent among the study population (44.7%). There was a positive correlation between predominant clinical variety of Lichen planus and site involved. The positive correlation between hypothroid state and lichen planus is also reported.
Conclusion: In conclusion, our study establishes an association between oral lichen planus and a coexisting thyroid disorder mainly hypothyroidism .

Effects of Infection with Toxoplasma Gondii to the Levels of Thyroid Hormones

Taghreed Ahmed Mustafa Al-Issawi; Aysir Saleh Mohammed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 110-114

The present study was designed to detect the effect of toxoplasmosis in the thyroid hormones level Samples were collected during the period from July2019 to January 2020. Where the separated serum was preserved at a temperature (-20) until use. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent technique (ELISA) was used to detect toxoplasmosis. Hormone levels (TSH, TSH, T3 and calcitonin) were also measured using ELISA technology, Hormonal study, the results of the current study showed significant increase (P