Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : diarrhoea


Prevalence of acute diarrhoeal diseases in children below 5 years of age in Indian settings

Janardhan Bandi, Yogesh Mane

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 840-845

Background: Diarrhoeal diseases which are one of the leading reasons behind global
mortality and morbidity is more threatening for infants and young children. Childhood
diarrhoea is becoming increasingly prevalent disease in developing countries like India.
Moreover, it is a major cause of malnutrition that contributes towards third major cause of
under 5 mortalities. This has raised a serious concern in the domain of public health.
Objective: The present study attempts to identify the prevalence of acute diarrhoeal diseases
in children below 5 years of age in Indian settings.
Methods: This community-based, cross-sectional epidemiological and single-center study
conducted in the rural field practice area attached to Department of Community Medicine of
Topiwala National Medical College, Mumbai, and Maharashtra, India from March 2017 to
February 2018 was aimed to identify the prevalence of acute diarrhoeal diseases in children
below 5 years of age in Indian settings. Ethics approval was obtained from Ethics Committee
for Academic Research Projects (ECARP). Research tools included a pre-structured
questionnaire. Baseline information of study area was taken from the Primary Health Centre.
Data was entered in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to perform analysis.
Results: In our study, a total of 370 living children aged <12–59 months were included in the
analysis. Most of the children who belonged to in Class III socioeconomic status (61.4%),
affiliated to joint family (54.6%), belonged to Hindu religion (94.6%). Only 9.2% of mothers
were illiterate whereas remaining 91.8% mothers had completed at least primary education.
The prevalence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age was recorded as 20.5%.
Conclusion: The present study contributed to providing the prevalence of acute diarrhoeal
diseases in children below 5 years of age in Indian settings

Role of maternal factors towards diarrhoeal episodes in under five children in India

Yogesh Mane, Janardhan Bandi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 846-850

Background: Diarrhea is widely recognized as a major cause of childhood morbidity and
mortality in many developing countries, particularly in India. According to World Health
Organization (WHO) report, diarrheal diseases are still leading causes of mortality and
morbidity in children under five years of age.
Objective: The present study attempts to estimate the association between maternal factors
and prevalence of Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases in children below 5 years of age in Indian
settings.
Methods: This community-based, cross-sectional epidemiological and single-center study
conducted in the rural field practice area attached to Department of Community Medicine of
Topiwala National Medical College, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India from March 2017 to
February 2018 was aimed to estimate the association between maternal factors and
prevalence of Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases in children below 5 years of age in Indian settings.
Ethics approval was obtained from Ethics Committee for Academic Research Projects
(ECARP). Research tools included a pre-structured questionnaire. Baseline information of
study area was taken from the Primary Health Centre. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet to perform analysis.
Results: In our study, 340 mothers who used to take bath daily of which 61(17.9%) had
diarrhoeal episodes, whereas out of 30 mothers who do not take bath daily, 15(50%) had
diarrhoeal episodes. Further, 340 mothers of children who used to wash their hands daily
before the meals of which 58(15.8%) children had diarrhoeal episodes, whereas out of 30
mothers who did not wash their hands before meals, 18(60%) children had diarrhoeal
episodes
Conclusion: The present study indicated that maternal factors bear a significant impact on
morbidity caused by diarrhea.

Serum calcium and magnesium levels in patients with acute gastroenteritis

Dr. MA Reshamwala, Dr. Manish Maheshbhai Khokhar, Dr. Kartikeya Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1339-1342

Background: Though the earlier studies reported that there will be loss of magnesium and calcium ions in the patients with acute gastro enteritis, the exact measure was not provided.
Objective: The present study was undertaken to measure the levels of the calcium and magnesium in the patients of acute gastroenteritis. This information helps to plan adequate treatment in these patients.
Materials and methods: A total of 50 patients with acute gastroenteritis aged more than 18 years including both male and females were part of the study after obtaining the written, voluntary informed consent. Unwilling participants were excluded from the study. Patients with any severe complications were also excluded from the study
Results; Out of fifty participants, 20 participants were males and 30 participants were females. The range for calcium was found from 6.7 to 10.7 mmol/l. Majority of the patients have the calcium levels in the range of 7.7-8.7 mmol/l. The range for magnesium is 0.1-3.1 mg/dl. Majority of the patients have level of magnesium in the range of 2.1-3.1 mg/dl.
Conclusion: Significant decline in the serum calcium and magnesium levels was observed in the patients with gastro enteritis. The study results support the results of earlier studies. The study recommends the need of future studies with involving multiple centers and multiple samples to plan adequate treatment strategies for management of diarrhea cases and to prevent death of these patients.

A REVIEW STDY ON COVID 19 AND DIARRHOEA

Dr.Ashok Kumar A; Dr. Vellapandi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5652-5656

The 2019 pandemic of Corona Virus disease (COVID-19), caused by extreme acute coronaviral syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exploded in 2020 and produced severe global socio-economic and public health challenges. A subset of patients were also diagnosed with diarrhoea as well as usual characteristics such as fever, toxin and dyspnea. However, there has been inadequate attention to the clinical characteristics and prognoses of COVID-19-associated diarrhoea1–3. The analysis discusses the occurrence, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, improvements in faecal viruses, forecasts and influences influential to diarrhoea associated with COVID-19. In patients with COVID-19, the occurrence of diarrhoea was registered between 2% and 49.5%. SARS-CoV-2 of ACE-2 expressing the small intestine epithelial cells, which causes local intestinal damages, was reported as the key cause of diarrhoea. This cell invasion may be a main factor in pharyngeal swab positive for the long duration of SARS-CoV-2 found in faeces. The related diarrhoea in these patients disrupts the bowel flora equilibrium and leads to a greater severity of diseases and a better forecast. Patients with positive fecal-nucleic acid testing and intestinal microflower diseases should be careful with COVID-19 induced diarrhoea, and design more appropriate prevention and care options for these patients.