Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : mental health

Mental health status among Health Care Workers in Primary care exposed to COVID-19 pandemic in North Batinah, Oman

Firdous Jahan; Najat Mohammed Issa Al Zadjali; Muhammad Siddiqui; Sheikha Ali Mohammed Al Moqbali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1268-1280

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is causing an enormous strain on healthcare providers
worldwide, from general practitioners to physicians and pharmacists. Health Care Worker (HCW)
in primary care is the first line defender in the community. The disease impact is being felt both by
those who care directly for COVID patients and those who practice in the community.
A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in primary care/ Health centers in the
North Batinah region of Oman to assess healthcare workers' psychological responses and related
factors during the Covid-19 outbreak. All doctors and nurses working in primary health care
services were invited to participate in the study by filling in the study questionnaire. An electronic
survey link was sent out via email. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (IBM SPSS
Statistics 24.0).


Roshan Kumar Jha; Deepika Kanyal; Dr. Archana Dhok; Lata Kanyal Butola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1096-1109

Vitamin D is also known as calciferol because of its role in calcium metabolism and antirachitic factor because it prevents rickets. It is a modified steroid, synthesised in the skin under the influence of sunlight and is necessary for metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Its RDA is 400 IU or 10 mg, it binds to the receptor of target cells and regulate through gene expression. Vitamin D undergoes hydroxylation in the liver to form 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D]. The two main forms are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). The main source of vitamin D in humans is in the form of vitamin D3, which is derived from synthesis in the skin via exposure of 7- dehydrocholesterol, concentrated in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum, to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. Vitamin D2 is obtained from the diet, and is derived from ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, found in fungi. Both metabolites are transported in the blood bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). These inactive vitamin D metabolites must undergo a two-step hydroxylation process to become biologically active. Initially, vitamin D2 and D3 undergo hydroxylation in the maternal liver, via the action of vitamin D 25-hydroxylase enzyme (CYP27A1), to form the inactive steroid precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). 25[OH]D is the major circulating and stored form of vitamin D. In this present review we have focused on need of vitamin D beyond bone.

Impact of Armed Conflict on Mental Health, Educational Access and Reduction among Children in Kashmir

Dr. Zaffar Ahmad Nadaf; Prof. NighatBasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1892-1907

Children in conflict countries are exposed to difficulties with an austere point of view for
their future. People residing in conflict-affected areas are denied their right to education,
admittance to aptitudes and information, and the path to a superior life for themselves and
their country. The present investigation is descriptive. In the current examination, the
investigator studied recent related literature and secondary data extensively like books, ebooks,
journals, editorials, and other reliable sources, which put forwarda more prominent
understanding of all possible and practical aspects of the research problem at hand.The
exploration reveals that conflict has taken a heavy toll on children and their right to
education concerning mental and physical health, school attendance, school closure, and
schooling capacity reduction. In addition to that, appalling levels of massacring,
mutilating, recruitment and denial of humanitarian access, committing rape and other
forms of sexual violence, engaging in attacks on schools; and abducting children in armed
conflict situations came under the domain of violations against children

Review of Psychosocial Risk Approach, Model and Theory

Dadan Erwandi; Fatma Lestari; Zulkifli Djunaidi; Herlina J. EL- Matury

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 195-214

Current psychosocial risk theories focus on different dimensions that it is necessary to understand each theory and approach to be able to adequately be analysed any psychosocial risk problem. Psychosocial hazards and risk, along with their relevant significant impacts, are often unrecognized by workers and management. This leads to increasing number of occupational accidents that are partly caused by psychosocial factors, in addition to physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical factors. This review aims to obtain an in-depth understanding of the approaches/theories/models that are necessary to be able to comprehensively explain how psychosocial hazards and risk occur and their related impacts against workers in a workplace.


Shweta Patel; Manindra Rajak; Kamini Khatak; Ranjana Patnaik; Diwakar Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 10-23

Background As the pandemic COVID-19 (due to novel Corona virus) is widely spreading across the globe, it is creating extensive fear, anxiety, apprehension and stress. These are all inevitable and growing reactions to the changing and uncertain situation in which all of us find ourselves. Objectives This study was carried out to assess the psychological impact of the novel, unprecedented situation arising due to pandemic in adult Indian population. Method The data was collected with self-reported questionnaire based survey. The survey was circulated in social media as Google form and participation was completely voluntary. Data was statistically analysed by using chi square test for the calculation of significance. Results The responders had moderate level of perceived stress and anxiety 71%; 63.1% were found to be above average in terms of wellness, 80% were reported to smoke/chew tobacco/consume alcohol and 98.1% were well aware of COVID-19 and seriously followed social distancing. Conclusion Since disruptive effect of COVID-19 social distancing is dominating our daily lives, it is important to maintain connection. Anxiety and fears of each and every individual should be acknowledged and better understood by other individuals, communities and caregivers.


Dr . Ahmed Abdulameer Ibrahim M . B . Ch . B; Dr . Jawad K . al-Diwan MBChB, MSs, DCN , FIBMS , FFPH.; Dr . Riyadh Al-Rudainy , MB , FICMS / CM3

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 366-374

This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distinguish kinds and related factors
of Mental Disorders among elderly people attending Geriatric Clinic, Baghdad, Iraq.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study conducted and a systematic random sampling technique
was used to select 320 elderly people. We collected data on basic demographics and associated
risk factors using a questionnaire filled through self-reported questionnaire. Mental disorders
(MDs) were defined according to Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) with a cutoff score
of 20+. Accredited tools used by WHO were utilized to identify mental disorders kinds. Results:
The prevalence of MDs in the study sample was 24.4%. The prevalence of MDs types were:
Depression 16.6%, anxiety 12.8%, dementia 5.3%, substance abuse 2.5%, suicide thoughts
5.6%, and suicide attempts 2.5%. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the
determinant factors of elderly MDs revealed the following significant factors: Aging, smokers,
living depends on others, loneliness and social isolation, visual impairment, economic state
deterioration, neglect and mishandling, and chronic diseases are the determinant factors of
elderly MDs. Conclusions: Mental disorders are wide spread among elderly people and
enhanced elderly mental health care services should be provided

Socio-Psychological Factors Are The Effect Ofperson’s Mental Health

MuazzamTulkinovna Isakova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4699-4718

Human health is of paramount importance to life on earth. It is the basis of human health to take care of this blessing given by the God almighty, to spend it without wasting it, and to restore it. The article explores the views of scientists who have conducted research on a person’s mental health. 432 people participated in the empirical study. Their concepts and knowledge of mental health were explored and the importance of mental health in overall human health was explored.Also employment, personal financial situation, health, leisure time, family friends, home education, cultural recreation, economics, public administration, religion and religious beliefs, personal freedom (rights), neighborhood, interpersonal relationships, daily life (living conditions), the degree of impact of factors such as proper nutrition on individual health was studied. Each of these factors affects the mental state of the person, his views, orientation, goals, worldview, general health. The results were analyzed mathematically statistically, the reliability value was determined. Conclusions are given.

Various Approaches to overcome Depression: A Review

Anu Kumar; Neha Rathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4684-4694

Depression is a global health problem which is elevating constantly. It affects not just the mood of the patient but also it`s health, behavior and the quality of life. Diagnosis becomes difficult as there is no exact point for it`s confirmation except some symptoms which too vary among patients. The condition can be triggered by various factors such as the surrounding friends and family, social sites, food habits, sleep patterns, food insecurity, childhood traumas, post partum and genetic factors. Since there is a wide range of clinical heterogeneity among patients the treatment approach would depend upon the individual itself. Different patients may show varying efficacy to different approaches. Along with the treatment there is a serious need to promote awareness among people of all age groups regarding various myths of the disorder and make them aware of the seriousness of this rising global health issue. In this review we made an approach to gather information about various treatment approaches available worldwide to fight this disorder as allopathy alone is not feasible to deal with it.

Investigation of Depression, Anxiety & Stress Symptoms on Students

Suchismita Pahantasingh; Ranjita Jena; Sarika M L

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1242-1252

The most common psychiatric disorder in young people is depression. Unipolar depressive disorder in young people are common globally but still unrecognized. The incidence is growing sharply following the puberty, especially in girls, and the 1-year prevalence rate at the end of adolescence exceeds by 4%. In middle and low-income nations, the burden is highest. Depression is related to current and potential illness and raises the risk of suicide. A family history of depression and exposure to psycho-social stress were the most important risk factors for depression in young people. Adolescence is a physical, social, sexual and emotional stress phase and it is a topic of concern at this stage of life if there are mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety and stress. The inherited risks, developmental factors, sexual hormones and psycho-social adversity interact in order to increase risk by hormone and associated neural disturbance factors. In this study, the student's executive functions were studied and compared with those of a stable person with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. These scales are structured to measure depression, anxiety and stress in negative emotional states.

Psychological Well-Being And Quality Of Worklife Of The School Teachers During The Covid-19 Situation

Thomas K. P.; Dr. Satish Kumar; Dr. Pavitar Parkash Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6309-6316

The recent pandemic disease called “COVID-19 or Corona Virus”, which is prevalent the whole world is also spread in every state of our own country India. It has a wide range impact on every aspect of the life of the people everywhere. The people are sure to undergo vast variety of COVID-19 impacts like stress, anxiety, tensions, fear, remorse, disinterestedness, physical problems like pressure and heart problems, various other discomforts, frustrations, irritation, anger, etc. It is said by the psychologists that a like 'COVID-19’ will have a significant impact on the mental health of the people who live any part of the world. This impact will be multifaceted: immediate effect, short-time impact, effect which could be long lasting, different types of impacts, etc. One great impact of this COVID-19 situation is felt in the educational field-education process is in a standstill. Lot stress is experienced by the teachers which has affected their psychological well-being and has reduced the degree of their employment-related experience or the total quality of their work life at the school. Teachers must remain calm so as to look after their own well-being. In this way, through different ways,they should navigate through this time and must their own psychological well-being and higher degree of quality of work life.

Challenges Of The COVID-19 Pandemic For Child And Adolescent Mental Health: Promoting Psychosocial And Positive Well-Being

Mr. A. Anbarasu; Dr. M. Bhuvaneswari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 326-333

In the history the out broke of pandemic had caused much damage on humanity. There were different pandemic such as cholera pandemic and flu pandemic, Spanish flu, Asian flu, SARS, MERS, Ebola etc. but COVID-19 has shaken the entire world and irrespectively affected all people. Particularly, it caused mental health challenge for children and adolescents. (fear, worry, panic, stress, anxiety, depression, difficulty in sleeping, loss of appetite, isolation, emotional and relational problem and conduct restriction).Though COVID-19 has created greater opportunity for the personal growth and family cohesion but brought huge damage on children and adolescents. Despite of all sensitization done by the government about the pandemic and preventive measures to be observed such as hand washing with sanitizer, wearing mask and practicing social distancing, people are not following them in day today life. Thus, the appropriate psychosocial care programme needs to be developed to strengthen the coping skills and promoting the positive psychological and emotional wellbeing of children and adolescents.

Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) And Mental Health In The Philippines: Insights From Key Informant Interviews

Francis Gregory R. Samonte; Ma. Teresa De Guzman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4072-4085

The rapid rise of chronic diseases in the Philippines from non-communicable disease to mental health disorder requires a rebalancing of health care priorities to meet these challenges. Recent statistical modelling studies in the country revealed a strong relationship in the developmental outcome of NCD and mental health. The need to develop strategies aimed at integrating NCD and mental health are important steps towards efficient and effective health care delivery systems particularly in low-income countries. Critical to these changes in health care delivery system is the role of key decision makers in understanding the interrelationship of chronic diseases and areas in public health policy related to governance. A semi-structured key informant interview was conducted, and responses were analyzed using a thematic content technique to determine knowledge and how current health programs are meeting these challenges. The results of the study highlighted areas for future research and public health policy development, while revealing structural and organizational problems. The implication of improving human capital development, governance, and communication gaps between national and local government agencies are vital to addressing these problems

Mental Health Issues and Consideration in Post Covid-19 era

M.Yousuf Adam; Dr.Muhammad Amin Wani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6330-6336

Background: Corona virus disease (Covid-19) entered at the end of last year in China, and slowly occupied rest of world. In India, Government declared complete Lockdown in second half of March, soon after three or four months later country slowly lifted Lockdown. But, covid-19 pandemic is still there. Along with biological complication due to covid-19, we suffered with lots of mental health issues due to psychological and economical aspects.
Objective: Aim of this study is to assess mental health status irrespective of gender, age group, location, stress, chronic disease and covid-19 infection. Also, to investigate mean difference between various demographic variables in order to examine most vulnerable people towards mental health illness.
Material and method: Due to covid-19 and social distancing, the researchers were carried this study using demographic variables and the mental health inventory (MHI-38) in internet and social media platform from September 13 to September 23, 2020. The data collected were more than hundred, but the researchers took only hundred respondents to analyse data statistically and the results were interpreted.
Conclusion: The result revealed that mean difference of mental health in relation to gender, age group, and stress were statistically significant and their corresponding p-value were 0.0447, 0.0048 and 0.0001 respectively. Mental health status increases with increase income, and there were no statistical significant in respective to covid-19 testing, location, or chronic disease. The researchers have concluded this study with mental health consideration from latest reviewed paper and mentioned possible strategies to control mental health problem.


Abigail KT Zaizai; Jaya Gawai; Sr. Tessy; Pooja Kasturkar; Manoj Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2660-2665

Abstract: Introduction: Obsessive compulsive disorder is a disorder in which an individual
experienced unwanted thoughts, like the insistency of words or ideas perceived by the
patient to be inappropriate or nonsensical. It is an obsessive urge or idea changed the
personality of people. The lifetime prevalence of OCD in India is about 2-3% which means
that at least two to three people out of hundred are suffering from this illness.
Case Presentation: A case of Obsessive compulsive disorder is found in a 47 years old man
from Nalwadi, Wardha. He has a symptoms like over disciplined, perfectionist, overly
maintaining self-hygiene. All these symptoms started 2 years back and the intensity has
increased. The purpose of this study is to be aware of what Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
is and aware that it is an illness that can be treated.
Conclusion: In the study, we mainly focused on OCD and how it affects people’s mental

Knowledge And Awareness On Mental Health Of Students During Quarantine Period

Kaviyaselvi Gurumurthy; V. Vishnu Priya; K. R. Don; R. Gayathri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2644-2664

Coronavirus, a deadly virus caused an unimaginable pandemic across the globe and in order to limit its spread the lockdown and quarantine initiative was introduced. The mental health of students generally refers to the complete mental well-being and the absence of any mental disorders. This pandemic caused a major fluctuation in mental attitudes and anxiety levels of students. The main aim of this study was to analyze the attitude of students in relation to the quarantine and the mental health of students during the lockdown period. A self administered questionnaire was prepared and circulated. The results were obtained and statistically analysed using SPSS software with a version of 22 and the statistical test used was descriptive statistics. It was found that the majority of students had no change in relationship between friends and family and were able to counteract boredom and laugh every single day of the quarantine. The study concluded that the quarantine period had an effect on attitude and anger levels of students. Teenagers were physically and psychologically affected by the quarantine due to lack of socialization and however proved to be addicted to social media which had a deteriorating rating impact on the quality of life.

Health Effects OfCovid- 19 Across The Globe -A Review

SachinAditya B; JothiPriya. A; V. Vishnu Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3150-3155

Numerous viral infections have arisen and affected global healthcare facilities. Millions of people were at severe risk of acquiring several evolving viral infections through several factors, Covid- 19 being one of the most popular ones requiring more efforts to control its spread. During the epidemic period of coronavirus diseases, appropriate oral health management and disease prevention of children is very important for children’s oral and general health. In order to prevent the occurrence of cross-infection and epidemic spreading of Covid- 19 during dental practice, the recommendation to parents include making them hand hygiene at home and include proper oral care habits. Covid-19is a global human disaster presented with an emphasis on disturbing mental health aspects of the ongoing pandemic. According to the cross-sectional study, two weeks after the occurrence of Covid-19 in chin almost 40% of the affected youth were proven to have psychological problems, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of Covid-19. Person to person transmission of Covid-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments, Extensive measures to reduce person to person transmission of Covid- 19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak.