Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Covid-19


Prevalence of Fatigue in Patients Post Covid-19

Shendy W; Madonna Maher Ezzat; Doaa Abdallah ELaidy, MD; Abdelaziz Abdelaziz Elsherif

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1330-1340

Background: pandemic Covid-19 isn't a simple health-care problem that will go away and never come back. One of the most common symptoms of Post-acute covid-19 is fatigue. Purpose of the study: To determine the prevalence of fatigue in adult people post mild and moderate covid-19 cases and the relation between fatigue post covid-19 and several factors. Material and methods: Eighty-one post covid-19 patients from both genders were recruited from registry records of preventive medicine and surveillance of Ministry of Health and Population in the city of El Minya / Egypt. The study was conducted from 15st September 2020 till 15st December 2020. Demographic data were collected (age, sex, BMI), smoking status, Data about status of covid-19 if they hospitalized or not hospitalized and received treatment. Fatigue post covid-19 was evaluated by using Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS) and Shortness of breath (dyspnea) by Numerical rating scale of dyspnea. Results: fatigue in adult patients post mild and moderate covid-19 cases after three to five months from their recovery was prevalent 64.2% using the MFIS. There was no significant association between fatigue and age, sex, BMI, smoking, hospitalization and received treatment. The association between NRS and MFIS was moderately positive and significant. (r = 0.39, p = 0.0001). Conclusion: fatigue was prevalent among adult patients post covid-19 with 64.2% using the MFIS. Continuous monitoring and timely intervention prevent long-term symptoms from being chronic.

Maternal and perinatal outcomes of pandemic Covid-19 in pregnancy in Basrah

Maysoon Sharief, C.A.B.O.G.; Gufran Jaafar, C.A.B.O.G.,; Alla Hussan, M. B. Ch. B., D.O.G

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 517-529

To evaluate the maternal, fetal and neonatal complications in pregnant women with Covid-19 infection. Setting and design: A prospective descriptive study was carried out in Basrah Teaching Hospital, Iraq during the period 15/3/2020 till 1/11/2020. There were 135 infected pregnant women with Covid-19. The maternal information's were obtained included Age, parity, residence, travel history, gestational age at time of diagnosis. The pregnancy measures of interest were evaluated according to the severity of the disease, medical disease, history of antepartum hemorrhage, mode of delivery, type of delivery, post-natal complication and admission to
intensive care unit and maternal death. The neonatal outcomes of interest were fetal weight, neonatal Apgar
score, admission to neonatal intensive care unit and neonatal death. Results: The mild type of the disease was common (41.48%) in comparison to severe conditions (17.77%).

Anxiety and aggressiveness in Peruvian postgraduate students in COVID-19 context

Nancy Isabel Herrera Paico; Sanchez Diaz Sebastian; Juan Méndez Vergaray; Edith Gissela Rivera Arellano; Enaidy Reynosa Navarro

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 713-726

The objective of this work was to determine the level of anxiety and aggressiveness in
graduate students from a private university in Lima; likewise, establish the level of
association between the variables under study in the COVID-19 context.
Methodology: quantitative approach, non-experimental descriptive cross-sectional
design; population made up of 378 graduate students from the César Vallejo
University (San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima-Peru Campus). Non-probabilistic sample
of 203 doctoral students from the mentioned university. The instrument used to
measure state anxiety and trait anxiety was the STAI “State-trait Anxiety inventory”
and the Buss and Perry aggressiveness questionnaire (AQ). Results: 84.7% of the
participants presented a high level of state anxiety, while 44.3% presented a trait
anxiety above the average; on the other hand, 60.6% showed a low level of
aggressiveness. The Chi-squared test showed a significant association between the
variable state anxiety and aggressiveness at a confidence level of p = 0.008 ˂ 0.05;
Likewise, the association between trait anxiety and aggressiveness showed a
confidence level of p = 0.009 ˂ 0.05. Conclusions: As a consequence of the
confinement caused by COVID-19, the levels of state anxiety and trait anxiety
increased, which is probably associated with the increase in aggressiveness in its
different variants.

Financial performance analysis of banking sector in India

Dr. Divyang Joshi, Mr. Samir Thakkar, Ravina Machhi, Devyesh Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3129-3136

The banking industry is important to a country's economic growth. With a large network of
branches and a diverse range of financial services, India's banking system is large. The
aim of this research is to study the financial results of India's two largest private and two
public banks. The financial performance of banks was analyzed using net profit, assets,
liabilities, income, expense, margin ratio, and return on equity ratio. After evaluating
financial data from 2015 to 2019, the study concluded that the private banks performed
better than public banks. The results of this study will benefit bank, shareholders and
customers, as well as bank management.

Predictive study of the end of the Covid-19 pandemic in Morocco by regression, and ARIMA modeling (p, d, q)

Majdouline Larif; Adnane Aouidate; Mohammed Bouachrine; Tahar Lakhlifi; Abdelmajid Soulaymani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2009-2018

Objective and methods: The objective of our study is to provide forecasts on the key data of the
epidemiological situation in Morocco in order to predict the number of beds in hospitals.The data sources
used in this study are official and they were daily collected updated with information from the Moroccan
Ministry of Health at 6:00 p.m. before the month of Ramadan and 4:00 p.m. for this month.
The autoregressive integrated moving average ARIMA was applied to real-time for the two month
Predictions on the Moroccan population. ARIMA models were able to estimate the number of positive cases
confirmed based on two criteria. The first criterion is to determine the reliability of the statistics and the
second one is to measure the accuracy of forecasting ability of the model equation. The sparse model with
the lowest order of the (AR) or (MA) and (RMSE) values of the forecasts for each dataset was considered the
best.
Result and Conclusion: The ARIMA (1,0,0), ARIMA (9,0,0) and ARIMA (10,0,1) models were deemed to be
the best suited to provide the best possible model to predict the number of positive cases for two months of
prediction of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).
However, the ARIMA model (10,0,1) predicts the best model with an expected end of home confinement at
the end of June 2020 with an epidemiological peak of 5000 accumulated cases caused by the coronavirus
disease 2019 (Covid-19) on 13/05/2029.The models were able to predict the number of confirmed cases of the
coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) within a range of two months in Morocco. Thus, it can be a useful tool
for health officials to improve management of the fight against the pandemic and to warn in advance of the
spread of the pandemic.

A Study on the Problems of Online Teaching- Learning Classroom During Covid-19

Pranjal Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1919-1929

In this era of science and technology human beings made a tremendous progress
which we have never think of in the earlier days. Now we can interact with anyone without
much facing difficulty by thinking about our distances. But in 2020 we human beings came
into contact with a corona virus which creates sufferings in our life. It made a huge impact in
all areas of human life and education sector is one of such area. Due to covid-19 outbreak we
shifted our teaching-learning process from offline mode of teaching-learning to online mode
of teaching-learning. In this shift we have came across with different problems which we face
in the online teaching-learning classroom. So in this paper the researcher discussed in a detail
manner about an empirical study which was conducted to study the problems which are faced
in the online teaching- learning classroom.

CINNAMON: A CLINICAL APPROACH AS MULTIFARIOUS NATURAL REMEDY WITH ABSOLUTE IMMUNITY

Shefali Arora; Mahak Gusain; Ravi Gunupuru; Rohit Kaushik; Pushpendu Sinha; Deepak Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2331-2345

Plants are the oxygen support for our planet and all living things. They can be considered as “mothers of medicine”. As mothers take care of a child, Plants do the same for all human beings and animals. Medicinal plants have therapeutic properties that produce a beneficial pharmacological effect on the animal and human body. In recent years plants are surveyed as new drugs and gain attention to the discovery of new bioactive compounds. Hippocrates quoted “Let thy food be thy medicine, and thy medicine shall be thy food”. The flavor, aroma, taste, and nutritional properties make the Cinnamon offers a wide range of health benefits. The present study explores the connection between the Cinnamon plant and medicine, our food, modern science

FORMATION OF HERD IMMUNITY TO SARS-CoV-2 IN THE REGIONS OF UZBEKISTAN

Rakhimov R.A.; Ibadullaeva N.S.; Khikmatullaeva A.S.; Abdukadirova M.A.; Sadirova Sh. S.; Lokteva L.M.; Rakhimov R.R.; Bayjanov A.K.; Samatova I.R.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 574-581

6 months after the start of the COVID-19 epidemic in Uzbekistan, a comparative analysis of the reported incidence of COVID-19 and the level of herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 was carried out. The registration of patients with
COVID-19 in the country was carried out on the basis of the positive results of the examination for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, using the PCR method. To study herd immunity, the WanTai SARS-CoV-2 Ab Rapid test (China) was used to detect total antibodies (IgM and IgG) in blood. In the period from August 27, 2020 to September 11,   020, in all 14 administrative-territorial regions of Uzbekistan, blood samples of 86879 people who sought medical help at an outpatient clinic at their place of residence were tested for the presence of total antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. According to official figures, 0.14% of the population were infected with COVID-19. The proportion of the population with the presence of specific protective antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus was 23.1%. This proves that the actual incidence of COVID-19, on the national average, was at least 165 times higher than officially reported. An uneven territorial distribution of the level of herd immunity was revealed. All regions were conditionally divided into 3 zones: 1) regions with a high level of herd immunity ˃ 20% (8 regions), 2) regions with an average level of herd immunity ˂ 20% and ˃ 10% (3 regions), 3) regions with a low the level of herd immunity ˂ 10% (3 regions). The degree of population affected in different regions of the county did not depend on the population density in the region, its age and gender composition. It was shown that the factors that influenced the intensity of the epidemic process and the formation of the level of herd immunity were the degree of external and internal migration.

FORMATION OF HERD IMMUNITY TO SARS-CoV-2 IN THE REGIONS OF UZBEKISTAN.

Rakhimov R.A.; Ibadullaeva N.S.; Khikmatullaeva A.S.; Abdukadirova M.A.; Sadirova Sh.S., Lokteva L.M.; Rakhimov R.R.; Bayjanov A.K.; Samatova I.R.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1247-1252

6 months after the start of the COVID-19 epidemic in Uzbekistan, a comparative analysis of the reported incidence of COVID-19 and the level of herd immunity to SARS-CoV- 2 was carried out. The registration of patients with COVID-19 in the country was carried out on the basis of the positive results of the examination for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, using the PCR method. To study herd immunity, the WanTai SARS-CoV-2 Ab Rapid test (China) was used to detect total antibodies (IgM and IgG) in blood. In the period from August 27, 2020 to September 11, 2020, in all 14 administrative-territorial regions of Uzbekistan, blood samples of 86879 people who sought medical help at an outpatient clinic at their place of residence were tested for the presence of total antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. According to official figures, 0.14% of the population were infected with COVID-19. The proportion of the population with the presence of specific protective antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus was 23.1%. This proves that the actual incidence of COVID-19, on the national average, was at least 165 times higher than officially reported. An uneven territorial distribution of the level of herd immunity was revealed. All regions were conditionally divided into 3 zones: 1) regions with a high level of herd immunity ˃ 20% (8 regions), 2) regions with an average level of herd immunity ˂ 20% and ˃ 10% (3 regions), 3) regions with a low the level of herd immunity ˂ 10% (3 regions). The degree of population affected in different regions of the county did not depend on the population density in the region, its age and gender composition. It was shown that the factors that influenced the intensity of the epidemic process and the formation of the level of herd immunity were the degree of external and internal migration.

FORMATION OF HERD IMMUNITY TO SARS-CoV-2 IN THE REGIONS OF UZBEKISTAN..

Rakhimov R.A.; Ibadullaeva N.S.; Khikmatullaeva A.S.; Abdukadirova M.A.; Sadirova Sh.S.; Lokteva L.M.; Rakhimov R.R.; Bayjanov A.K.; Samatova I.R.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1529-1534

6 months after the start of the COVID-19 epidemic in Uzbekistan, a comparative analysis of the reported incidence of COVID-19 and the level of herd immunity to SARS-CoV-2 was carried out. The registration of patients with COVID-19 in the country was carried out on the basis of the positive results of the examination for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, using the PCR method. To study herd immunity, the WanTai SARS-CoV-2 Ab Rapid test (China) was used to detect total antibodies (IgM and IgG) in blood. In the period from August 27, 2020 to September 11, 2020, in all 14 administrative-territorial regions of Uzbekistan, blood samples of 86879 people who sought medical help at an outpatient clinic at their place of residence were tested for the presence of total antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. According to official figures, 0.14% of the population were infected with COVID-19. The proportion of the population with the presence of specific protective antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 virus was 23.1%. This proves that the actual incidence of COVID-19, on the national average, was at least 165 times higher than officially reported. An uneven territorial distribution of the level of herd immunity was revealed. All regions were conditionally divided into 3 zones: 1) regions with a high level of herd immunity ˃ 20% (8 regions), 2) regions with an average level of herd immunity ˂ 20% and ˃ 10% (3 regions), 3) regions with a low the level of herd immunity ˂ 10% (3 regions). The degree of population affected in different regions of the county did not depend on the population density in the region, its age and gender composition. It was shown that the factors that influenced the intensity of the epidemic process and the formation of the level of herd immunity were the degree of external and internal migration.

COVID-19 – Impact on Banking and Insurance Sector

Aditya More

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2355-2362

COVID-19 affects various industries and economies across the world. India is one amongst the countries severely affected and in 3rd place globally. BSFI sector, which is one in every of the cores for the Indian economy, also affected poorly thanks to COVID-19. during this paper, we discuss various factors like lockdown approach, moratorium, different impacts in banking, financial services and insurance sector. Further, we've given some recommendations to mitigate things so the financial services can continue with the less negative impact which can help for better services to the customer and minimal revenue loss to the financial organisation.

Disinfectants and Sprayers for Prevention of COVID-19 Pandemic in India

Kishore Chandra Swain; Abhinab Mishra; Rutuparna Biswal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 899-912

A novel coronavirus (nCoV), originating from Wuhan, China had begun as an epidemic in
December 2019, declared as a pandemic in March and reiterated the call for countries to
go for lock down mode and other strict measures. With the onset of winter, the threat of 2nd
wave of infection is looming large over the Northern Hemisphere of the World. Virus is
mainly transmitted through droplets and then by touching contaminated surfaces and
mucous membranes with the hands. Though the virus survives on environmental surfaces
for varied period of time; it gets easily inactivated by biological or chemical disinfectants.
Alcohol based disinfectants viz. hand disinfectants, sprayers, mist blowers, cannon, and
butterfly sprinklers etc. act as vital component in controlling the pandemic disease.
Various biological and physical measures, such as self-disinfectant surfaces, UV-C
sterilization, cold plasma technique etc. will assist in disinfecting the surfaces and
materials. With unlocking underway, fast disinfection of the office space, meeting room,
marketing spaces and even the areas in contaminant zones need quick disinfection through
various sprayers, blowers and drones. This review emphasizes on the ongoing efforts to
prevent the transmission of COVID-19 and can guide the public health responses,
particularly in India.

ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY AND SPATIO-TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION TOWARD THE SEVERITY LEVEL OF COVID-19 IN BENGKULU, INDONESIA

Dessy Triana; Riry Ambarsarie; Utari Hartati Suryani; Nikki Aldi Massardi; Mardhatillah Sariyanti; Enny Nugraheni; Debbie Rizqoh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 657-663

The pandemic caused by Covid-19 has had a huge effect in various parts of the world. The
global situation of COVID-19 as of January 20th, 2021 were 99.864.391 cases with a death rate of 2.2%
with 183 countries infected by local transmission. The COVID-19 situation in Indonesia as of January
27th, 2021 were 1.024.298 cases with a death rate of 2.8%, occurred within 182 regions by local
transmission. Bengkulu Province is one of the areas experiencing local transmission of Covid-19 since
March 31st, 2020 and this condition continues to develop. This study aimed to determine the regional
vulnerability and temporal distribution of Covid-19 in Bengkulu. There were 956 confirmed cases of
Covid-19 within the period of July-October 2020. The overlay results between clustering analysis and
population density were gathered by using the Kernel Density Estimation method and ArcGIS software
version 10.3. The area that has a high risk of contracting the Covid-19 disease is Bengkulu City. The
use of technology-based information systems is indispensable in the digital era, including spatiotemporal
analysis, disease and health mapping, geographic dimensions which can be the basis for
decision making in an area.

Covid-19: A Pedodontist Perspective

Dr. Shimoli Shah; Dr. Deep Devendrabhai Patel; Dr. Susheel Kumar; Dr. Rucha Thakkar; Dr. Himani Janakbhai Patel; Dr. Musaib Syed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2873-2880

The COVID-19 outbreak has affected human existence in many ways, with
uncertainty faced globally. The dental practice and orthodontic care during the pandemic
and future practice will require precautionary and selective case evaluation based on the
practitioner’s judgment to reduce cross-contamination and prevent new outbreaks. This
article aims to provide a comprehensive guideline for managing the pediatric dental
patients at a clinical setup, using the currently available guidelines.

The Impact of COVID-19 in the Procedure of Religious-Worship and Social Life, In Islamic View

Muhammad Fuad Zain; Hasanudin .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 272-278

This article discusses the effects of a coronavirus pandemic in social life. Coronavirus is a global problem that has yet to be resolved until now, it has changed behavior in life, especially in the procedure of religious-worship and social life. The author find that the differences in understanding and attitude related to COVID-19 was caused by knowledge and mental readiness. So the case of COVID-19 corpse will not occur if they have understood and readiness even though it is clear that the coronavirus has changed the way of worship and social life.

Tracheostomy on a COVID-19 Patient:Case report and Review of Literature

Nekwu E. Okolugbo; Ufuoma M. Efole; Onome O. Ogueh; Anastacia O. Ojimba; Ejiro A. Benjamin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2864-2872

A new respiratory illness the severe acute respiratory virus (Sars Cov2), was identified at the beginning of the new decade 2020.
Severe cases present with respiratory distress and tracheostomy has been considered to play a role in their management.
We present a report of a Tracheostomy performed on a Covid-19 patient and also a review of the relevant literature.
A 62 year old man, was brought in on a transport ventilator with a endotracheal tube insitu. From a private clinic after testing positive for COVID-19.
While on admission he desaturated further and subsequently had a tracheostomy done with marked improvement of the oxygen saturation immediate post operative period.
However on the day following the tracheostomy, he desaturated suddenly, resuscitation was commenced immediately but proved abortive, Patient was later certified dead.
Despite the unfavourable outcome, we believe the decision to perform the tracheostomy offered the patient a chance at survival

COVID-19: Fear and anxiety among healthcare students in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

Sameer Shaikh; Syed Fareed Mohsin; Muhammad Atif Saleem Agwan; Saqib Ali; Ziyad Ahmad Alsuwaydani; Saleh Ahmad AlSuwaydani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1638-1647

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly discovered respiratory syndrome which has adversely affected millions of people around the world. The study aims to estimate the psychological impacts of COVID-19 in the form of fear and anxiety among the healthcare students of the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst health care students in Saudi Arabia. A non-probability convenience samplingapproach was adopted to collect data by mean of an online questionnaire on social media. The sample size was determined by using Epi info software; the minimum sample required for this study was 567. Likert scale with five points was used to measure healthcare students' fear and anxiety level. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23. The descriptive data were expressed as frequencies and percentages. Spearman correlation was used to determine the strength of the relationship between variables. Amongst 571 health care students, 359 were males, and 212 were females. Data revealed that 84 (15%) of students had a severe level of anxiety, 438 (77%) had a moderate level of anxiety and 49 (9%) of the students had mild level of anxiety. Correlation coefficient was found insignificant between gender, academic year and institute (=0.066, p=0.116), (=0.018, p=0.661) and (=0.034, p=0.423) respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on higher education because of the long-lasting pandemic situation. Our study's results illustrate the critical need to implement approaches and prevention measures to address healthcare students' mental health.

IMPACT OF IMPROPER BIOMEDICAL WASTE DISPOSAL ON HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT DURING COVID- 19 PANDEMIC

Dr. Biswapriya Jena, Dr. (Ms) Sanghamitra Patnaik, Dr. Nabnita Patnaik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4137-4143

The COVID-19 pandemic is reported to have reduced air pollution and environmental-related noise and improved biodiversity and tourist sites, however, the impact of stay-at-home and preventive measures on waste management is alarming. The present review article highlighted the impact of improper biomedical waste disposal on human health and environment during COVID- 19 pandemic

Neurological disorders in patients underwent COVID-19

Nargiza Nasriddinovna Ergasheva; Dilbar Nabievna Khidoyatova; Yakutkxon Nabievna Madjidova; Yuldasheva Manzura Muchammad Tofik kizi; Zulfiya Amalgeldievna Xodjaeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 256-262

Introduction: COVID-19 is the current global coronavirus pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The first reports of the disease outbreaks appeared in China on December 31, 2019 and the first clinical manifestations occurred earlier on December 8, 2019. On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak as a public health emergency of international concern. On March 11 it was declared a pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and anosmia (loss of smell).Complications can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pneumonia. The incubation period is usually around five days, but can range from two to fourteen days.
Aim of the research isto study of clinical and diagnostic criteria for neurological disorders and changes of laboratory parameters in patients with COVID-19.
Material and methods: We examined 31 patients who had undergone COVID-19 and were hospitalized at the private clinic "Neuromed-Service" named after academician N.M. Madjidov. There were 19 males and 14 females. The age of the patients varied from 18 to 75 years (the mean age made up 41 years).
Results: Patients with inflammatory diseases of the peripheral nervous system (neuropathy, facial nerve, trigeminal neuralgia), considering an increase of C-reactive protein were performed anti-inflammatory therapy with NSAIDs and steroids (Dexamethasone intramuscularly). In patients with convulsive syndrome EEG was monitored using the "Neuron - range 2" (Russia). Diffusechangesinthebioelectricalactivityofthecerebralcortexwererevealedinthestudiedpatients.Epiactivityinthefronto-parietalregionofthebrain (against the background of taking anticonvulsants)was also recorded. The dose of anticonvulsants was increased for these patients and decongestants were prescribed. An increase in fibrinogen was also noted in the blood of these patients. Conclusion: Thereby, in patients after suffering COVID-19, the blood tests showed an increase of fibrinogen by more than 2 times and an increase of C-reactive protein. All this testifies the fact that in these patients after treatment, at the alleged improvement of their condition, the blood continued the process of thrombosis strengthening and inflammation persisted in tissues and organs. In patients who prematurely stopped taking antiplatelet agents and anti-inflammatory drugs after illness, neurological and other complications were developed

PRACTICE OF PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT DURING DENTAL TREATMENT

Reshmi B; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 570-578

COVID-19 is the disease supported by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes a severe form of pneumonia. Due to the pathophysiological characteristics of the COVID-19 the particular transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, and the high globalization of our era, the epidemic emergency has spread rapidly all over the world. Human-to-human transmission seems to occur mainly through close contact with symptomatic people affected by COVID-19, and the main way of contagion is only through the inhalation of respiratory droplets, for example when patients talk, sneeze or cough.The dental practitioners are particularly exposed to a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection because they cannot always respect the interpersonal distance of more than a meter and are exposed to saliva, blood, and other body fluids during surgical procedures. Moreover, many dental surgeries can generate aerosol, and the risk of airborne infection is to be considered higher. The questionnaire was shared among students pursuing dentistry which contained a set of 10 questions . The questions were about duration , practice on PPE and how aware and protected the students are during treating the patients.88% of them agreed that the gloves they wear protect them from viral pathogens and 5% did not agree and 7% of them were not sure about it .90% of them were trained on personal protective equipment whereas 10% of them were not trained before.This study observed good awareness regarding the practice of using protective equipment during dental treatment among the respondents.

Health Care in Prisons and Detention Homes During COVID-19 Pandemic in India

M.Z.M. Nomani; Zafar Hussain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1488-1492

The paper deals with the legal framework for the health care in prisons and detention homes during COVID-19 pandemic in India. The World Health Organization has issued Guidance on COVID-19 for Prisons and Detention, 2020 for the health care system to deal with challenges of contagion in the arena of criminal justice system. The National Crime Record Bureau and the Prison Statistics India, 2020 revealed overcrowding and occupancy in jails as formidable threat of infection and transmission. Though the health and human rights envisages highest attainable standard of health among prisoners and detainees, ripple effect on community infection through detainees in detention homes and jails cannot be ruled out. The global outbreak of the COVID-19 has cascading effect on the health of inmates and convicts living in enclosed environments during the pandemic.

CORRELATION BETWEEN TEMPERATURE AND INCREASE IN COVID-19 CASES IN TELANGANA STATE

D.Lakshmi Padmaja; Medisetty Sujith; Sai Sruthi Bejagam; Manish Reddy Morapally

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2047-2052

The main aim of this paper is to know whether the temperature have any impact on the increase of corona virus. Covid-19, this name has brought a drastic change in our day-to-day life. People of Telangana have lived through 10 months of the Covid-19 pandemic and there might be more to come. Till date 2.8lakh official cases of covid-19 have been registered in Telangana and there may be many more which have gone unnoticed. In our busy life, we are neglecting our health and no one is maintaining a proper hygiene. And we have been more addicted to junk foods rather than nutrition, because of this reason covid-19 became a threat to our life. So proper precautions and awareness must be spread among people to avoid spread of virus. Fever, cough, breathing problems etc are the
symptoms of this covid-19. If we neglect these symptoms it leads to a severe problem like pneumonia, kidney failure and eventually leads to death of that person. At this moment we don’t have any vaccine to cure this disease, the only prevention or avoiding corona is to boost our immune system. To overcome this pandemic situation, firstly we need to know the important factors that increases in covid-19 cases. In this paper, machine learning techniques are used to identify how temperature varies with the increase of covid-19. Which means we find how the effect of temperature depends on the number of covid-19 cases in Telangana

Implementation of Deep Learning for Automatic Classification of Covid-19 X-Ray Images

Muhammad Shofi Fuad; Choirul Anam; Kusworo Adi; Muhammad Ardhi Khalif; Geoff Dougherty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1650-1662

Background:Reading radiographic images for Covid-19 identification by an expert radiologist requires significant time, therefore the development of an automated analysis system to assisting and saving time in diagnosing Covid-19 is important.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to implement the GoogleNet architecture with various epochs in hope achieving higher level of accuracy in Covid-19 detection.
Methods: We retrospectively used 813 images, i.e. 409 images indicating Covid-19 and 404 normal images. The deep TL model with GoogleNet architecture was implemented.The training was carried out several times to get the best acquisition value with a learning rate of 0.0001 for all levels. The network training was carried out with different epochs, i.e. 12, 18, and 24 epochs, and each epoch with 65 iterations.
Results: It was found that accuracy was determined by changes in the number of epochs. The classification accuracy was 96.9% in epoch 12, 98.2% in epoch 18, and 99.4% in epoch 24.
Conclusion: An increase in the number epochs increases the accuracy in the detection of Covid-19. In this study, the accuracy of the method reached 99.4%. These results are promising for the automation of Covid-19 detection from radiographic images.

Liriodenine: The Prospect For Covid-19

Ade Zuhrotun

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1381-1399

Until December 13, 2020, the total Covid-19 cases worldwide is 70,476,836 cases and counted 1,599,922 deaths globally since the start of the pandemic. The best medicine for Covid-19 has not been found yet, so this review intended to reveal potency of Liriodenine to overcome and help care for those affected. Liriodenine (C17H9NO3) along with Quinine and its derivate Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine are include in the compound of nitrogen-containing group or alkaloid. The main mechanism of its activity of Liriodenine is DNA Topoisomerase I and II inhibitors that have cytotoxic effect on several human cell lines such as A549, NCI-H226, SPC-A-1, NPC-TW01, ECV2 and 7111, KB, HEp‑ 2, and against gram (+) and (-) bacteria. Review results showed that Topoisomerase Inhibitor posses dual activity that works on both DNA and RNA, so does Liriodenine predict may affect to RNA virus include SARS-CoV-2 strain or 2019-nCoV. The potency of Liriodenine as new agents for Covid-19 diseases is supported by its other activity antifungal, antiplasmodial (such as Plasmodium falciparum), antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory (Immunomodulatory) activity. Plants-containing Liriodenine in the world is abundant, not limited to Annonaceae, Magnoliaceae, Lauraceae, Menispermaceae, and Rutaceae. So Liriodenine prospective for developing as herbal therapy or single
compound for Covid-19 diseases

A Study Of Covid-19 Spread And Death Contributing Factors In America Using Multi- Layer Perception (MLP) And Radial Basis Function (RBF)

Shafaf IBRAHIM; Saadi Ahmad KAMARUDDIN; Nur Nabilah ABU MANGSHOR; Ahmad Firdaus AHMAD FADZIL

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 144-158

In recent years, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) was widely implemented for
developing predictive and estimation models to estimate the needed parameters. As the
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case numbers are rising internationally as
uncontrolled outbreaks, it is important to better understand what factors promote the super
spreading events. In this paper, the use of Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Radial Basis
Function (RBF) of ANN for COVID-19 spread and death contributing factors in America
was described. A comparison was made by using a dataset of COVID-19 cases and deaths
reported from 49 states in America during April 2020. Seven covariates used in the network
which are High Temperature, Low Temperature, Average Temperature, Population,
Percentage of Cases over Population, Percentage of Death over Population, and Total
Cases. However, the performance of MLP and RBF networks may be evaluated relatively
similar. It was found that both MLP and RBF proved that the Population, Percentage of
cases over population, and Total cases are the most contributing factors towards COVID-19
spread and death in America particularly.

Redesigning Dentistry To A New Reality In The Era Of COVID-19- A Review Article

Aayushi Aggarwal; Vinisha Pandey; Neha Awasthi; Subhra Dey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 28-44

The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) led to unprecedented outbreak in Wuhan, China; has become a major public health challenge for not only China but also countries around the world. The severe global quarantine efforts and social distancing were taken worldwide in response to this global outbreak. This has challenged the health professions and systems evoking heightened reactions around the globe as response to Covid-19. While most heavily impacted, the role of the dental professionals in preventing the transmission and responding to its long-term impacts on dentistry is crucially important. This review article, while outlining the essential knowledge about COVID-19 and nosocomial infection in dental settings, provides recommended strategies for dental practitioners to redesign dentistry to a new reality in a way to combat dental crisis to bridge the gaps in dental settings to overcome this emergency.

Oral Health Condition and Dental Care in Children with Congenital Heart Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review

Harun Achmad; Sasmita M. Arief

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1233-1247

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common congenital defects, present at birth, it can affect the walls, valves or the great vessels of the heart. CHD considered to be among the most common malformations in newborn infants with an incidence of 8 out of 1000 live births worldwide. Children with congenital disease certainly need special health care. Healthy teeth and gums are important for everyone, especially for children with heart conditions. Providing children with dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic, and in particular during the increased social restrictions, can be a challenging task. The purpose of writing this systematic review is to examine about oral health condition and dental care in children with congenital heart disease during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data source of Pubmed, published from 2011-2021. After eliminating duplicated articles, the titles and abstracts of each article were analyzed across 119 articles resulting in 86 articles being excluded. The full-text articles in the remaining 33 articles were re-analyzed and excluded 23 articles and produced 10 articles which were then entered into the analysis. Based on this systematic review shows that children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have poor oral health. Education and disease awareness about and prevention of dental illnesses have to be guided and steered by the parents. The role of dentists and pediatricians is very important in this case. Providing children with dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic, and in particular during the increased social restrictions, can be a challenging task.

AWARENESS OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTS FOR COVID AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS

Reshmi B; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 521-530

Coronavirus disease caused by SARS-COV2, a potentially fatal disease has become a global public health concern. As the understanding of this novel disease is evolving, dental students and professionals should have an in-depth knowledge and understanding and should be updated with the practices that have to be adapted to identify a possible COVID-19 infection .Not only knowledge but also an update on diagnostics, treatment ,variant ,side effects will be required to survive the infection on the upper hand .Knowledge of diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still evolving, and a clear understanding of the nature of the tests and interpretation of their findings is important.The aim of the study was to assess the awareness of diagnostic tests for COVID-19 among dental students.This questionnaire containing 10 questions regarding awareness about the diagnostic test were given to 100 students including interns , final year students ,and third year students through google forms and responses were collected and results were tabulated using SPSS software.In this survey 79.8% were females and 20.2% were males. 16.2% were third years, 12.2% were final years , 34.3 % were interns and 37.4% were post graduates. 66.6% of the students know PCR is used for diagnosing and detecting viruses responsible for COVID 19 and 33.4% don't know that PCR is a key test for diagnosing COVID and detecting viruses.7-11 The study concluded the respondents had moderate awareness about the diagnostic tests for COVID-19.

VITAMIN C IN TERMS OF COVID-19, CURRENT TRENDS

IlxamdjanKarimdjanov Asamovich,Nozima Sаdiqova Baxadirovna, BotirTadjiev Mirkhashimovich,NurlanDinmukhammadiev Aktamovich, BobirMirkhashimovBotirovich,YaxyayevaKomola Zokirovna,AnvarTursunbayev Karimberdiyevich,FatimaXoltayeva Fayziyevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1341-1351

The role of vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of pneumonia andsepsis has been investigated for past decades. This reviewaimsto translatethese findings into patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19). It has indicatedthat patients with pneumonia and sepsis have low vitamin C status and elevated oxidative stress.Additional oral or intravenous (IV) vitamin C administered patients with pneumonia can mitigate the severity and course ofthe disease. Severely ill patients with sepsis need for intravenous administration of amounts counted in grams ofthe vitamin to achieve adequate plasma levels, an intervention that some studies suggest reduces mortality.The vitamin has physiological functions like pleiotropic, many of which are closely connected to COVID-19.These are its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antithrombotic and immunomodulatory functions.Previous observational studies found out low vitamin C status in critically ill patients with COVID-19.A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conductedworldwideevaluate intravenous vitamin C as monotherapy in patients with COVID-19. Optimization of the intervention protocolsin future trials, e.g., earlier and continuously administration, is justified to potentially improve itsefficacy. In order to the excellent safety profile, low cost, and potential for rapid enlargement of production,administration of vitamin C to patients, especially with hypovitaminosis C and severe respiratory infections,e.g., COVID-19, appears warranted. In addition, there are few new ways of concurrent using vitamin C and other manipulations or medications.

Role of mouthwash in prevention of Covid-19: A review

Dr. Swaroop S; Dr. Shwetha N; Dr. Cilpa Varghese; Dr. Pratik Surana; Dr. Ruchi Gopal; Dr. Sajin Sam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8118-8122

The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory
syndrome corona virus 2 (SARSCoV-2), first detected in Wuhan, Hubei province of China,
has emerged rapidly as a health crisis that has challenged health systems and health
professionals all over the world. Transmission occurs primarily through droplet spread or
contact routes. Due to these characteristics dental staff and dental practitioners are
considered to be at the highest risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection because of their
prolonged face to face exposure to patients and exposure to respiratory secretions and
aerosols produced during procedures like ultrasonic scaling and cavity/access preparation
using a high-speed air rotor with water jet cooling systems. Antiseptic mouthwashes have
been widely used as a standard measure before routine dental treatment, especially
preoperatively. They have an essential role in reducing the number of microorganisms in
the oral cavity. Hence, present review of literature provides details on role of mouthwash in
prevention of Covid-19 transmission.

Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 Quarantine in South India: A online cross-sectional survey

Narrain shree S; Jagannathan K; Vinod N P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1530-1545

Background:
COVID-19 has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. originated from China and has rapidly crossed borders, infecting people throughout the whole world. The present study sought to determine knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) of South Indian population toward COVID-19 Quarantine.
Methods: An online cross sectional, semi-structured questionnaire was undertaken through google forms among South Indian population (SIPs). SIPs aged 18 years and above constituted the study population. Data was analyzed using SPSS Software
Results: Totally 280 responses were received. The responders had a moderate level of knowledge about the COVID-19 infection and adequate knowledge about its preventive aspects. The attitude towards COVID-19 showed peoples' willingness to follow government guidelines on quarantine and social distancing. 32% of Participants have felt stressed during quarantine and 32.4% of participant had sleep disturbance. Alarmingly 32% are not anxious and feel free to roam around in public places without protective measures like mask and gloves. In this study, panic about acquiring COVID-19 infection during purchase and travel were reported in 29.5% and 11% participants respectively. The perceived Physical healthcare need was seen in more than 69% of participants.
Conclusions: COVID-19 Quarantine knowledge is gained mainly through media channels, Newspaper, which have strengths and weaknesses. Although the government has taken major steps to educate the public and limit the spread of the disease, there is a need to intensify the alertness of people during this COVID-19 Quarantine.

Coronavirus (COVID-19): preventive measures and potential interventions

Marwan M Merkhan; Ghayth M Abdulrazzaq; Hiyam A Al-Taii

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1388-1399

Novel viral eruption originating in Wuhan city (Hubei, China) has spread internationally reaching all continents in an unexpectedly very short time, posing a great burden on global transportation, health, and economy. This mini-review article aimed at focusing on the available preventive measures and therapeutic interventions taking into account that there is a limited scientific resource of information and lack of specific established vaccination yet We searched Iraq Virtual Science Library (IVSL), PubMed, Cochrane Library MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), for the 3 target words ‘COVID-19, coronavirus, 2019-CoV’ and we included only articles in English in the study. The outcome of this study is important nationally and globally providing information about general measures and possible interventions relevant to public and health professionals. This review concludes that the nutritional status of the patient together with proper diagnosis should be the priority of the management plan provided that the loci is within the outbreak area and available flu vaccines should be used by unaffected health-care providers and children.

Survival analysis to assess the length of stay of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) patients under Integrated Medicine - Zinc, Vitamin C & Kabasura Kudineer (ZVcKK)

D. Jamuna; P. Sathiyarajeswaran; M. S. Shree Devi; K. Kanakavalli; N. P. Vinod; A. Nirmala; T. Ravikumar; P. Pathiban; K. Babu; C. Dhanam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1375-1387

COVID19 pandemic out of all odds has created an opportunity to offer treatment in an integrative manner. This study measures the Length of stay (LS) of patients in an integrative way as done earlier in China and Vietnam. Length of stay,
Clinical presentations, and Comorbidities were analyzed among COVID19 patients in ESI Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Method: Retrospective cross-sectional data on 251 Positive COVID19 patients of both sexes irrespective of age admitted from 27 March 2020 and 26 April 2020 cases were included in the study. The final discharge date is taken as 5th May 2020. Kaplan Meier survival analysis was adopted.
Results: Male, female ratio were 141(56.2%): 83(33.1%), 12 (4.8%) Male Child and 15 (6.0%) were Female child. 5.2% of the patients were in the age group greater than 60, 75.3% were in the age group 20-60, and the remaining 19.5% were 0-20 age group. 84.9% of patients were Asymptomatic, while fever and cough were the main symptoms recorded in the remaining cases. CT scan was done for 7 patients. No mortality and no serious adverse events were reported. Comorbidity is 15% and does not influence hospital length of stay. The overall median length of stay is 12 days for those who were under ZVcKK (Median ST CI- 11.59-12.41).
Conclusion: This study recorded a median of 12 days in the Length of stay and 13.5 days in the Length of stay average. Comparing earlier studies, patients taking ZVcKK have savings of 7 days. i.e., the relief speed is higher while using ZVcKK.

Qurban Innovation Due to The Covid-19: Experiences from Indonesia

Abdul Syatar; Arif Rahman; M. Ilham; Chaerul Mundzir; Muhammad Arif; Hasanuddin Hasim; Muhammad Majdy Amiruddin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1600-1614

This article aims to elaborate the innovations on the Qurban procession during the Covid-19 pandemic by following health protocols. The approach employed is normative-empirical by looking at the texts of revelation, the views of scholars, fatwa products, government policies and relevant journals, online news and the realities that occur in society. The result of the study found that the innovation of of Qurban procession consists of 3 parts. First, the payment system is done by collaborating with online payment services. Second, the process of slaughtering specificied to certain locations that meet health protocols. third, distribution of qurban products is in collaboration with online transportation providers. These innovations are a response to the Government's policy through the relevant ministries to issue a circular to continue to carry out the slaughter of sacrificial animals in a safe location and able to break the chain of the spread of Covid-19. MUI and Muhammadiyah also issued fatwa products in which there was no significant difference. Government policies and existing fatwa products continue to comply with one of the religious teachings every year by implementing the slaughter of sacrificial animals with strict provisions in accordance with health protocols.

THE ROLE OF SPIRITUAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING IN PANDEMIC SITUATION, AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE

Sree Jyothsna Beesetti; Nagendra Kumar Turaga; Girish Salaka; Mohana Turaga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2341-2349

A new, universally attractive and applicable paradigm that welcomes and encourages people to take responsibility for themselves and explore their true selves in search of health, especially in sickness and adversity is spirituality and psychological beliefs. In COVID-19 pandemic situation, how people react and will be in a healthy condition is a crucial aspect in India and even in other countries. To investigate the solution, we had aimed to study the impact of two factors like spiritual well-being and psychological well-being on attack of COVID-19 in India. To study the same a sample of 650 respondents were taken through online survey where 285 questionnaires were only selected for further analysis. A well-designed questionnaire was prepared by testing validating through experts for collecting the responses. Factor analysis and multiple regression tools were used to analyse the data for achieving objective of study. The results notified that spiritual well-being and psychological well-being were having less impact on attack of COVID-19 in people, but the relation exhibits significant. Which implies even there is less impact they are having some relation in prevention of attack of COVID-19. The paper continued with the future research of the study.

Challenges of COVID-19 Vaccine Delivery Management in India

Dr Sandeep Bhardwaj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2509-2515

Corona Virus or SARS-CoV-2 or Covid-19 virus has disrupted the world like nothing else humanity has seen. It has brought about an unprecedented health crises that we only heard about in books. Every country was found wanting in preparation to fight the attack. With no treatment in sight, the only solution scientists started working on was to make a vaccine to prevent infection. Vaccine development history shows at best 10 years in the making. In a rare worldwide cooperation of best minds of the world, this feat was achieved in 10 months. Humanity will never forget the year 2020 which brought a crises and the human spirit to find solution to it.
The main objective of this study is to look at the scenario post vaccine discovery and approval. The disease being so contagious, has to be curbed by vaccinating the entire population. This is not an easy task as it involves mind boggling efforts on part of government authorities who are directly concerned with public health. For a vast and highly populated country, it is even more complicated. The study examines the major challenges in vaccinating the billion plus Indian population. Availability of skilled manpower, a weak healthcare infrastructure, delivery logistics, cost of the vaccine, and spread of misinformation are some of the most important challenges that have emerged out of this study.

The Impact of LSSR Policy on the Anxiety Level of Undergraduate Students during COVID-19

Xindy Imey Pratiwi; Jayanti Dian Eka Sari; Bela Yuli Selfia; Ianatul Ulya Dewi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2178-2186

Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) is an infectious disease caused by the new corona virus and causes most sufferers to experience respiratory disease. The current situation of Covid-19 until December 15, 2020 is known to be 623,309 people in Indonesia who have been confirmed as infected Covid-19. As a result of the continuous increase in the number of confirmed Covid-19 cases, the government implemented a LSSR policy to prevent the spread of Covid-19. However, this policy is felt to have a negative impact on the education sector, especially for undergraduate students. This research was an observational analytic study using a cross-sectional method located in cities and districts in East Java Province and was conducted from August to November 2020. The population in this study were all final semester students domiciled in East Java in 2020 with the number a sample of 385 people. This study was conducted to determine the effect of LSSR policy on the level of anxiety of final semester students in East Java. This study found that there was a significant influence between the implementation of the LSSR policy and the level of student anxiety in the final semester in East Java that was positive. This means that if there is an increase in the effect of the implementation of the LSSR policy on respondents, the level of anxiety will also increase.

Convalescent Plasma Therapy Against Covid-19: A Comprehensive Review

Dr Suchitra Shenoy M, MD; Dr Pooja Rao, MD; Dr Deepa Adiga S A; Dr Nikhil Victor Dsouza, MD; Dr Basavaprabhu Achappa MD

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3374-3384

The pandemic COVID-19, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to create havoc all over the world having caused more than 40 million cases and more than 11,32.528 deaths worldwide as of October 21, 2020. The treatment of COVID-19 is proving to be a challenge to the medical fraternity worldwide with no specific drug therapy or vaccine available in sight. The use of Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy, a form of passive immunization, in the treatment of COVID-19 has been gaining ground all over the world including India as convalescent plasma therapy has been used previously in virus infections like MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, H1N1 and other viral infection with some success, when the situation was similar as in any infectious outbreak situations. This review looks at CP therapy as a possible treatment option for COVID-19 in terms of: type of antibodies in the convalescent plasma, mechanism of action, possible adverse effects, current approval status and its limitations in the management of COVID-19.

Would Startup-India Assist The Economy In 'Starting Up' After The Covid-19 Pandemic?

Harikumar Pallathadka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 4372-4349

This paper brings into light the trending topic of the Indian Startup Ecosystem and the
Government's initiative for the same, 'StartUp-India.' It begins by introducing Startup as a
business concept and how it has benefited the national economy. It discusses issues that
new and existing startups face, ranging from capital acquisition to marketing strategies. It
further discusses how the Indian Economic Environment is a suitable place to run a
startup and the opportunities it presents. The present paper critically analyses the 'StartUp
- India' scheme and how it has helped develop home-grown startups by providing legal and
financial resources and the required expertise. It also examines the economic impact of the
COVID-19 pandemic and how startups can help revive the economy once things return to
normal, as well as suggesting specific sectors for investors and venture capitalists to target.

E-Learning In Undergraduates: New Insights In Medical Education

Haritha G; Benjamin M Sagayaraj; Nidhi Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1708-1718

Aims & objectives: Covid-19 pandemic lead to the close of many real university campuses and initiation of online classes in MBBS curricula. The primary objective of the study is to analyze the conceptual flow and efficacy of online lectures in clinical disciplines and also to assess the medical undergraduate student satisfaction after 6 months of Online Clinical Phase III e-Campus. The secondary objective is to detect the student perspective and difficulties faced by final year medical students while attending online teaching in MBBS.Materials and methodsPhase III MBBS Students underwent Online Curricular activities like PPT lectures, QUIZ, buzz sessions, Case Based Discussions and Short Answer type assignments, on line Video presentation for Six months from April 2020-September 2020. Post test and Feedback was collected after six months as Google forms.
Results:Students felt that there was a longer screen time and there was an inability to focus due to the eyestrain. There were concerns in times of poor Internet accessibility too.
Conclusion:In Medical schools Online –learning is the necessity of the hour during this COVID pandemic especially with teaching hospitals having a high load of COVID -19 cases. Although it is user easy and freely accessible, E–learning cannot completely be used in lieu of in-campus learning. There are numerous effects on student life like eyestrain, easy tiredness due to more screen time and inability to concentrate

Phbs Implementation And Personal Factors Of Medical Students During The Covid-19 Pandemic Period

Agustina Arundina Triharja Tejoyuwono; Rangga Putra Nugraha; Faisal Kholid Fahdi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1499-1510

The recommendation to prevent the coronavirus disease in Indonesia is to implement a clean and healthy lifestyle (PHBS). The good implementation of PHBS during the pandemic period is also the responsibility of medical students as part of the community and prospective health workers in the future. The purpose of this study is to describe the behavior in implementing PHBS and the conditions of student personal factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive research was conducted by distributing online questionnaires in July 2020, involving 361 students from six study programs at the Faculty of Medicine Tanjungpura University. The good behavior of implementing PHBS has been carried out by medical students, such as washing their hands in 6 steps, under running water, using soap, providing hand sanitizers, not shaking hands, maintaining distance and carrying out coughing / sneezing etiquette properly. Social media, audio-visual media, and journals are sources of information used by students to obtain information about COVID-19. The impact of the pandemic on the health conditions of families and themselves, education and the family economy is a worrying factor for medical students. Medical education institutions need to provide support for the implementation of PHBS and prevent physical and mental health problems of medical students.

Validity And Reliability Test For Research Instruments Regarding Health Professional Student Satisfaction Towards Online Learning During The Covid-19 Pandemic

Kulsum Kulsum; Taufik Suryadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2802-2817

In the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic, the strategies carried out to break the chain of transmission, one of which is by limiting social activities. A physical distancing policy has also been created which causes the face-to-face teaching and learning process to be transformed into an online learning system. Research is needed on the factors that can affect the satisfaction of health professional students related to online learning which requires valid instruments to answer research problems. The aim of study is determining the content validity of the questionnaire as a research instrument on the factors that influence health professional student satisfaction with online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The content validity of the instrument was carried out on 52 statement items by 7 experts. The validated instrument is an online questionnaire which refers to and adopts and modifies the questionnaire used by Pei-Chen Sun. The results of the validation of the 52 statement items obtained S-CVI/Ave by 7 experts of 0,953, S-CVI/Ave based on I-CVI of 0,945, S-CVI/UA of 0,731. Initial CVI of 0.890, but 4 items were eliminated, there were 48 statement items used as a research instrument with a final CVI of 0.935. The reliability test results obtained a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient value is 0.912. Calculating CVR, CVI and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient ensures that the questionnaire used as a research instrument is valid and reliable to assess the factors that influence health professional student satisfaction with online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Automatic Classification of the Severity of COVID-19 Patients Based on CT Scans and X-rays Using Deep Learning

Sara Bhatti; Dr. Asif Aziz; Dr. Naila Nadeem; Irfan Usmani; Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aamir; Dr. Irum Khan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1436-1455

The 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), which originated from China, has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) as it has surpassed over eighty three million cases worldwide, with nearly two million deaths. The unexpected exponential increase in positive cases and the limited number of ventilators, personal safety equipment and COVID-19 test kits, especially in Low to Middle Income Countries (LMIC), had put undue pressure on medical staff, first responders as well as the overall health care systems. The Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test is the decisive test for the diagnosis of COVID-19, but a significant percentage of positive tests return a false negative result. For patients in LMICs, the availability and affordability of routine Computerized Tomography (CT) scanning and chest X-rays is better compared to an RT-PCR test, especially in rural areas. Chest X-rays and CT scans can aid in the prognosis and management of COVID-19 positive patients, but are not recommended for diagnostic purposes. Using Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), three network based pre-trained models (AlexNet, GoogleNet and Resnet50) were used for the automatic classification of positive COVID-19 chest X-Rays and CT scans based on their severity into three classes- normal, mild/moderate, severe. This classification can aid health care workers in performing expeditious analysis of large numbers of thoracic CT scans and chest X-rays of COVID-19 positive patients, and aid in their prognosis and management. The images were obtained from public repositories, and were verified and classified by trained and highly experienced radiologist from Agha Khan University Hospital prior to simulations. The images were augmented and trained, and ResNet50 was concluded to achieve the highest accuracy. This research can be used for other lung infections, and can aid the authorities in the preparations of future pandemics.

Real-Time Measurement Of Psychological Impact Due To E- Learning; Among The Undergraduate Dental Students During Covid-19

H.M. Owais Nasim; Azeem Ul Yaqin Syed; Laraib Qamar; Saba Saleem; Zainab Javaid; Ayesha Khalid; Muhammad Sohail Zafar; Nausheen Aga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7875-7884

Objectives: To assess the psychological factors in undergraduate dental students towards elearning
in clinical skills education compared to traditional teaching methods and their
relationship with performance during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Methods: In this study, survey conducted among 494undergraduate dental students of all four
sessions from different dental universities within the Pakistan. Total 494 undergraduate
dental students responded to a 28-question online survey to identify e- learning is more
convenient and practical than traditional learning and to measure it 5- point Likert Scale used.
To measure level of psychological impact, Hamilton Anxiety Scale used due to e-learning
among undergraduate dental students.
Results: The majority of undergraduate dental student’s responded e-learning is not
convenient and practical than traditional learning system. The majority of undergraduate
dental students reported very severe level of psychological impact due to e-learning and closing
of institutions during COVID-19 pandemic. Results are statistically significant and analyzed
on IBM SPSS version 23. There are 82% students responded having problem with e-learning
system and among them 58 % have very severe anxiety and 24% have severe anxiety. So the
results shows increased percentage of anxiety due e-learning.

Assessment of knowledge and attitude among pediatric dentists regarding spread and control of infection before and after COVID-19 crisis.

Dr. Rajesh Ijalkar; Dr. Ritesh Kalaskar; Dr. Shruti Balasubramanian; Dr. Ashita Kalaskar; Dr. Priyanka Bhaje; Dr. Priyanka Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8368-8378

Background: In this time of COVID-19 crisis, need of hour to appropriately perform dental
procedures to reduce the spread of this deadly disease, it is importance to assess the knowledge
and attitude of pediatric dentists regarding spread and control of infection before and after
COVID-19 crisis.
Methods and Materials: Questionnaire-based survey composed of 6 questions that assess the
knowledge of pediatric dentists regarding COVID-19 infection and 10 questions each designed
to gather information about their clinical practice before and after COVID-19 crisis which
shows attitude of pediatric dentists. Online survey link was circulated through social media
and an e-mail to pediatric dentists from different locations in India and the responses were
collected. 346 pediatric dentists willingly responded in the study.

POTENTIAL INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN GCC HEALTHCARE DURING COVID PANDEMIC: A RESEARCH & REVIEW

Dr. Vinod Kumar Patchigalla; Dr Vikram V Khare; Dr. Heena Tiwari; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Amit Dalmia; Dr. Prashik Parvekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7150-7160

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought an additional set of challenges to theeconomiesoftheGulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Theregionhasbeen struggling to attract more and better FDI, constrained by investment climateweaknesses and regional geopolitical tensions. While the projected short-termdeclinesareexpectedtohittheGCC economieshard,thecrisiscouldalso bring new opportunities to benefit from global trends, such as reshoringand restructuring of global and regional value chains. The extent to whichthisispossiblewilldependonsustainingexistingreformsunderway,enactingtargetednew strategiesandmeasuresforthepost-COVID- 19context,andreinforcingregionalcooperation.ThisbriefprovidesanoverviewoftheimpactoftheC
OVID-19crisisoninvestmentintheregionandhighlights GCC government policy responses to catalyze investment andfoster an inclusive post-crisis recovery

Use Of Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine In COVID-19 Patients- A Dilemma

Archana Bhatia; Sandeep K Bains; Ruchika Gupta; Tajinder Bansal; Kuldeep S Sandhu; Jaideepa .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6558-6565

The terror of COVID-19 is present universally. The number of cases is on rise. There is always debate about use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as a prophylaxis. Healthcare workers being the front line soldiers need additional protection as compared to general population. This review article highlighted the mechanism of action of both drugs and their role in COVID- 19 patients.

Awareness And Practice Of Infection Control Protocol Amidst Covid-19 Pandemic In Private Dental Clinics In North India: An Original Research

Dr. Yash Pal Singh; Dr. Brajesh Gupta; Dr. Heena Tiwari; Dr. Akshay M. Dhewale; Dr. Monika Saini; Dr. Shraddha Joshi; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6521-6526

Aim: The purpose of our research was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding infection control practice against coronavirus infection in various dental clinics in North India.
Methodology: A descriptive survey was conducted amongst 200 dentists. A questionnaire consisting of 11 questions was distributed, based upon knowledge of COVID-19, transmission as well as prevention strategies that can be implemented in dental clinics for stopping the chain of outbreak of this pandemic. The data was analysed with the help of descriptive statistics.
Results: 71% of study participants felt the need for using N-95 masks routinely during patient treatment. An astounding number of participants (92%), believed that there have been significant changes in infection control after COVID-19 pandemic. 65% of participants believed that HVE suction devices as well as HEPA filters need to be used to control aerosol spread so as to prevent COVID-19 infection.
Conclusion: Dentists in North India showed satisfactory knowledge and positive attitude towards COVID-19. Improving dentists’ level of knowledge could be achieved through increasing their accessibility to materials provided by dental health care authorities, which specifies the best and safest approaches for dealing with patients during and after the outbreak.

Child Neglect And Its Repercussions In Covid Era

Nagalakshmi Chowdhary; B Suba Ranjana; Subhathira Rajasekaran; V Rajashekar Reddy; Nisha Gupta; A Thirumagal Anuraaga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4805-4813

Neglect is one of the most common forms of child abuse, yet is different from other forms of abuse as it refers to omission or negligence in meeting the basic needs of the child. “Neglect of Neglect” is a universal problem that needs one step more attention than the ever soaring physical and sexual abuse. The wellbeing and security of children makes a fundamental part in developing a prosperous nation. Healthcare professionals and teachers play a key role in identifying the child abuse and neglect, and thereby provide an immediate and a long term support to the children. A search was done from pubmed and google scholar with key terms “child” “child neglect” “Covid” “child rights”. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of the child neglect from a medical to socio-legal perspective in India and its negligence amidst the Covid pandemic and to ensure a prompt comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to protect the neglected child.

A Survey Of Undergraduate Students On Online Learning During Covid-19 Pandemic In The Indian State Of Manipur

Harikumar Pallathadka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 5914-5927

This research looks into how undergraduate students used social media and video apps for online learning during the Covid-19 lockdown. In Manipur, online learning or teaching online is a relatively new phenomenon. Theoretical concepts of Communities of Inquiry (COI), such as teaching, cognitive, and social presences, were applied to online learning during the pandemic. Survey questionnaires, focus interviews, and various research methodologies were used to assess online learning and its impact. A total of 188 undergraduate students were administered the Google forms, and 10 undergraduate students provided focus interviews. Using SPSS, cross-tabulation and Chi-Square tests were done to look for significance. Students' attitudes toward critical thinking and provoking debates were found to be significant findings, indicating that there is a teaching presence. Students were encouraged to think critically and ask questions. Students trust teachers as knowledge givers, as evidenced by their 82 percent approval that the lecturer possesses the knowledge. For sharing class notes, lecturers used WhatsApp, and for conducting formal classes, they used the Zoom app. Even though one-third of the students had poor Internet access, they could still communicate with their professors, though this is a flaw that needs to be addressed appropriately. The lecturers were forced to learn a new paradigm to deal with a changing context, and as a result, they became capable of completing the task at hand.

Epidemiological study of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant woman and their neonates; report of thirteen confirmed COVID-19 pregnant women

Alireza Kamali; Behnam Mahmodiyeh; Amir Almasi-Hashiani; Morteza Mousavi Hasanzadeh; Maryam Shokrpour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4455-4461

Background: In new pandemic, the probable effects of COVID-19 pneumonia on pregnant woman and their infant is one of new critical challenge for health care. Here we presented clinical symptoms, laboratory findings and outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant woman. Methods: In a case series study, from 15 Feb to 15 June 2020, all women with RT-PCR COVID-19 who referred to two hospitals (Taleghani and Qods Hospital) affiliated to Arak University of Medical Sciences were selected. The epidemiological and demographic variables, laboratory test and outcomes obtained from patient’s medical records. Results: In this case series, we presented thirteen confirmed COVID-19 pregnant women. Their mean age was 34.6 (S.D.: 5.9) years and the mean gestational age was 32.4 (S.D.: 7.3) weeks. Most of patient didn’t show any maternal complication and intrauterine vertical transmission. The large number of pregnant women had normal HRCT and also in terms of laboratory most of the patients had normal laboratory tests. Amniotic fluids, cord blood, the throat swab of neonate in our pregnant woman with delivery were tested for COVID-19 and all of them were negative. Conclusion: The COVID-19 mothers and their infant didn’t have higher risk for morbidity and mortality and this virus didn’t associate with intrauterine vertical transmission.

Relation of COVID-19 infection to outcomes of pregnancy during the pandemic in Kirkuk city

Ebaa Ghassan Akram; Safaa Ibrahim Mohammed; Jaklen Zaea Khoshaba

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4314-4318

Based on what is known at this time, pregnant women are at an increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19 compared to non-pregnant women. Additionally, pregnant women with COVID-19 might have an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth. The study was conducted in the city of Kirkuk city during the period between February 1, 2020, and September 1, 2020, at Gynecology and children hospital. Through the study, 100 pregnant women were received, complaining of Covid-19 infections, which were diagnosed in Kirkuk, and now Real Time PCR was confirmed through nasopharyngeal swabs that were taken from the Hospital. The study also included measuring the level of blood pressure, sugar and IL-6 in those women during the fifth to eight week, where we were infected, and then in the 12th week of pregnancy took place, where communication was made, and a level was measured, and as a result, these women who completed the period with a pre-term labor, miscarriage before the 24th week of pregnancy or those completed the period with successful pregnancyThe study showed that were asymptomatic, 45% of cases of COVID-19 patients were with mild infection and 10% were with severe infection (P<0.001) In this study, 10 % of COVID-19 pregnant women suffer from hypertension, 13% were with Diabetes, 35% with UTI while 70% were suffered from fever. When reaching 24th week of pregnancy, and as shown in Table 3. The study showed that 40% COVID-19 pregnant women experienced completed the period with a preterm labor, 10% was with miscarriage before the 24th week of pregnancy, while 50% of them completed the period continued the pregnancy. In this study, 82.5 % of COVID-19 pregnant women with preterm labor were suffered previously from fever comparing with 55% of COVID-19 pregnant women without preterm labor.The study showed that the highest mean of serum IL-6 was found in women infected with COVID-19 comparing with healthy control (12.8±3.6 v.s. 29.3±3.1 ng/ml) (P: <0.001). Conclusions:The study showed a significant relation of COVID-19 infection with pregnant women who pre-term labor especially who have high body temperature.