Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Self-medication

Prevelance and pattern of self medication practices in rural areas of Baharaich

Dr Shilpi Agarwal Dr Rahul Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1465-1471

Self-medication (SM) is the act of obtaining and using one or more drugs for treatment, diagnosis, or prescription without a doctor's prescription or recommendation. In percentage, SM is growing in rural areas. Since the prevalence and pattern of SM use are not well established, a cross-sectional survey was conducted, and 400 individuals were randomly chosen from district Baharaich's rural areas.
Method: Each participant underwent a face to face interview with the help of a structured questionnaire; data collected was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statics in Epi info version 7 software.
Result: Overall, out of 400 participants, 70 % of them reported that they have used SM in the past. The frequency of SM use varied among the subjects with a minimum of at least one time to maximum of 5 times and above. When the participants were asked about the reasons for SM use, the majority of them 33% stated lack of time to visit a doctor as the main reason followed by Ease and convenience (17%), Avoiding crowd in visiting doctor (14%) and Economical (14%).The major source through which the participants learned to use SM were as follows, directly from pharmacist (61%) followed by television/media/google (18%) , prescription of previous illness (12%), friends (12.5%). The main indications for SM use were headache (35%) followed by fever (32%), then cough/cold/sore throat (21%).The most commonly used drugs for self-medication were paracetamol (34%) followed by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (30%) and cold remedies (21%).
Conclusion: Self-medication is an alarming sign for society. Self-medication can be prevented or minimized by increased awareness and education in society.

To determine the Prevalence and Patterns of self-medication among MBBS students

Dr. Sameer Srivastava, Dr.AnupamTyagi, Dr.NandiniSrivastava, Dr.Shyam Sunder Keshari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1633-1638

Aim: To determine the prevalence and patterns of self-medications among MBBS students.
Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was done among the MBBS Students.
Informed consent from every student had been filled up before starting of the study. Seriously
ill, chronically absent and not willing subjects were excluded from the study. The
questionnaire had two parts, the first one was prepared to record the demographic profile and
the second part was to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of self-medication
among the students. The MBBS students were contacted with the digital questionnaire
through different methods.
Results: Out of 220 students included in this study, 200 students were under self- medication.
Amongst these 200 participants, 62.5% were males and restwas females. Most of the students
taking self-medicated were between the ages of 19 to 25 years. 50% students usedtheir
previous experiencesfor self-medication followed by 30.5% with minor diseases, 25.5% with
saving of timewhile 20.5% used self medication seeking for immediate relief and17% as an
easy way. 40% used old prescription of doctors, 38% used textbooks as the most prevalent
sources of information about the drugs used for self-medication. The most prevalent drugs for
self-medication practice wereanalgesics (42%) followed by anti-ulcerants (35%), antipyretics
(27.5%), and antibiotics (20.5%).
Conclusion: We concluded that there was high prevalence of self-medication amongst the
MBBS Students, so government should implement some strict rules and regulations.

Analysis of ADR (Adverse Drug Reaction) in geriatric patients of a Tribal district, special reference to self-medication and traditional medicine

Balaram Pothal, Anjali Tarai, Prof. Kali Prasad Pattnaik, Dr. Kumar Haraparasd Misra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1848-1849

Introduction: Geriatric populations are vulnerable population for adverse drug reactions due to their pharmacokinetic limitations. ADR in older people are common cause of admission to hospital [1, 2] and important causes of morbidity and mortality. In more recent studies, the ADR rate in geriatric setting for the USA and Europe was greater (20%) than in studies carried out in general medicine settings [3]. In tribal distict, the availability of qualified doctors is an important issue, which may predispose to self- medication of modern medicines. There may also be use of various traditional medicines by quacks without prescription of authorized BAMS doctors). There is common concept that Traditional medicines are safer but reliable information (systematic toxicological evaluation) is not available [4]. Use of traditional medicine may associated with various adverse reaction that can affect oral health.

Prevalence and factors associated with self medication with antibiotics

Ahmed Abdulkarem Khorsan, Ibrahim Hassan H Alderhami, Wael Mohamed Saad Alharthi, Abdulaziz Saleh Alzahrani, Faisal Essa Alzahrani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3157-3166

Background: Self-medication is a common practice of using medicines without a medical supervision by the people themselves. Self-medication is likely to happen when people feel unwell, it is worse in the population with poor health seeking behavior. Therefore, it is important to assess the prevalence and factors associated with self-medication with antibiotics among the primary health care population in Madina city, Saudia Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from August to September 2019. The study population included two MOH primary health care centers. The population above 18 years old attended the selected primary health care centers was eligible to participate in the study. A self-filled questionnaire was used for data collection and data analyzed using the SPSS version 16 and association was tested using chi square


Priyanka Sambyal, Reem Imtiaz, Paras Singh, Mustafa Imtiaz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 146-150

Self-medication is an important health issue especially in developing countries like India.
This study aims to evaluate the practice of self-medication in the patients coming to A.H
Vijaypur for OPD consultation. The study was conducted on a total of 100 patients and
data was collected by interview using a questionnaire. Our study revealed the demographic
profile of the people who resorted to self-medication, the drugs used as self-medication,
reasons behind the practice, the source of information regarding the self-medication and
the depth of knowledge if any about the drugs used as self-medication. . It is hoped that
this study will stimulate more attention towards research on the practice of self-medication
which is an important but controversial medication issue.


Roohi Sharma, Shivani Rani, Archana Parihar, Pavan Malhotra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 2457-2463

Background: Self-medication for primary dysmenorrhea is common with an incidence of 38–80% due to easy accessibility to over-the-counter drugs. The present study was conducted to assess pattern of self- medication in primary dysmenorrhea in medical and nursing students.
Materials & Methods: 350 medical and nursing under-graduate students were enrolled. Parameters such as regularity of menstrual cycle, duration of menstrual discomfort, symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea, severity of pain assessment, self-medication used to relieve pain and awareness of self-medication was recorded.
Results: Out of 350 subjects, 190 were medical and 160 were nursing students. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Among 190 medical students, 120 and among 160 nursing students, 75 showed self- medication. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Medication used by medical and nursing students was mefenamic acid in 45% and 25%, paracetamol in 12% and 30%, ibuprofen in 13% and 5%, mefenamic acid+ dicyclomine in 12% and 13%, diclofenac in 8% and 12% and others in 10% and 15% respectively. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Pain length was 1-2 days seen in 40%, 2-3 days in 35% and entire period in 25%. Pain intensity was mild in 12%, moderate in 52% and severe in 36%. Menstrual symptoms was seen in 67%. Frequency of dysmenorrhea occurrence was more frequently (every month) in 55% and less frequently (once in 3 month) in 45%. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: There was high prevalence of self- medication among medical and nursing students. Commonly used drug were mefenamic acid and paracetamol.

Self-Medication Among Nurses In A Tertiary Health Facility In Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Hope O. Nwoga; Miriam O. Ajuba; Gabriel C. Ume

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1410-1425

Background: Self-medication (SM) is a global practice that is prevalent in all age groups and in all races. Although it has been successfully integrated into many healthcare systems throughout the world, it still presents with the problems of wrong diagnosis, inappropriate choice of treatment, drug abuse, delayed health seeking behaviour, double medication and harmful interactions, inappropriate storage and administration of expired medicines, medication wastage and in extreme cases death.
Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted at ESUTH Parklane, Enugu Nigeria. A structured pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the consenting nurses. Data was analysed using SPSS version 25 and variables were presented in frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation with the aid of tables. Bivariate analysis was done using chi-square test. The level of significance was set at p value ≤ 0.05.
Results: Most of the nurses were within the 30-39 years age group 95(44.4%). Majority were females 199(93.0%) and married 169(79.0%). Almost all of them were Christians 213(99.5%) and Igbo ethnic group 212(99.0%).
All the nurses have heard about SM but only 181(86.4%) have good knowledge of it. Majority of them have practiced SM in the past one year 185(86.4%). Among those that practiced SM, majority practiced rarely 157(73.4%). The commonest symptom for which SM was practiced was headache 194(90.7%) followed by fever 170(79.4%) and pain 163(76.2%). The commonly used drugs for SM were analgesics/anti-pyretic 194(90.7%) and anti-malarias 187(87.4%). Sources of drugs were majorly from pharmacy shops 195(91.1%). Their major reasons for SM were emergency illness 171(79.9%), mild illness 162(75.9%) and prior knowledge about the illness and its treatment 150(70.1%).Conclusion: There was good knowledge of SM among the studied nurses but their practice was poor as majority practiced SM in the past one year.