Keywords : Hyperthyroidism and Thyroid
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine,
2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3329-3334
Introduction: Diabetes is a common problem seen in one third of the population. Prior studies reveal that many patients also have associated thyroid dysfunction. However there are not many published studies on these in India. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in diabetics is 2-3 times more than non diabetic patients. Blood glucose is affected by high thyroid levels or low thyroid levels. When thyroid levels are high, there is elevation of blood glucose. This is because the body uses up insulin faster due to acceleration of general metabolism by thyroid. When there is hypothyroidism, the insulin is used up slower, so blood glucose can get reduced. Thyroid hence, play an important role in maintaining regular blood glucose and insulin levels. Anytime it is out of control, it could cause abnormal glucose levels. Uncontrolled Hypothyroidism causes weight gain while uncontrolled hyperthyroidism causes weight loss. These weight changes can also alter the glycemic control in diabetics. Overall diabetes and thyroid dysfunction causes unpredictable changes in glucose levels. So, thyroid abnormality the easily correctable disease between these two - thyroid and diabetes should be screened for and corrected in every diabetic. Before we start screening for thyroid dysfunction in diabetics, we should know the prevalence of the disease in our settings. Aim: This study aims to uncover the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among diabetics in an urban diabetic clinic in south India. Methodology: In this retrospective study, data of 724 patients with diabetes who attended an diabetic clinic in saveetha Medical College and Hospital from September 2018 to May 2019, and whose thyroid stimulating hormone were tested for were included. The inclusion criteria are: Diabetes - both known and newly diagnosed in whom TSH has been done within the last one year. The exclusion criteria are: Age less than 20 years, patients on drugs that can affect thyroid function tests and are pregnant. Results: Thyroid disorders were found in 136 out of the 724 diabetic patients. Most common thyroid abnormality among diabetics was hypothyroidism 123 (16.9%) followed by hyperthyroidism 10 (1.4%) and sub clinical hypothyroidism 3(0.4%). Prevalence of thyroid disorders was found to be more in females. Conclusion: To conclude, every fifth patient with type 2 diabetes will havea thyroid disorder. 9 out of 10 patients with thyroid disorder in diabetes mellitus will suffer from hypothyroidism. Though subclinical hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism are seen in diabetics, it is relatively uncommon. A clinical protocol of screening all diabetics for thyroid function at initial evaluation will help in diagnosing and treating the disease earlier.