Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : infections

“Seroprevalence of Transfusion-Transmitted Infections in Donors”

Devendra singh , Navneet Kumar , Vikas Tiwari .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 32-40

Transfusion-transmitted infections threaten the safety of patients who require a blood transfusion, which in turn imposes serious challenges for the availability of safe blood products that are still affordable in healthcare systems with limited resources.
Aim of the study
The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donors at TMU Blood Bank and access the level of safety.
A laboratory-based descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2022 to Dec 2022. A qualitative study was carried out to access serological analysis of replacement and voluntary donors at TMU Blood Bank. The total number of donors screened during this period was 776. The donors were requested to fill out a detailed questionnaire and were screened for HIV, HBV, HCV, and Syphilis with a rapid immune-chromatographic kit. The results were expressed in tables and figures.
Out of 776 donors, 676(98.7%) were replacement and only 10(1.29%) were voluntary donors. Male donors were predominant constituting 676(87.12%) and only 100 (12.88%) female donors. The seroprevalence of TTIs in the present study was 1.42%. Syphilis (0.77%) was the most prevalent TTI followed by HBV (0.51%). A low prevalence of HCV (0.13%) was found and HIV was not detected in any donors in the present study. The highest prevalence of TTIs was observed in the young age group of 18-25 years followed by 26-40 years.

The Use of Bone Grafts for Local Antibiotic Delivery in Bone Reconstruction Surgery: Recent Advances

Amit Das, Saroj Kumar Parida, Soumya Nayak, Subham Agrawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 466-481

One of the main problems in bone and joint surgery is still infection related to bone implants. In both the treatment and prevention of these infections, antibiotic-impregnated bone transplants appear to hold promise. Nonetheless, this field of research is characterized by a wide range of methodologies. An overview of the published literature is provided in this essay.
Method: The Medline database was searched, and articles were chosen based on pre-established exclusion criteria.
Results: The synthesis contained 45 papers. Studies were conducted on issues such as the type of bone graft, graft operations, elution profile, bacterial inhibition, oestotoxicity, incorporation, unique impregnation techniques, clinical use, and storage. From a therapeutic standpoint, large initial concentrations seem suitable for eliminating biofilm. It appears possible to treat an infection caused by a bone implant in a single step. When employing antibiotic-impregnated bone grafts, the literature suggests a reduction in postoperative infections as a preventative measure.
Conclusion: Both therapeutically and preventatively, local antibiotic treatment can be applied to bone grafts.

A Retrospective Study To Evaluate Pregnancy Outcome In A Positive High Vaginal Swab Culture

Gazal .; Aleeza Pal; Nitin Kumar; Monika Jindal; Santosh Minhas; Atul Rana

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1416-1425

Background: Upper vaginal tract infection during pregnancy manifesting in the form of Vaginitis, vaginal discharge, has emerged as a major health problem responsible for preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), preterm labour, neonatal and puerperal sepsis. Preterm deliveries come with their own challenges, both for the mother and new-born. High vaginal swab culture positivity during pregnancy for common pathogens, namely Group B Streptococcus, Klebsiella Pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus may predict the predisposition of the mother to PPROM, chorioamnionitis and subsequent neonatal complications.
Methodology: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze feto-maternal outcome of 200 expectant mothers who were admitted for safe confinement after 28 weeks of gestation and were tested for high vaginal swab (HVS) culture & sensitivity, dividing them into two groups, based on the results of their HVS culture i.e., sterile versus nonsterile cases.
Results: 98 patients tested positive for various microorganisms, out of which 60 samples showed mixed flora, 20 Gram positive Cocci, 15 Gram Negative Bacilli, and 3 showed growth of Candida. The most common organisms isolated in high vaginal swabs were Diphtheroids (31%), Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (8.10%), Escherichia coli (7.10%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.10%) and Candida albicans (3%). The rest 102 samples were sterile. A significant association was found between maternal C-reactive protein (CRP) & increased neonatal morbidity with positive HVS. However, the results of positive HVS culture showed no significant association with other adverse maternal outcomes such as puerperal sepsis and preterm labour.
Conclusion: Ascending intrauterine infections remain an important cause of preterm labour, PPROM, chorioamnionitis, etc. and eventually poor neonatal outcome. Timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics can go a long way in treating the same. But larger studies are needed to prove the same and to make high vaginal swab a useful screening tool for all antenatal patients to prevent complications and overall improvement of feto-maternal outcome.

Assessment of etiological factors and clinical outcome of splenomegaly among the children admitted under pediatric department

Dr. Shubhangi Misal, Dr. Mythri Dola .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 8899-8902

Background: To assess the etiology and clinical features of splenomegaly among children.
Materials & methods: A total of 40 children from 6 months to 15years, with varying grades of Splenomegaly of different etiologies, admitted to pediatric ward. Detailed History was taken. Physical examination and necessary investigations were done. Enlargement of the spleen is considered with measuring 1-3cms as mild, between 4-7cms as moderate and above 7cms as massive. Statistical analysis was done by analyzing data by SPSS software.
Results: Commonest etiology among the cases in the present study are due to infectious etiology which are 47.5% followed by hematologic disorders 35%.  Incidence of moderate Splenomegaly was observed commonly in infectious etiology that is 14 cases out of 26 (53.8%) and Massive Splenomegaly was observed in hematologic 5 cases out of 11 (45.4%).
Conclusion: Occurrence of Splenomegaly is commonly due to various infections.


Dr. Mini Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6499-6505

More youthful understudies are introduced to the threat of life overcomers of ‘HIV/AIDS’ - which was exceptionally dark to their progenitors a couple of years earlier. It is seen that there's a gaping amongst commitments to the ‘HIV/AIDS’ instructive arrangement for schools and therefore the certified guidance that's presented. As children are an enormous resource for the inevitable destiny of a rustic, it's essential that they ought to be provided with satisfactory proportion of data so on guarantee themselves and their accomplices to be an overcomer of this still-a genuine killer disease. This investigation is done to decide the information and familiarity with ‘HIV/AIDS’ among some senior optional school understudies of Mathura. The motivation behind this investigation was to give fundamental information on ‘HIV/AIDS’ information and mindfulness among youngsters. The proposed paper would focus on the importance & need of educating the students for prevention of HIV/AIDS. This paper therefore highlights the need & importance of   learning to achieve the change in behavior of a person to make this world “zero new infections, zero discrimination and zero AIDS-related deaths.”

Role of Progesterone for Maintenance Tocolytic Therapy: A Comprehensive and Updated Overview

Najat Ehmid Mansour, Khaled Fathy Helal, Ahmed Hasan almasarawy, Abdul Majid Sarhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1269-1274

Preterm laboris defined as the occurrence of regular uterine contractions after the age of viability and
before 37 completed weeks of gestations with intact membranes [1] . It is the leading cause of neonatal
mortality and a substantial portion of all birth-related morbidity. Preterm delivery accounts for 65% of
neonatal deaths and 50% of neurological disability in childhood. Prematurity rates have not changed in
recent decades [2]


S. Vidyashri; M.P. Brundha; Priyadharshini R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3153-3164

Introduction: Diseases are of two types based on the etiological agents- food borne poisoning and food borne infections. Food poisoning is caused mainly due to Poisonous chemicals or other toxic substances present in food. Ingestion of contaminated drink or food with toxins or bacteria or chemical substances causes acute gastritis. The main problems faced by the students residing in hostels are quality of the food served, sanitation and cleanliness of the hostel, pure water supply and first aid facilities in case of need. Food directly impacts the health of the student and unsanitary food causes a negative outlook of the student which in turn impacts the students desire to stay in the hostel. Potentially risky procedures include preservation of leftovers in an unsanitary environment, reheating of food in a possible unsafe way and food preparation with unprotected wounds on their hands. Student education regarding food poisoning needs to be in focus in an effort to decrease diseases which are food borne.