Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : India


Dr. Ashwini Rege-Gundawar, Dr. Sneha Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3671-3693

Introduction: Cervical carcinoma (Ca Cx) is a high incidence malignancy in India (6–29% of all cancers in women). The Pap smear test is a proven effective measure for reducing cervical carcinoma incidence. Lack of population level screening program in India corresponds with the detection of most cervical lesions at a late stage of disease (stage II or stage III) with consequent high mortality and morbidity. The hospital where this study was conducted offers Pap smear free of cost.
Aims & Objectives:

1.      To study the spectrum of cervical lesions by analyzing the results of Pap smear tests -for a period of one year.
2.      To evaluate clinical utility of Pap smear testing by studying histopathological correlation- wherever feasible, for the same one-year period.

Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study conducted by retrieving data for 1 year, pertaining to conventional Pap smear tests and related histopathological examination reports.
Results ([1]): Of 808 Pap smear tests done, 788 (97.5%) were satisfactory for evaluation. These were reported using, “The Bethesda system for evaluation of cervical pathology (2014)”. Results were divided into: i) Inflammatory (70.56%), ii) NILM (23.60%), iii) Atrophic (3.42%) and iv) Epithelial cell abnormalities [ECA] (2.41%). The ECAs included ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and SCC. The inflammatory Pap smears included 28 cases of Trichomonas vaginalis, 7 cases of Yeast, (likely Candida) infection, and 2 cases with presence of blue wool like microorganisms morphologically resembling Actinomyces. Histopathological report association was done for 118 (14.97%) cases. Of these, 112 (94.91%) cases were reported as inflammatory pathology and 6 (5.08%) cases as ECAs. The ECAs included 3 HSILs, 2 LSIL/inflammatory changes and 1 case of SCC. All 118 cases were reported with 100% concurrence rate for cytopathology –histopathology correlation.
Conclusions: 1) Pap smear is a good screening as well as diagnostic test. 2)However more significant yield towards prevention of Ca Cx will be achieved by adding supplemental testing e.g., HPV DNA testing.3) Concentrated efforts need to be made to target screening efforts towards older age group women and also towards follow up and treatment of the Positive Pap smear cases


Dr. Michi Monya, M.D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2875-2881

Background: Lidocaine Hydrochloride is a widely used local anaesthetic agent in almost all medical specialties that is well tolerated. But Systemic or local anaesthetics are studied to have proconvulsant activities and seizures could occur as a side effect even with local anaesthesia. Case presentation: I present the case of a 6-and-half-month-old infant who developed intermittent tonic–clonic convulsions immediately after the instillation of local anaesthetic agent before performing incision & drainage of an abscess. Naranjo probability scale categorized the relationship between the drug and the event as probable. The patient was stabilized and referred to higher centre. Conclusion: This case is reported to acquaint medical practitioners to possibility of systemic toxicity by local anaesthesia although uncommon; so that such complications can be avoided or managed promptly if occurs, to optimize patient outcome.

Evaluation Of Strong Correlation Between Hyperhomocysteinemia As A Potential Riskfactor In Ischemic Stroke

Pothumudi Srinivasarao, Datla Divya Saroja

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11092-11101

Background:Stroke was the second most frequent cause of death worldwide in
2012,accounting for 7.1 million deaths. as data availablefrom Indian subcontinent is
scrace in relation to Hyper homocysteinemia as a potential risk factor in ischemic stroke
The present study is designed to measure theplasma homocysteine levels in patients
presenting with ischemic strokes and correlate with the levels in age and sex matched
Materials and Methods: This study is a case - control prospective study. The present
study was done on 80 patients with ischemic stroke admitted in local area hospital 30 –
35 age and sex matched controls were recruited for the study. Plasma fasting total
homocysteine (tHcy) levels were measured by chemiluminiscence immunoassay.
Students‘t’ test and chi-square test were used to analyse data.
Results: The total homocysteine (tHcy) were significantly higher in patients with stroke
compared to controls (19.94±4.73 Vs 7.85±4.56, p-value is <0.001). The tHcy levels were
significantly high in smokers compared to non-smokers (31.11±2.44 Vs 12.22±3.63, pvalue
is <0.05), patients with hypertension compared to normotensive patients
(32.09±1.04 Vs 15+3.21, p-value is <0.02), patients with diabetes mellitus compared to
patients not having diabetesmellitus (23.22±4.39 Vs 12.87±2.99, p-value is <0.05),
patients with dyslipidemia compared to patients not having dyslipidemia (31.12±3.99 Vs
12.93±2.23, p-value is <0.05). Patients with no risk factors compared to controls
(14.11±4.38Vs 8.76±1.25).
Conclusion: Hyper homocysteinemia emerged as an important risk factor for ischemic
stroke. A strong positive correlation was also observed between hypertension, diabetes
mellitus, smoking dyslipidemia and tHcy levelsin thepresent study.


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4748-4759

Background & objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic emerged as a major public health emergency affecting the healthcare services all over the world. It is essential to analyse the epidemiologicalandclinicalcharacteristicsofpatientswithCOVID19indifferentpartsofourcountry.Thisstudyhighlights clinical experience in managing patients with COVID-19 at a tertiary care centre in northernIndia.
Methods:Clinicalcharacteristicsandoutcomesofconsecutiveadultpatientsadmittedtoatertiarycare hospitalatAll India Institute of medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar,India,from August12020 toJanuary 31,2021werestudied.ThediagnosisofSARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on throat and/or nasopharyngeal swabs. All patients were managed according to the institute’s consensus protocol and in accordance with Indian Council of Medical Researchguidelines.
Results: During the study period, 283 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted. The history of contact with COVID-19-affected individuals was available in only29 patients. The median age of the patients was 53.85 years (15-95 years), and there were 217 (76.67 %) males. Of the total enrolled patients, only 19 patients (7%)were asymptomatic and rest 264 patients (93%) were symptomatic.Thecommonpresentingcomplaintswerefever in 231 patients(81 %),cough in 217 patients(76 %) and shortness of breath in 204 patients (72%). Out of 283 patients enrolled for the study, 113 patients (39%) had Hypertension as an accompanying comorbid illness, 122 (43%) had Diabetes mellitus, CKD and Hypothyroidism each in 8% of patients, CAD & COPD in 7% and 6% patients respectively
Agemorethan60yearsandpresenceofdiabetesandhypertensionweresignificantlyassociatedwith severeCOVID-19disease.Mortalityof 65 patients ( 23%) wasobserved.
Interpretation&conclusions:MajorityofthepatientswithCOVID-19infectionpresentingtoourhospital were elderly and symptomatic. Fever was noted only in three-fourth of the patients and respiratory symptoms in more than half of the enrolled patients. Patients with comorbidities were more vulnerable to complications. Certain Inflammatory markers like serum CRP, Ferritin, LDH, & D-Dimer have define prognostic value. Triaged classificationofpatientsandprotocol-basedtreatmentresultedingoodoutcomesandlowcasefatality.

Immigration Issue in Assam : Understanding the Demographic Transformation after 1971 period

Nagendra Nath Gogoi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 424-430

The issue immigration has troubled the state of Assam for decades now. It has deep impact on the socioeconomic and political life of the state. Further, it is adversely affecting the demographic structure of the state; creating law and order problem wherever they are present in sizeable number. At the very outset, the native people fear that the unchecked migration from across the border, particularly from Bangladesh will subvert their way of life and change the demographic profile of the state in the near future. This paper traces the impact of immigration on the society and politics of Assam. Based on insights from the immigration discourse of Assam, the author offers certain policy recommendations to deal with the immigrant issue in Assam


P. Jyothi; R. Arulmoli; G. Kannan; C. Sundar; B. Rajasekar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1411-1420

Quality of Work Life is the extent to which human resources are capable to shape their career vibrantly, in accordance with their opportunities, needs and interests. It is also amount of power that an employer provides to its employees to draft their works. The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of job performance on quality of work life and to find out if there is an quantitatively demonstrable relationship among these two variables. This quantitative research was carried out on 600 research samples from engineering colleges in Tamilnadu. Statistical tools, such as Factor analysis and Regression analysis were used to analyse the data. The findings of the study indicate the clear impact job performance has on quality of work life. The results of the study further prove that the change in Job Performance factor explains the changes in quality of work to the extent of 84.11 percent. The significant ‘F’ statistics reveals the validity of the regression model. Hence job performance impacts quality of work life to greater extent.


Sree Jyothsna Beesetti; Nagendra Kumar Turaga; Girish Salaka; Mohana Turaga

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2341-2349

A new, universally attractive and applicable paradigm that welcomes and encourages people to take responsibility for themselves and explore their true selves in search of health, especially in sickness and adversity is spirituality and psychological beliefs. In COVID-19 pandemic situation, how people react and will be in a healthy condition is a crucial aspect in India and even in other countries. To investigate the solution, we had aimed to study the impact of two factors like spiritual well-being and psychological well-being on attack of COVID-19 in India. To study the same a sample of 650 respondents were taken through online survey where 285 questionnaires were only selected for further analysis. A well-designed questionnaire was prepared by testing validating through experts for collecting the responses. Factor analysis and multiple regression tools were used to analyse the data for achieving objective of study. The results notified that spiritual well-being and psychological well-being were having less impact on attack of COVID-19 in people, but the relation exhibits significant. Which implies even there is less impact they are having some relation in prevention of attack of COVID-19. The paper continued with the future research of the study.


Dr. Rakesh Kumar; Dr. Purva Kulkarni; Dr. Jayendra Purohit; Dr. Abin Ann Abraham; Dr. Vipindas A P; Dr. Sameera Qureshi Mohd Rehman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7144-7149

 Aim: The purpose of our research was to study various patterns as well as incidence of mandibular population amongst Indian population. Methodology: The medical records of 1842 patients with mandibular fractures treated
over a 3 years period were identified and analyzed supported age, sex, mechanism of trauma, seasonal variation, drug/alcohol abuse, number and anatomic location Results: 464 Patients who were in age range of 7 to 89 years participated in the study. The highest incidence (37.5%) of mandibular fractures was in the age group of 21–30 years. Most prominent cause for mandibular fracture was due to road traffic accidents which accounted for 68.8 % of all cases followed by free falls as well as assault cases. It was observed that parasymphyseal fracture was the most common site affected in mandible and the least affected was the angle of mandible. Mandibular angle
fractures were found mostly to be related to assault victims. Conclusion: The mechanism of injury correlates significantly with the anatomic location of fracture and knowledge of those associations should guide the surgeons for appropriate and timely management.


Harikumar Pallathadka; Laxmi Kirana Pallathadka

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8257-8268

Barack Obama, former president of the United States, had once revealed that Indian epics
Mahabharata and Ramayana have a special place in his heart. He wrote in his book titled The
Promised Land that "India always held a special place in my imagination. Maybe it was because I had
spent a part of my childhood in Indonesia listening to the epic Hindu tales of the Ramayana and the
Mahabharata…” Mahabharata is one of the incredible epics where several world administrators beget
wisdom from it. This paper assesses a critical view of our nation India through Mahabharata. The
paper also analyses the epic as a perfect piece of literature, picturing Indian culture's origin in
Mahabharata's canvas. Sage Vaisampayana, the disciple of Vyasa, recites Mahabharata for the first
time to King Janamejaya at his sarpasatra in Takshasila, modern Pakistan. Later at Naimisaranya, on
the Gomti river banks near Lucknow, it was narrated by Ugrasravas, showing how the epic was stored,
memorized, and transmitted orally during different historical periods. During a conclave of sages
headed by Saunaka, at Naimisaranya, Ugrasrava Sauti, son of Lomaharsana, again narrates the

What Topics Social Networkers’ Discuss Upon Social Network Sites

Rahul Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4411-4416

In the past few years, social networking platforms have been established as a mode of communication using which a huge number of people are getting connected online. Online social networking platforms act as mediums of supportive communication, thus enabling information sharing between users. People are using online social platforms to discuss multiple type of topics online. The need of the hour is to identify the topics which are most talked about over social network platforms. This will help marketers in matching their advertising content with the most preferred topics by social network users. Topics related to school/college stuff and personal issues are found to be most discussed ones on social networking platforms

Review on E-Waste Along with Its Management

Dr. Pallavi Srivastava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1323-1328

The name given to all electronic and electrical appliances that are at the end of their lives is electronic waste commonly known as e-waste. In short, e-waste is a term that cuddles different forms of electrical and electronic devices that have ceased to be of any value to their owners. Electronic waste or e-waste in one of developing countries such as India and developed countries’ is growing global problems. E-waste contains useful as well as hazardous content with shoddier impacts on health and the environment. This review paper offers an analysis of global e-waste figures, e-waste portion health concerns as well as waste management, recycling, regulatory strategies and e-waste guidelines. Existing and future e-waste management programs have been discussed by communicating strategies for e-waste management to developed countries. The path to sustainability in e-waste management programs such as Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Producer Responsibility Organization (PRO) has been clearly presented. E-waste environment is a forum for resources (hydrogen and electricity) market project and reliable metal recovery (gold, silver and platinum) by biotechnology approaches.

A Comparative Analysis Of Indian Arbitration Provisions With That Of Singapore: Special Emphasis On Enforcement Provisions

Mr. Aswini Patro; Prof. (Dr.) Pradip Kumar Sarkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5311-5319

This paper critically evaluates the legislative structure of Indian arbitration with that of Singapore with special focus on the enforcement provisions. The objective of the author is to find out whether the legislative improvements introduced through 2015 and 2019 amendments to Indian Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 were sufficient to elevate the Indian legislation to global standard. This objective has been achieved through a comparative analysis of Indian Act with the provisions of Singapore's International Arbitration Act, 1994 and Arbitration Act, 2002 with their latest amendments. The two amendments to Indian Arbitration Act have been successful in removing many of the loopholes and lacunae associated with it. But there are some parts related to enforcement issues involving both domestic and foreign awards and equating the interim awards of the arbitration panel with that of final awards where the Indian legislation needs improvement. Equating interim measures/awards with that of final awards allows the courts to use the provisions of New York Convention and enforce it against the erring party. This gives legitimacy to the arbitration process and reposes the faith of parties in the arbitration regime of the country. Under Singapore provisions there is no right of appeal and appeal is the discretion of the High Court. Multiple appeal mechanisms in Indian system during enforcement proceedings lead to enormous delay in  the whole arbitration process forcing foreign parties to refuse arbitration in India.  These are very novel provisions and Indian law should incorporate similar provisions

Nutritional Status Of The Rabha Tribal Children Of Udalguri District Of Assam, India

Nabajit Kr. Das; A. F. Gulenur Islam Barbhuiya; Rijumoni Sarma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4794-4802

Tribal populations in India are considered to be socio-economically the most disadvantaged group and tribal children have very poor health indicators when compared to the rest of the population. In the present study an attempt has been made to assess the nutritional status of under- five years age group among the Rabha children of Udalguri district, Assam, India. For assessing the nutritional status of children, three anthropometric indices- height for age, weight for height and weight for age, which are considered as good indicators of assessment of nutritional status were adopted. Among the 225 children who were assessed for malnutrition, 93 (41.33%) were stunted, 62 (27.56%) wasted and 68 (30.22%) underweight as per WHO Growth Standards. The prevalence of malnutrition was found more common in girls as compared to boys. Education of the mothers was found to have a strong inverse relationship with all three measures of nutritional status. Education among the parents to improve nutritional status in the children as well as modification in the lifestyle can help to decline this health concern

Studies On Use Of Biofertilizers In Agricultural Production

Vandna Chhabra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2335-2339

India had to reconstruct its economy after 1947 when more than three-quarters of the population relied on farming. There were several issues faced by agriculture in India like very small grain productivity due to lack of irrigation and other infrastructure as farming still dependent on monsoons. The Green Revolution began in 1965 with the first implementation of High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds in Indian agriculture. This has been combined with better and more effective irrigation and proper fertilizer use to increase the crop yields. The Green Revolution ultimately resulted in India becoming self-sufficient. Presently, to get more production from the shrinking resources like land and water is the huge challenge. Biofertilizers, are regarded as profitable, environmental friendly and limitless resources of crop nutrients or microbial inoculants and economical transporters for adding and mobilizing nutrients in soil.

Coronavirus Disease: Existing Literature and Status in India

Dr.Arunachalam P; HOD,Dr.Jaiganesh S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 5707-5715

The outbreak of COVID-19 disease began in December 2019 in the city of Wuhan in China, also recognized as China's largest transport centre. The condition became epidemic during China's spring festival. The virus is quickly transported into several nations, including countries with low wages So far, 234073 have registered COVID-19 cases in the world with a total of 9840 fatalities. Cough, high fever, a sore throat, tiredness and respiratory trauma are the typical signs of COVID-19. The condition was shown to be moderate in most cases, others with pneumonia with multi-organ failure and acute ARDS. The Incubation Time for the infection has been observed to be 2-14 days, typically 4 days in maximum cases. India remains in stage 2 on local transmission in line with WHO Record 60. The WHO announced 60 that no population transmission has yet occurred in India that can be avoided by preventing mass meetings and proper citizens screens. Govt. Govt. There have been several initiatives by India to minimize the spread of COVID-19 in the region. The COVID-19 infection incidence in India appears to be poor in comparison to the country's population. This is attributable to swift government measures to quarantine and close down the boundaries of the accused population. The global economy is in great slowdown due to COVID-19 assault and would potentially cost roughly $1 trillion. This is attributable to swift government measures to quarantine and close down the boundaries of the accused population. By reducing H-H transmissions, the spread of COVID-19 infections may be minimized. Anti-CoV drug discovery is also required, and will replace the supporting therapies for infection control.


Jayadharani. C; Dr. Durairaj Sekar; Dr. Ganesh Lakshmanan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 616-625

Pandemic is a global affection which has effects on health, social and political levels,As many countries are trying to tackle the current COVID pandemic, this study aims at analysing the popular perception on the capabilities of India in managing a pandemic among the local population. A questionnaire was distributed through an online google forms link to about 100 South Indian population, The study population were asked to fill out the online form after reading each question thoroughly. The results were collected and Data was analysed using SPSS software version 20. From the results, the majority of the study population answered positive responses regarding India’s capability of managing pandemic and also awareness of Pandemic among people of India.. 100% of the population were aware of the pandemic and its outbreaks. This study gives an insight on the popular perception toward India’s capability of managing pandemic, and creating an awareness on its spread.