Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : retinopathy

Proportion of diabetic retinopathy (DR) among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending tertiary care centre at Tripura medical college, Agartala: A cross sectional study

Dr. Partha Chakma, Dr. Anarsh Debbarma, Dr.Koushik Chakma, Dr. Kaushik Tripura, Dr. Amar Kanti Chakma, Dr. Avik Chakraborty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8672-8677

Objective: To estimate the proportion of diabetic retinopathy in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients attending tertiary care centre at Tripura Medical College, Agartala.
Methods: The current study was a cross-sectional investigation conducted at the Tripura Medical College, Department of Ophthalmology. The study population included adults over the age of 18 with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (less than 6 months after diagnosis) between April 2021 and October 2022. Each patient had a thorough eye examination.
Results: 130 patients participated in the study, with a mean age of 43.2 ± 10.2 years and a 66.9% male patient population. Diabetic retinopathy was discovered in 11.5% (95% CI 14.7, 15.3) ofnewly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
Conclusion: In this study, patient with newly discovered type 2 diabetes mellitus had a significant prevalence of retinopathy. This emphasises the significance of conducting a thorough ocular examination on all type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at the time of diagnosis.

To Study the Awareness About the Complications of Diabetes among patients of Type 2 Diabetes in a Tertiary Health Care Centre

Puneeta Gupta, Rohit Raina

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 338-354

Objectives: To study the awareness about the disease related complications in the diabetic patients who are, as yet, not suffering from any long-term complication.
Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted involving 389 patients of type 2 diabetes for a period of two years, from March 2018 to March 2020 in a tertiary care centre. The patients having disease diagnosed with in last five years and not suffering from any diabetic related complication were included in the study. The questions pertaining to the knowledge about complications related to eyes, kidneys, nerves, brain and heart were asked and recorded. The data was entered in MS EXCEL spreadsheet and analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0.
Results: The most common complication known was retinopathy (45.48%), followed by nephropathy (38,69%), peripheral neuropathy (33.42); cardiac complications (26.13%) and stroke (37.19%). The factors associated with good knowledge and awareness were advanced age, higher socioeconomic status, male gender and presence of positive family history of diabetes.
Conclusion: There is a wide gap in the knowledge of Diabetes and its related complications among the patients which may prevent them from taking good care about their glycaemic levels. It demands a bidirectional approach by the treating doctor and the patient himself to update the knowledge about the chronic debilitating nature of the disease to better the outcomes of the patients in terms of associated morbidity and mortality.

Effect of anti-diabetic drugs on central macular thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dr. Sneha Pal, Dr. Priyanka Malik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 643-647

Aim: To compare central macular thickness (CMT) of diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy and healthy subjects.
Material & Methods: This is a prospective study, carried out on 92 patients. The patients were divided in to two groups: study group included 50 patients and control group comprised of 42 patients.
Results: The mean HbA1c level was 8.68 ± 2.39% in the study group and 5.10 ± 0.76% in the control group. The mean level of HbA1c was statistically higher in the study group than in the control group (Table 1, P = 0.001). Fasting plasma glucose level was statistically higher in the study group than in the control group (P= 0.001).
Conclusion: Central macular thickness was not significantly thicker in patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy than in healthy subjects


Shaik Khaja Rassul

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 12053-12064

Background:Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major concern in India and has been described as a modern-day epidemic. It can affect nearly every organ and cause a slew of complications. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious complication of diabetes. It is also one of the least diagnosed and understood diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CAN in diabetic patients and to investigate its relationship with the duration of DM and glycemic control.
Materials and Methods: 80 diabetic patients admitted to the Department of Medicine, NRI Medical College, Guntur, met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Demographic data, history, and clinical examination were documented. All individuals were tested for CAN using 3 tests to assess parasympathetic and 2 tests to assess sympathetic function. Patients were classed as normal, early CAN, definite CAN, or severe CAN using Ewing's criteria. The duration of time for the study was one year and eight months.
Results: The prevalence of CAN in the studied population was 60%. In individuals with CAN, the duration of diabetes was substantially longer, and HbA1c was much greater than in patients with normal cardiac autonomic function. There was a significant connection between CAN and DM duration (r=0.54435) and glycemic control as determined by HbA1c levels (r=0.665925), but not with age. The normal CAN score was 29 (36.25 percent), the early CAN score was 30, the definite CAN score was 9, and the severe CAN score was 12. (15 percent). Background retinopathy (68 percent), proliferative retinopathy (31%), and various retinopathies were identified in CAN patients (19.6 percent) Number 11 maculopathy (19.6 percent) 11. Clinical Presentation Characteristics of Patients Patients with severe CAN and impaired cardiac autonomic function developed diabetic foot 35.55 percent of the time, cataracts 57.14 percent of the time, muscle wasting 14% of the time, and tingling 90% of the time.
Conclusion: CAN is a common and widespread consequence of diabetes that is asymptomatic in the early stages. As a result, it is recommended that every diabetic patient be diagnosed for CAN.

Pulse Pressure and Diurnal Blood Pressure Variation Associated with Micro- and Macrovascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes

Abhishek Kumar Verma, Abhishek Kumar, Anurag Vyas, Vikki .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 6112-6119

Background: Pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease microalbuminuria in non-diabetic people. Reduced circadian blood pressure (BP) variation has been identified as a risk factor for diabetic complications. In a sample of type 2 diabetic patients, we looked at the relationship between retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal BP change.
Method: We performed a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and fundoscopy on 100 type 2 diabetes patients, and urine albumin excretion was measured using the urinary albumin / creatinine ratio. It was determined whether or not macrovascular disease existed.


Ravi N Sangapur Anusha N Sangapur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1514-1518

Background: Hypertension is a growing concern in the Indian population with urbanization and developments in work culture and treatment methods.
Aim and objective: To evaluate the influence of serum magnesium levels in gradations of primary hypertension and evaluate its impact on co-morbid conditions.
Methods: Hypertensive patients were screened and included in the study by categorizing them in to grade I and II based on blood pressure levels. Socio-demographic, physical and systemic examination details were recorded with pre-designed questionnaire; electrolyte levels, fasting blood sugar, status of retina and heart were assessed and analyzed using t-test and logistic regression.
Results:Total 100 patients in the study, mean age was 59.3±14.79 years; male predominance (61%); normal retina (83%) and presence of pre-diabetic conditions (67%) was observed, with normal serum magnesium levels in majority (76%). Serum magnesium levels were significantly associated with grade I (P = 0.0173) patients; influencing systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (r = -0.3552, P = 0.003; r = -0.2160, P = 0.0309, respectively).
Conclusion:The optimal values can be further established by evaluation of large sample size, quality of life during treatment, and influence of co-morbidities/complications of hypertension, among others.


Odilova Guljamol Rustamovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1469-1476

Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disease, therefore it is a priority medical and social problem. Often with diabetes, it is the ocular manifestations that primarily lead to the disability of patients. The review contains an analysis of the morphological experimental and clinical studies of fundus elements in patients with DM - original research, reviews and monographs by domestic and foreign authors, mainly in recent years. Clinical and morphological changes in diabetes are discussed, early diabetic changes in the retina, blood vessels, and macula are described. The important role of changes in the internal plexiform layer and ganglion cells

Assessment Of The Knowledge Diabetic Retinopathy Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes At Makkah, Saudi Arabia 2019. Cross-Sectional Study

Adel Saeed Ali Alzahrani, Nawaf Suhaim Al-Atiani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 543-556

1. Background
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and a major cause of
vision loss. Increased knowledge of DR is crucial for the prevention and early diagnosis of the disease and
preservation of vision, diabetes mellitus is a disorder, characterized by an imbalance in blood glucose
levels. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing globally.The global diabetes prevalence in 2019 is
estimated to be 9.3% (463 million people), rising to 10.2% (578 million) by 2030 and 10.9% (700 million)
by 2045. Long term, continuous hyperglycemia leads to vasculature-related disorders, including those
affecting the eyes, such as retinopathy, diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease with chronic elevation in
blood glucose levels. If not managed, it can lead to multi-organ damage also diabetes mellitus is a
metabolic disease that is characterized by distortion in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and
proteins and involves hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus has different types. Several complications are
associated with diabetes including diabetic retinopathy.
This study aimed: This study aims to assess the knowledge of diabetic retinopathy and compliance with
diabetic retinopathy patients in Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: cross-sectional study was conducted among the diabetic population from May to September 2019
in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The patients were selected randomly from the general population visiting the
Makkah diabetic center and primary healthcare clinics in Makkah. A self-administered questionnaire was
distributed to assess the knowledge of diabetes and its complication diabetic retinopathy. Our total
participants were (300)
Results: Conclusion: The level of knowledge regarding diabetic retinopathy among participants with
diabetes type 2 in Makkah is relatively high. However, participants’ motivation to attend an ophthalmology
clinic for an eye assessment was poor in the study, thus delay early diagnosis and management.