Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : COVID-19


Reshmi B; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 521-530

Coronavirus disease caused by SARS-COV2, a potentially fatal disease has become a global public health concern. As the understanding of this novel disease is evolving, dental students and professionals should have an in-depth knowledge and understanding and should be updated with the practices that have to be adapted to identify a possible COVID-19 infection .Not only knowledge but also an update on diagnostics, treatment ,variant ,side effects will be required to survive the infection on the upper hand .Knowledge of diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still evolving, and a clear understanding of the nature of the tests and interpretation of their findings is important.The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of diagnostic tests for COVID-19 among dental students.This questionnaire containing 10 questions regarding awareness about the diagnostic test were given to 100 students including interns , final year students ,and third year students through google forms and responses were collected and results were tabulated using SPSS software.In this survey 79.8% were females and 20.2% were males. 16.2% were third years, 12.2% were final years , 34.3 % were interns and 37.4% were post graduates. 66.6% of the students know PCR is used for diagnosing and detecting viruses responsible for COVID 19 and 33.4% don't know that PCR is a key test for diagnosing COVID and detecting viruses.7-11 The study concluded the respondents had moderate awareness about the diagnostic tests for COVID-19.


Reshmi B; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 570-578

COVID-19 is the disease supported by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes a severe form of pneumonia. Due to the pathophysiological characteristics of the COVID-19 the particular transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, and the high globalization of our era, the epidemic emergency has spread rapidly all over the world. Human-to-human transmission seems to occur mainly through close contact with symptomatic people affected by COVID-19, and the main way of contagion is only through the inhalation of respiratory droplets, for example when patients talk, sneeze or cough.The dental practitioners are particularly exposed to a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection because they cannot always respect the interpersonal distance of more than a meter and are exposed to saliva, blood, and other body fluids during surgical procedures. Moreover, many dental surgeries can generate aerosol, and the risk of airborne infection is to be considered higher. The questionnaire was shared among students pursuing dentistry which contained a set of 10 questions . The questions were about duration , practice on PPE and how aware and protected the students are during treating the patients.88% of them agreed that the gloves they wear protect them from viral pathogens and 5% did not agree and 7% of them were not sure about it .90% of them were trained on personal protective equipment whereas 10% of them were not trained before.This study observed good awareness regarding the practice of using protective equipment during dental treatment among the respondents.

COVID-19 - Mirror to Indian Medical Health Care System.

Swapnil Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3197-3203

Background: In the backdrop of COVID-19 pandemic, the main essential system is healthcare system. But the exponential rise of the disease, which is still rising, has seriously tested the capacity of healthcare system. Almost everywhere on the globe, the healthcare system is overwhelmed and underprepared. A mid-pandemic assessment of the current scenario will help in studying the impact of the disease and suggests future corrections which will have to make.Summary: The unprecedented catastrophe which has shaken the entire humanity named COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO) also known as coronavirus diseased 2019. The scale and spread of the disease has been never recorded in the near past of the human history. In addition the still evolving virus creates scope of new information on it every day. The main pillar which is fighting the virus spread is health care system. Which is now under a severe strain and compelled to allocate its most of the resources towards the pandemic which was declared so by WHO in mid-march. The Indian health care system which was infamous for rural-urban divide and lack of infrastructure was exposed by the pandemic. Although there are guidelines and advisories issued by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare time to time, the faults are still being rectified. Conclusion: Knowing the fact that of changing demographics of India, serious and mission mode level planning is necessary to cater the future requirements. Lacunae and nuances are better known early to act upon so that such situation would not arise in future. We will take look on all these related topics in this paper.

Efficacy Of Convalescent Plasma And Dexamethasone In Critically -Ill Patients

Pooja Rout

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3091-3096

Convalescent plasma and dexamethasone may reduce mortality in patients with viral respiratory diseases,patients who are critically ill (who are on ventilatory support) and are currently being investigated in trials as potential therapy for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The RECOVERY clinical trial ,however revealed that treatment with dexamethasone,a classic glucocorticoid and convalescent plasma has potentially improved the survival of critically ill patients an thus decreasing the detrimental effects.
In this review, the epidemiological studies of evaluating convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin and corticosteroids therapy for people with COVID-19 are included, irrespective of ‘study design’, ‘disease severity’, age, gender or ethnicity. Meta-analysis studies were taken into references for a systematic review. It includes populations with other coronavirus diseases ‘(severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) ‘or ‘Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)’ and studies evaluating standard immunoglobulin or other quantitative assays were excluded.
The information portals like ‘World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 and meta-analysis done from Global Research Database’, ‘MEDLINE’, ‘Web of science’ ‘Embase, Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register’, ‘ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention COVID-19 Research Article Database’, PubMed were taken for references and searched some clinical trial entries completed and ongoing studies till Aug 2020.

Dermatological Manifestations Of Covid-19: A Review Of Its Potential As A Tool In Aiding Diagnosis

Siddhaarth K; Dr. Swarupa Chakole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3144-3150

COVID-19 as we all know is by far one of the worst pandemics the world has seen in the past several decades. And the undeniable truth being that we are just on the tip of the iceberg in many densely populated countries such as India, Brazil, Pakistan though some countries such as New Zealand and China has positively recovered from the pandemic. But the alarming situation that we are witnessing in Beijing ,New Zealand and now England is the occurrence of 2nd wave of COVID-19. Furthermore, variable number of patients remain pauci-symptomatic, thereby facilitating community transmission. In this cohort of patients other signs leading to suspicion of COVID – 19 can help in early testing, isolation, quarantine and a better outcome.
For quite a long time, since COVID-19 cases started to rise in Spain, Italy and USA, many dermatologists who were posted in the frontline duties were able to notice that there may be similarities in cutaneous manifestation in the form of different kinds of rashes that could be noticed in majority of COVID positive patients. Since then many researchers started to take notice of the abnormal cutaneous manifestations seen in patients and started to analyse the several reasons for these cutaneous manifestations to occur and whether it can be used as a diagnostic tool in identifying COVID-19 positive patients an easier and more efficient task than the previously used methods
As skin changes an be easily seen by patients , it helps to guide patients to decide to get tested when there are no other respiratory or other systemic clinical features. This in turn would invariably lead to early notification of disease and hence inexorable decrease in suffering or death . That is the most viable outcome that is currently needed as there is a lot of significant pressure on the healthcare industry and professionals.

Covid-19: Management and The Way Forward

Vishali Dutta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3159-3165

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 or coronavirus disease 2019 caused by crown shaped SARS-COV-2 novel coronavirus has grappled the whole world in its deadly arms. The various aspects attached to it and its novelty has seriously acting as a road blocker in containment measures.
SUMMARY: The constantly changing pathophysiology of the coronavirus has made the medical fraternity and researchers to study more vigorously. Diagnosis and treatment must be according to the condition of the situation and individual. Inculcating healthy lifestyle may prove to be a game changer not just for now but in future too.
CONCLUSION: Th uncertainty attached to the COVID-19 is witnessed by recent news of its mutation. More study needs to be done on various aspects and proper correlation needs to be drawn to guide the efforts of containing the coronavirus spread.

Covid-19 and its impact on medical fraternity

Aishwarya Uday Beedkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3166-3174

Covid-19 or Coronavirus disease is a global pandemic that has gripped the world since early this year. The lockdowns in every nation have affected the global economy. Education, business, Industry, all forms of human activities and professions have been affected. But, at the forefront of these is certainly the Medical profession, which has been at the frontlines, curtailing the disease as well as trying to find ways in which it can be cured. The following review article attempts to examine the impact of the pandemic on various parts of the medical fraternity.
A timeline of the disease is briefly given from its initial case in Wuhan, China to its entry in India and when it came to be declared as a global pandemic. Further, the impact of the disease on medical education is examined. From lack of clinical exposure to methods of diagnosis being hindered, various changes due to the disease are discussed. Next, the impact of the disease at intern and post graduate level is described, as interns and postgraduates form an important part of the frontline workers fighting the disease.
Further, the impact of Covid-19 over practicing doctors in government and private Institutions is examined. The effect of the disease on private practice is also briefly given. A brief overview of the discrimination faced by Medical professionals in society is given. Finally, the impact of the disease on mental health of medical professionals is briefly examined.
In conclusion, it is observed that Covid-19 has irreversibly affected the Medical fraternity. From education to the way the profession will be practiced in future has been undeniably changed. To inculcate these changes in a positive manner is the responsibility of the medical fraternity.

Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 Quarantine in South India: A online cross-sectional survey

Narrain shree S; Jagannathan K; Vinod N P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1530-1545

COVID-19 has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. originated from China and has rapidly crossed borders, infecting people throughout the whole world. The present study sought to determine knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) of South Indian population toward COVID-19 Quarantine.
Methods: An online cross sectional, semi-structured questionnaire was undertaken through google forms among South Indian population (SIPs). SIPs aged 18 years and above constituted the study population. Data was analyzed using SPSS Software
Results: Totally 280 responses were received. The responders had a moderate level of knowledge about the COVID-19 infection and adequate knowledge about its preventive aspects. The attitude towards COVID-19 showed peoples' willingness to follow government guidelines on quarantine and social distancing. 32% of Participants have felt stressed during quarantine and 32.4% of participant had sleep disturbance. Alarmingly 32% are not anxious and feel free to roam around in public places without protective measures like mask and gloves. In this study, panic about acquiring COVID-19 infection during purchase and travel were reported in 29.5% and 11% participants respectively. The perceived Physical healthcare need was seen in more than 69% of participants.
Conclusions: COVID-19 Quarantine knowledge is gained mainly through media channels, Newspaper, which have strengths and weaknesses. Although the government has taken major steps to educate the public and limit the spread of the disease, there is a need to intensify the alertness of people during this COVID-19 Quarantine.

Importance Of Taking Tab Vitamin D During The Pandemic( Covid19)

Sheba Ann Varghese; Dr. Swaroopa Chakole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3111-3118

BACKGROUND: In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic which is evolving day by day many aspects need to be studied in depth so that these trends confirmed on the ground to formulate the containment and dealing plan.
SUMMARY: The COVID-19 pandemic is in itself an unprecedented one in almost a century. People are awfully struck by result by the consequences of the COVID-19. The comorbid patients are confirmed to be producing more severe symptoms than any other patients. The role of vitamin D which is the talk of the town from past couple of weeks is promising. The immune modulatory power and anti-inflammatory properties of vitamin D can be deciding factor in deciding the course of treatment whether critical or normal. The amount of vitamin D and the source such as fortified foods which can be provided to vulnerable people to full fill that amount is the issue of deliberation. Delivering mechanism to the people with the help of health care workers who are working on fields can be achieved. Issue of self-medication, immunity booster diet which can be curated for the affected patient as well as normal patient will not only be helping now but also in long term in future.
CONCLUSION: More comprehensive and extensive study is needed to establish the correlation between vitamin D and its positive and negative effects with respect to COVID-19 treatment and its various aspects.

Survival analysis to assess the length of stay of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients under Integrated Medicine - Zinc, Vitamin C & Kabasura Kudineer (ZVcKK)

D. Jamuna; P. Sathiyarajeswaran; M. S. Shree Devi; K. Kanakavalli; N. P. Vinod; A. Nirmala; T. Ravikumar; P. Pathiban; K. Babu; C. Dhanam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1375-1387

COVID19 pandemic out of all odds has created an opportunity to offer treatment in an integrative manner. This study measures the Length of stay (LS) of patients in an integrative way as done earlier in China and Vietnam. Length of stay,
Clinical presentations, and Comorbidities were analyzed among COVID19 patients in ESI Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Method: Retrospective cross-sectional data on 251 Positive COVID19 patients of both sexes irrespective of age admitted from 27 March 2020 and 26 April 2020 cases were included in the study. The final discharge date is taken as 5th May 2020. Kaplan Meier survival analysis was adopted.
Results: Male, female ratio were 141(56.2%): 83(33.1%), 12 (4.8%) Male Child and 15 (6.0%) were Female child. 5.2% of the patients were in the age group greater than 60, 75.3% were in the age group 20-60, and the remaining 19.5% were 0-20 age group. 84.9% of patients were Asymptomatic, while fever and cough were the main symptoms recorded in the remaining cases. CT scan was done for 7 patients. No mortality and no serious adverse events were reported. Comorbidity is 15% and does not influence hospital length of stay. The overall median length of stay is 12 days for those who were under ZVcKK (Median ST CI- 11.59-12.41).
Conclusion: This study recorded a median of 12 days in the Length of stay and 13.5 days in the Length of stay average. Comparing earlier studies, patients taking ZVcKK have savings of 7 days. i.e., the relief speed is higher while using ZVcKK.

Qurban Innovation Due to The Covid-19: Experiences from Indonesia

Abdul Syatar; Arif Rahman; M. Ilham; Chaerul Mundzir; Muhammad Arif; Hasanuddin Hasim; Muhammad Majdy Amiruddin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1600-1614

This article aims to elaborate the innovations on the Qurban procession during the Covid-19 pandemic by following health protocols. The approach employed is normative-empirical by looking at the texts of revelation, the views of scholars, fatwa products, government policies and relevant journals, online news and the realities that occur in society. The result of the study found that the innovation of of Qurban procession consists of 3 parts. First, the payment system is done by collaborating with online payment services. Second, the process of slaughtering specificied to certain locations that meet health protocols. third, distribution of qurban products is in collaboration with online transportation providers. These innovations are a response to the Government's policy through the relevant ministries to issue a circular to continue to carry out the slaughter of sacrificial animals in a safe location and able to break the chain of the spread of Covid-19. MUI and Muhammadiyah also issued fatwa products in which there was no significant difference. Government policies and existing fatwa products continue to comply with one of the religious teachings every year by implementing the slaughter of sacrificial animals with strict provisions in accordance with health protocols.

A Review of Investigational Antiviral Drugs for COVID-19 Treatment

Chandra Adwani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3182-3188

The world now is facing pandemic crisis of coronavirus disease. Initially very little was known about the course of disease and treatment. With the increasing cases of SARS-CoV-2 patients there has been an urgent need to find an efficient and safe drug for fighting the virus. Many clinical trials are going on in various countries across the world. Various antivirals, immunomodulators, steroids are being tested through different study designs like randomized control trial, cohort study in different stages of disease to improve the clinical outcome of the disease. Some drugs are tested in combination to improve the effectiveness. In vitro and in vivo clinical trials of some of the most frequently used antiviral drugs which are commonly being used all over the world against SARS-CoV-2 are reviewed in this article. Trials of drugs reviewed areremdesvir, ivermectin, hydoxychloroquine, chloroquine, favipiravir, merimepodib and lopinavir/ritonavir.Evidences and early results obtained from the interventional trials of these antiviral drugs are summarized.

Bioterrorism: Past, Present and Future

Shiva Tiwary; Dr. Swaroopa Chakole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3189-3196

Background: In late December 2019 a previously unknown pneumonia causing virus began rapidly spreading around the world. The disease was officially named as Corona virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19, by WHO on February 11, 2020). It is also named as Severe Pneumonia with Novel Pathogens on January 15, 2019 by the Taiwan CDC, the Minisry of Health and is a notifiable communicable disease of the fifth category.
Summary: The Corona virus is an invisible foe. The world has seen- in many instances- such pathogens being used as biological warfare for the purpose of authoritative supremacy by terrorising adversaries in wars in past like the infamous anthrax mail in used by Al-Quieda in The United States, the unforgivable doings of whom no person can ever forget. The possibility of Corona virus being used as a weapon naturally arises. Terrorists are 'hydra headed monsters': chop one head off, another head pops up; unknowingly and unpredictabily making the attacks so unanticipated. This makes the management and mitigation of the safety of people difficult. With advances in technology and information in hands, the world is trying to make sense of the risk of biological ordnances
Conclusion: People have taken primary safety in their hands. But we as a nation have to go a long way to tackle this and develop advanced action plans while keeping us and everyone around us safe. Like John Donne once said, "no organism is an island, entire of itself but a piece of continent, a part of a whole." With us facing the ongoing pandemic, the world is ready to have a much, much richer understanding of humble pathogens in all it's complexity and learn from it.

Systematic Review On Diagnostic Modalities For COVID-19 : Policy Directives For Future

Bhavesh Modi; Komal Shah; Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib; Deepak Shukla; Abhay Gaidhane; Deepak Saxena

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3251-3274

With the global spread of COVID-19 and with existing evidences, the radical uncertainty on how to control current COVID19 pandemic is largely based on early detection of cases and appropriate management of confirmed cases. The existing diagnostic algorithm in India is largely focused on RT-PCR that has limitations. It’s important that the health managers around the world should be guided by diagnostic algorithms for effective management of COVID-19 based on evidence. It will assist in real time control of virus spreads and most importantly will assist in defining what policies/protocols are effective in early diagnosis of COVID-19 and keeping the spread of the disease under check. Present study explores available evidences to be incorporated in diagnostic algorithm of COVID-19 in resource poor settings.

Covid-19 And Health Care Infrastructure

Nasim Ahmad; Dr. Swaroopa Chakole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3083-3090

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 is the pandemic of the century and has taken millions of people lives due to the complications attached to it. The mutated strain only adds to the panic and needs to be countered as soon as possible.
SUMMARY: The test, trace and treat model is acquired and followed all around the world to mitigate the viral spread that is wreaking havoc all across the globe. The treatment part of the COVID-19 containment model requires the health care facility. The gaps between the underfunding of the hospitals and its adequacy in providing necessary support in the COVID-19 pandemic has left wide open and there is critical need to strengthen the health care facilities all around the globe.
CONCLUSION: More study and funds are needed to ramp up the health care infrastructure spending. Public participation should be coupled with philanthropic activities so that all sections of society can access affordable minimum health care.

Prevention Of Transsmission Of Covid In The Community

Srishti Choudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3151-3158

Coronavirus disease caused by SARS-COV-2 is a worldwide problem. Research , treatments , vaccines and drug trials are still not conclusive , therefore the mainstay for tackling this problem lies in early detection of disease and its prevention. Studies tell us that the coronavirus disease spreads from human to human and even through contact with droplet infected surfaces. Maintenance of hygiene and social distancing have been proved to decrease the transmission of infection caused by COVID 19.
The outbreak of this global pandemic originated in Wuhan China and due to negligence and no prompt preventive strategies by the authorities ,in a matter of few months it became a major disease burden for the whole world. The disease is yet not fully understood and no effective treatment has been approved which created a world wide panic. Even With intense ongoing research, new diagnostic approaches , ongoing drug and vaccine trials , the only effective way to be safe from this pandemic is through preventive strategies. The whole world needs to carefully plan and sensitise its citizens on how to minimise disease transmission. Also strategies need to be put in place to create awareness and decrease panic in the minds of people.
In this review article transmission routes, preventive measures are being discussed.

COVID-19: Pregnancy and infants

Monika Adhau; Dr. Swaroopa Chakole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3076-3082

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has unprecedented health crisis which needs to be dealt with equal vigor of efforts. The spread and the capacity to spread of the virus is massive and that creates the overwhelming strain on the health care infrastructure and resources as a whole.
SUMMARY: The vulnerable sections of the human population such as old age peoples, persons having underlying medical condition or comorbidity are at higher risk of not only contracting the COVID-19 infection but also developing severe symptoms which needs intensive care attention. Psychological factors are also a serious consequence of the pandemic which is less talked about. Infodemic along with deadly pandemic are proving deadly duo and each one needs different and dedicated strategy to deal with and containment.
CONCLUSION: Dedicated health care facility for deliveries and post-natal care can be solution to minimize the maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate due to COVID-19. Widespread authentic information needs to be disbursed in order to deal with the pandemic.

Covid-19 And Immunity: Diet, Supplements And Prophylactics

M. Shavina Devi; Dr. Swaroopa Chakole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3104-3110

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 or coronavirus disease is wreaking havoc all over the world. It is unfolding its new deadly realms day by day. Prophylactic are meant to be effective in preventing the disease from happening itself.
SUMMARY: Supplementary diet and prophylactics have huge role in preventing the influenza like illnesses like severe acute distress syndrome which are similar to COVID-19. Obesity and several other comorbidities have huge negative and worsening impact on the patient’s treatment outcome. Vitamins are also included in the treatment course but it can also be included as self-medicated course with proper consultation with doctors to lower the burden on health care infrastructure.
CONCLUSION: More study and research are needed to solidify the relation between the prophylactics and its impact in influenza like illnesses.


Sree Jyothsna Beesetti; Nagendra Kumar Turaga; Girish Salaka; Mohana Turaga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2341-2349

A new, universally attractive and applicable paradigm that welcomes and encourages people to take responsibility for themselves and explore their true selves in search of health, especially in sickness and adversity is spirituality and psychological beliefs. In COVID-19 pandemic situation, how people react and will be in a healthy condition is a crucial aspect in India and even in other countries. To investigate the solution, we had aimed to study the impact of two factors like spiritual well-being and psychological well-being on attack of COVID-19 in India. To study the same a sample of 650 respondents were taken through online survey where 285 questionnaires were only selected for further analysis. A well-designed questionnaire was prepared by testing validating through experts for collecting the responses. Factor analysis and multiple regression tools were used to analyse the data for achieving objective of study. The results notified that spiritual well-being and psychological well-being were having less impact on attack of COVID-19 in people, but the relation exhibits significant. Which implies even there is less impact they are having some relation in prevention of attack of COVID-19. The paper continued with the future research of the study.

Platelet Indices As A Prognostic Marker In Covid-19 Infection (Sars-Cov 2).

Vivek Lahane; Sourya Acharya; Sunil Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3852-3858

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is a novel corona virus, first appeared in Hubei region of China and created outbreak in the town of Wuhan. COVID-19 patients have varied features ranging from mild respiratory tract infection ranging from fever (82%) and cough (81%) to vigorous acute respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis. Risk factors included elderly, male, and pre-existing medical conditions like hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease which causes increased morbidity and mortality among COVID-19 patients leading to hospitalization, intubation and intensive care unit admittance. Prognosis of these patients is directly related to worsening of certain hematological indices . In studies, parameters like Total Platelet Count and other dynamic platelet related parameters in COVID-19 patients are currently at concern.
There has been found evidence regarding potential link between Total Platelet Count and other Platelet parameters and COVID-19 and hence this study designed to understand and correlate outcome of patients infected with COVID-19.
AIM : To study platelet indices as a prognostic marker in COVID-19 infection.
1. To link platelet indices with other biomarkers such as LDH, D-Dimer and coagulation profile.
2. To compare platelet indices with the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.
3. To correlate platelet indices with outcome in terms of recovery, O2 requirement, severity and death.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: Cross sectional analysis in COVID-19 centre in 150 patients over 18 months span.
RESULT: In this study, a number of risk factors will be considered. We expect to find that mortality would be significantly related to platelet count and change in platelet indices.
CONCLUSION: The hospital-based unit analysis of confirmed covid-19 tested positive patients showed a combination of baseline platelet count and platelet changes resulting into mortality. Thus, surveillance of platelet indices appears to be of value in the prognosis of these patients.

Covid-19 And Its Long-Term Health Implications

Shikha Mishra; Dr. Swaroopa Chakole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3119-3126

BACKGROUND : COVID-19 or coronavirus disease 2019 is seriously affecting the day to day life of all the people on the Earth. This has created so much destruction, in person and money, that it is one of its kind disease outbreaks turned pandemic in past century.
SUMMARY: Treating COVID-19 is a challenge in itself as the containment is tough due to high spreading capacity and its deadly nature. Also, the post treatment implications have to be taken into account to analyse the expanse of the disease. From mild symptoms like occasional dyspnoea, loss of test and smell to critical long-term illnesses like myocarditis, muscle weakness, impairment in pulmonary capacity and many more. It is necessary to assess the post illness implications as necessary infrastructure will be needed to tackle the surged demand of rehabilitative patients.
CONCLUSION: More vast and broad-based study is needed in terms of database. Transboundary cooperation can be some and will best serve the purpose of fact finding and correlating the post traumatic illness.

Coronavirus (COVID-19): preventive measures and potential interventions

Marwan M Merkhan; Ghayth M Abdulrazzaq; Hiyam A Al-Taii

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1388-1399

Novel viral eruption originating in Wuhan city (Hubei, China) has spread internationally reaching all continents in an unexpectedly very short time, posing a great burden on global transportation, health, and economy. This mini-review article aimed at focusing on the available preventive measures and therapeutic interventions taking into account that there is a limited scientific resource of information and lack of specific established vaccination yet We searched Iraq Virtual Science Library (IVSL), PubMed, Cochrane Library MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), for the 3 target words ‘COVID-19, coronavirus, 2019-CoV’ and we included only articles in English in the study. The outcome of this study is important nationally and globally providing information about general measures and possible interventions relevant to public and health professionals. This review concludes that the nutritional status of the patient together with proper diagnosis should be the priority of the management plan provided that the loci is within the outbreak area and available flu vaccines should be used by unaffected health-care providers and children.

Automatic Classification of the Severity of COVID-19 Patients Based on CT Scans and X-rays Using Deep Learning

Sara Bhatti; Dr. Asif Aziz; Dr. Naila Nadeem; Irfan Usmani; Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aamir; Dr. Irum Khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1436-1455

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), which originated from China, has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) as it has surpassed over eighty three million cases worldwide, with nearly two million deaths. The unexpected exponential increase in positive cases and the limited number of ventilators, personal safety equipment and COVID-19 test kits, especially in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC), had put undue pressure on medical staff, first responders as well as the overall health care systems. The Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test is the decisive test for the diagnosis of COVID-19, but a significant percentage of positive tests return a false negative result. For patients in LMICs, the availability and affordability of routine Computerized Tomography (CT) scanning and chest X-rays is better compared to an RT-PCR test, especially in rural areas. Chest X-rays and CT scans can aid in the prognosis and management of COVID-19 positive patients, but are not recommended for diagnostic purposes. Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), three network based pre-trained models (AlexNet, GoogleNet and Resnet50) were used for the automatic classification of positive COVID-19 chest X-Rays and CT scans based on their severity into three classes- normal, mild/moderate, severe. This classification can aid health care workers in performing expeditious analysis of large numbers of thoracic CT scans and chest X-rays of COVID-19 positive patients, and aid in their prognosis and management. The images were obtained from public repositories, and were verified and classified by trained and highly experienced radiologist from Agha Khan University Hospital prior to simulations. The images were augmented and trained, and ResNet50 was concluded to achieve the highest accuracy. This research can be used for other lung infections, and can aid the authorities in the preparations of future pandemics.

E-Learning In Undergraduates: New Insights In Medical Education

Haritha G; Benjamin M Sagayaraj; Nidhi Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1708-1718

Aims & objectives: Covid-19 pandemic lead to the close of many real university campuses and initiation of online classes in MBBS curricula. The primary objective of the study is to analyze the conceptual flow and efficacy of online lectures in clinical disciplines and also to assess the medical undergraduate student satisfaction after 6 months of Online Clinical Phase III e-Campus. The secondary objective is to detect the student perspective and difficulties faced by final year medical students while attending online teaching in MBBS.Materials and methodsPhase III MBBS Students underwent Online Curricular activities like PPT lectures, QUIZ, buzz sessions, Case Based Discussions and Short Answer type assignments, on line Video presentation for Six months from April 2020-September 2020. Post test and Feedback was collected after six months as Google forms.
Results:Students felt that there was a longer screen time and there was an inability to focus due to the eyestrain. There were concerns in times of poor Internet accessibility too.
Conclusion:In Medical schools Online –learning is the necessity of the hour during this COVID pandemic especially with teaching hospitals having a high load of COVID -19 cases. Although it is user easy and freely accessible, E–learning cannot completely be used in lieu of in-campus learning. There are numerous effects on student life like eyestrain, easy tiredness due to more screen time and inability to concentrate

Impact of COVID 19 on women

Reshma Anna Johnson

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 2687-2695

Almost a year has passed since the emergence of the pandemic SARS-Cov-2 that has gripped nations worldwide irrespective of age, gender, and economies. Corona virus or the covid-19 is an infectious disease characterized by respiratory illness. This disease has an array of manifestations, often presenting as a mild to moderate respiratory illness or even may be asymptomatic can dramatically progress to severe acute respiratory distress and even death. Most people with the mild manifestations recover, while those who are suffering from underlying comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, long standing respiratory disease, diabetes, thrombosis and debilitating conditions such as cancer and immunodeficiencies are more likely to succumb with progressive acute respiratory distress has been attributed as the one of the leading cause of death.
The COVID-19 pandemic is unfolding prior disparities, divulging weaknesses in the social, political and economy frameworks, which are thus enhancing the aftermath of the pandemic. Across the globe, from the health to the economy, the effect of COVID-19 are more exacerbated for young girls and women. Though the afflicted population could be drawn from all the strata of the society but the aftermath has had a huge impact on certain groups of the population and one such is the women. While we are aware of the toll of mortality and morbidity that covid has bestowed upon us, little do we know about the impact that it has had on women, so this article is to throw some light on the repercussions on the lives of women that has been obscured by covid-19.
This article emphasizes and delineates the impact covid-19 has had on the lives of women. It also highlights the preventive measures that has to be undertaken as well as psychological impacts and domestic violence encountered by women.

Phbs Implementation And Personal Factors Of Medical Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic Period

Agustina Arundina Triharja Tejoyuwono; Rangga Putra Nugraha; Faisal Kholid Fahdi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1499-1510

The recommendation to prevent the coronavirus disease in Indonesia is to implement a clean and healthy lifestyle (PHBS). The good implementation of PHBS during the pandemic period is also the responsibility of medical students as part of the community and prospective health workers in the future. The purpose of this study is to describe the behavior in implementing PHBS and the conditions of student personal factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive research was conducted by distributing online questionnaires in July 2020, involving 361 students from six study programs at the Faculty of Medicine Tanjungpura University. The good behavior of implementing PHBS has been carried out by medical students, such as washing their hands in 6 steps, under running water, using soap, providing hand sanitizers, not shaking hands, maintaining distance and carrying out coughing / sneezing etiquette properly. Social media, audio-visual media, and journals are sources of information used by students to obtain information about COVID-19. The impact of the pandemic on the health conditions of families and themselves, education and the family economy is a worrying factor for medical students. Medical education institutions need to provide support for the implementation of PHBS and prevent physical and mental health problems of medical students.

Covid-19: How Prevention Is Better Than Cure

Shabnam Akram Sheikh; Dr. Swaroopa Chakole

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 3097-3103

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is proving disease of the century in terms of spread and death toll it has taken since its inception in China last month of 2019. Various aspects are being unfolded with the passing time and needs comprehensive study.
SUMMARY: The test, trace, treat model is followed by various agencies to contain the viral spread of COVID-19. But the limited number of clinical facility available is hindering the process of containments the accommodation for such a huge number of infected patients is impossible with current infrastructural strength. Also, long term health implications are the emerging problem as various reports are being cited to register persistence of various symptoms. Therefore, preventive measures can be an option to deal with both the problems.
CONCLUSION: As the pandemic is progressing, comprehensive study is required to popularize the preventive measures and tell people how they will be effective and benefit them if followed properly.

Use Of Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine In COVID-19 Patients- A Dilemma

Archana Bhatia; Sandeep K Bains; Ruchika Gupta; Tajinder Bansal; Kuldeep S Sandhu; Jaideepa .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6558-6565

The terror of COVID-19 is present universally. The number of cases is on rise. There is always debate about use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as a prophylaxis. Healthcare workers being the front line soldiers need additional protection as compared to general population. This review article highlighted the mechanism of action of both drugs and their role in COVID- 19 patients.

Awareness And Practice Of Infection Control Protocol Amidst Covid-19 Pandemic In Private Dental Clinics In North India: An Original Research

Dr. Yash Pal Singh; Dr. Brajesh Gupta; Dr. Heena Tiwari; Dr. Akshay M. Dhewale; Dr. Monika Saini; Dr. Shraddha Joshi; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6521-6526

Aim: The purpose of our research was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding infection control practice against coronavirus infection in various dental clinics in North India.
Methodology: A descriptive survey was conducted amongst 200 dentists. A questionnaire consisting of 11 questions was distributed, based upon knowledge of COVID-19, transmission as well as prevention strategies that can be implemented in dental clinics for stopping the chain of outbreak of this pandemic. The data was analysed with the help of descriptive statistics.
Results: 71% of study participants felt the need for using N-95 masks routinely during patient treatment. An astounding number of participants (92%), believed that there have been significant changes in infection control after COVID-19 pandemic. 65% of participants believed that HVE suction devices as well as HEPA filters need to be used to control aerosol spread so as to prevent COVID-19 infection.
Conclusion: Dentists in North India showed satisfactory knowledge and positive attitude towards COVID-19. Improving dentists’ level of knowledge could be achieved through increasing their accessibility to materials provided by dental health care authorities, which specifies the best and safest approaches for dealing with patients during and after the outbreak.

Patient Satisfaction asan Indicator of Service Quality among COVID -19 patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital atChennai, TamilNadu

Vignesh Naachiyappan M; G. Shiny Chrism Queen Nesan; Timsi Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3373-3383

Introduction: Patient Satisfaction survey is the heath check for the hospitals, which reveal the true level of customer satisfaction and helps in identifying the gaps in the service provided. Patient Satisfaction survey for COVID - 19 treatment was conducted in Saveetha Medical College and Hospital to identify the quality of service provided and any gaps available which can be further studied and sorted out.
Materials and Method: Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire PSQ-18 comprising of 18 questions under 7 sub-categorieswas used for the survey. The study was conducted among 93 COVID 19 patients who were admitted and discharged in the month of May and June 2020from Saveetha Medical College and Hospital. Their feedback was obtained through Tele conference due to movement restrictions. Obtained feedback were further compiled and estimation done as per the defined procedure to obtain the overall satisfaction rating and individual sub-category wise rating.
Results: Out of the surveyed 93 participant’s overall satisfaction percentage of the Saveetha Medical College and Hospital for COVID-19 treatment is 74.50%. Out of the identified sub categories, Accessibility and Convenience sub-category and Financial aspects rating are lesser than 70%. Difference in satisfaction level observed based on education factor where illiterate people have provided a lower rating.
Conclusion: Overall rating of the Saveetha Medical College and Hospital Covid treatment is good based on the carried-out satisfaction survey. Statiscal significance of various subcategories with respect to socio demographic parameters were established.

Relation of COVID-19 infection to outcomes of pregnancy during the pandemic in Kirkuk city

Ebaa Ghassan Akram; Safaa Ibrahim Mohammed; Jaklen Zaea Khoshaba

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4314-4318

Based on what is known at this time, pregnant women are at an increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19 compared to non-pregnant women. Additionally, pregnant women with COVID-19 might have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth. The study was conducted in the city of Kirkuk city during the period between February 1, 2020, and September 1, 2020, at Gynecology and children hospital. Through the study, 100 pregnant women were received, complaining of Covid-19 infections, which were diagnosed in Kirkuk, and now Real Time PCR was confirmed through nasopharyngeal swabs that were taken from the Hospital. The study also included measuring the level of blood pressure, sugar and IL-6 in those women during the fifth to eight week, where we were infected, and then in the 12th week of pregnancy took place, where communication was made, and a level was measured, and as a result, these women who completed the period with a pre-term labor, miscarriage before the 24th week of pregnancy or those completed the period with successful pregnancyThe study showed that were asymptomatic, 45% of cases of COVID-19 patients were with mild infection and 10% were with severe infection (P<0.001) In this study, 10 % of COVID-19 pregnant women suffer from hypertension, 13% were with Diabetes, 35% with UTI while 70% were suffered from fever. When reaching 24th week of pregnancy, and as shown in Table 3. The study showed that 40% COVID-19 pregnant women experienced completed the period with a preterm labor, 10% was with miscarriage before the 24th week of pregnancy, while 50% of them completed the period continued the pregnancy. In this study, 82.5 % of COVID-19 pregnant women with preterm labor were suffered previously from fever comparing with 55% of COVID-19 pregnant women without preterm labor.The study showed that the highest mean of serum IL-6 was found in women infected with COVID-19 comparing with healthy control (12.8±3.6 v.s. 29.3±3.1 ng/ml) (P: <0.001). Conclusions:The study showed a significant relation of COVID-19 infection with pregnant women who pre-term labor especially who have high body temperature.