Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Imaging

A Prospective Study of Predicting the Nuclear Grade of Breast Cancer Using Diffusion Weighted Imaging: An Institutional Based Study

Tushar Prabha, Jawahira Chisti, Mahendra Kumar Yadav, Kartikeya Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 370-374

Introduction: As it has to aware that the breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women around the globe. Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) helps to evaluate the physiological and functional environment of the lesion by observing the random motion of water molecules, tissue cellularity, fluid viscosity, membrane permeability and blood flow pattern that could be measured quantitatively by Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values.
Materials and Methodology: A total of 70 patients with histo-pathologically proven breast carcinoma form the study sample in the study (3 patients had bilateral malignancy). MRI examinations were performed within 2 weeks before surgery. All the 70 participants who had done breast MRI underwent surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical package for social science version16.0 for windows). Students T test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to study the difference in ADC between two groups.
Results: Out of all the total 70 breast lesions, 53 lesions were (76%) single, while 9(13%) were multifocal carcinoma and 8 (11%) were multicentric multifocal breast carcinoma. Histological types included invasive ductal carcinoma no special type (65) invasive lobular carcinoma (1) mucinous carcinoma (2) papillary carcinoma (1) medullary carcinoma (1). The ADC value was correlated with pathological grading of the tumour (r = ‑0.497, P < 0.001).
Conclusion: DWI usually takes short acquisition time and post‑processing time and does not require any administration of contrast dyes and provides a real-time quantitative functional parameter for evaluating the tumour aggressiveness.

Cytomorphological and histopathological correlation with imaging findings in breast lumps: A retrospective study from a tertiary cancer centre

Sasmita Panda, Mamita Nayak, Sagarika Samantaray

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2097-2103

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the Indian women accounting for 27.7% of all the female cancers in india. Breast lumps are common which require appropriate workup consisting of clinical examination, imaging and fine needle aspiration cytology. Imaging and cytopathology are crucial in categorising these lesions into benign and malignant. There is a requisite to determine the concordance of these these findings and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy. The objectives is to find  the correlation  of cytopathological diagnosis with imaging findings for provisional diagnosis of breast lumps and to evaluate the utilisation  of fine needle aspiration as a cheap, safe method for preoperative assessment of breast lumps.
Materials and methods: All Fine needle aspiration (FNAC) of breast lumps were included in the study from Jan 2019 to Dec 2020.Their imaging findings were retrieved from the records. Only those with imaging findings were included in this study.
Results: 275 patients came for FNAC for breast lesions, out of these breast Ultrasound/ Mammography findings were available in 255 cases which were included in our study. Cytohistological correlation was obtained in 243 cases. In this sudy the sensitivity-90.3%, specificity=87.41%,positive predictive value (PPV) was 83.18%,negative predictive value (NPV) was 92.9%, with diagnostic accuracy of 88.6% for imaging findings in diagnosis of breast lesions(in comparison with histopathology considered to be gold standard for diagnosis). The Sensitivity was 99.02%, specificity was 99.29%, PPV was 99.02%, NPV was 99.29%, and the diagnostic accuracy was 95.29%for FNAC in diagnosis of breast diseases (considering histopathology as gold standard).
Conclusion: Cytological evaluation is a standardised ideal cheap ancillary method in evaluating the breast lumps which many a times masquerades breast cancers.


Dr. Brajesh Pathak, Dr. Vibhor Mahendru

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2700-2707

The ensuing driving force behind death from breast cancer in women is legitimacy. It occurs when cells in the breast become confined and attack the supporting tissue or spread throughout the body. Mammography is a truly unprecedented and remarkable modality used to distinguish and find breast cancer in a short time frame.
Mammography is a two-stage picture and depends on the unambiguous confirmation of dangerous morphological deviations for breast cancer. These manifestations combine areas of mass, all calcification, gap and required curvature. A standard screening mammogram combines the mean diagonal and craniocaudal approach on each breast. Screening tests are facilitated only to find unsafe disclosures after which the woman will return for a more conclusive method. Positive mammographic approaches can likewise incorporate spot pressure, enlargement, rolling, extended view, and upright view to delineate and bind features.

Magnetic resonance venography evaluation in cerebral venous thrombosis – A retrospective stu

Dr Nipa Hathila, Dr Harish Chandra Chaturvedi, Dr. Shekhar Karnawat, Dr. Shrinidhi Kulkarni, Dr. Kanaram Yadav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1418-1424

Introduction: Cerebral venous thrombosis is a relatively uncommon disorder which has
an estimated annual incidence between two to seven cases per million in the general
population. 1 The incidence was likely underestimated before the advent of prompt noninvasive
imaging methods. It is estimated that five to eight cases per year might be seen
at a referral centre. Cerebral venous thrombosis or occlusion by extrinsic compression
that eventually progresses to a complete occlusion is an elusive diagnosis because of its
non-specific presentation and its numerous predisposing causes which can precipitate
the condition. It often affects young and middle-aged patients which more commonly
involved in women. It is an uncommon cause of cerebral infarction relative to arterial
disease which is an important consideration because of its potential morbidity. The
imaging characteristics of CVT that can be observed through MRI include: (1) brain
parenchymal imaging that appears in the form of non-specific lesions, such as
intracerebral hemorrhages or infarcts, edema, isolated or associated with infarcts or
hemorrhages, and it can even be considered normal in about 30% of patients.9 MRV
features include non-visualization of the arterial & venous vessels (i.e., no flow), flow
defect and presence of collaterals at the site of occlusion.

The profusion of breast lesions in breast biopsies showed imaging and pathological discordance

1Amod Kumar, 2Aashish Gupta, 3Monica, 4Payal Kumari, .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3286-3293

Introduction: For nonpalpable breast lesions, imaging-guided breast tissue biopsy has become a viable alternative to open surgical biopsy. It can be difficult to talk about abnormal results of the connection between imaging and pathology findings because they can help with decision-making about additional treatment options by arriving at a full diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. A specialist radiologist collected and classified radiological data from 500 patients' imaging-guided breast biopsies over a 6-year period using the BIRADS format. The discordance between histopathology reports was investigated.
Results: A total of 500 cases were reviewed. Approximately 4.6% (23) of cases fell into BIRADS 2 category, 33.6% (168) of cases fell into the BIRADS 3 category, 24.4% (122) into the BIRADS 4, 36.6% (183) into BIRADS 5 categories and 0.8% (4) into BIRADS 6 categories. Approximately 49.2% (n = 246) cases were benign, 3.4% (17) belonged to the high‑risk category, and 47.4% (237) were malignant. The number of discordant cases was 12 (2.4%), mostly due to technical factors. The sensitivity of biopsies to detect malignancy was 85%, specificity was 96%, and accuracy of biopsy in diagnosing cancer was 90%.
Discussion: The most sensitive way for detecting early breast cancer is the "triple assessment." Because of the high occurrence of carcinoma in these lesions, an effective communication line between a physician, radiologist, and pathologist is required for surgical excision in discordance.
Conclusion: In discordant cases, the ultimate choice is based on two concordant findings out of the three parameters, either due to abnormal imaging results or abnormal pathology findings. A multidisciplinary breast conference is held, with the pathologist taking an active role.

Role of computed tomography (CT) in cerebrovascular accidents: A tertiary care hospital based study

Dr. Asif Majid Wani, Dr. Peerzada Ziaulhaq, Dr. Najeeb Tallal Ahangar, Dr. Majid Jehangir

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2800-2806

Background: Stroke specifically the type due to cerebrovascular disease is defined as a sudden, non-convulsive focal neurological deficit. The terms “apoplexy” originating from the Greek and insult from the Latin “insultus” described stroke phenomenon in ancient times. Cerebrovascular accident is a leading cause of death and disability throughout the world. It is a common cause of death after heart disease and cancer in India. Accurate and early diagnosis can improve the morbidity and mortality rates, as newer and more effective therapies are currently being instituted. Since computed tomography imaging is widely available, cost effective and less time consuming, it plays the role of first line imaging modality.
Aims and objectives: The purpose of the present study is to document the presence or absence of haemorrhage or infarcts, to determine the location and reasonably assessing the territory to blood vessels involved and to detect the incidence of negative cases of clinically suspected stroke.
Materials  and  Methods:  A prospective study of 62 cases admitted to Department of Radiodiagnosis, Government Medical College, Baramulla, Jammu and Kashmir, India with the clinical diagnosis of acute stroke were taken up for the study. Data for my study is collected by sampling referred cases with a clinical history of stroke.
Results: Out of 62 patients clinically suspected of CVA submitted for CT scan study of the brain. 40 patients i.e., 64.5% had infarcts. 15 patients i.e., 24.2% had haemorrhage, 3 patient i.e., 5% had S.D.H., 2 patients i.e., 3.33% had C.V.T. 1 patient i.e., 1.6 % had tumour and 1 patient i.e., 1.6% had normal scans. Infarcts formed the major group of the CVA cases i.e., 64.5%, involving most commonly the R.M.C.A. territory in patients i.e., 26.31%. Haemorrhage formed the second major group of the CVA cases i.e., 25%, involving most commonly the L.M.C.A. territory in patients i.e., 26.66%.