Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Anxiety


Prevalence of sleep Quality and daytime Sleepiness among medical student in association with stress, anxiety, depression after Covid 19 Pandemic lockdown in South India: A Cross sectional study

Govindaraj Suganthi, Perumal Srinivasan, Nagarajan Nandha Kumar, Vajiravelu Suganthi, Panneerselvam Periasamy, Sasikala Gunasekaran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 4880-4891

The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and relationships between stress, anxiety, and depression and daytime sleepiness among medical students in the Erode area of Tamil Nadu. Methods: Using a stratified random sample technique, a cross-sectional research of 288 Government Erode Medical College medical students was conducted. The survey was self-administered electronically. The daytime sleepiness, sleep quality, and stress, depression, and anxiety were evaluated by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and DASS 42, respectively. Results: Overall, 22.6% of students reported excessive daytime sleepiness. Depression, anxiety, and stress all had prevalence rates of 40.6%, 39.9%, and 29.9%, respectively. 78.5% of people reported having undesirable or poor sleep quality (total PSQI score 5). Epworth Sleepiness Scale Grade and DASS Levels are not correlated (P>0.05). The findings show that women are substantially more stressed than women are (P< 0.05). Stress and poor sleep quality were substantially correlated (P <0.05), indicating that stress level is a significant predictor of poor sleep quality. The study's findings show that students have a high level of stress and poor sleep quality, and they are strongly correlated. We advise creating classes that instruct students on good sleeping habits and coping mechanisms for stressful situations.
Medical students were reported to have a significant prevalence of night-time sleepiness and excessive daytime sleepiness. Overuse of mobile devices was found to be causally related to both excessive daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality. When compared to students who get low quality sleep, the former performed better academically. Those who had low quality sleep showed an escalating pattern of excessive daytime drowsiness. There was a high prevalence of sleep problems, anxiety, stress, and depression among pre-clinical medical students. Those medical students who struggled with their academic performances, poor lifestyle factors, and poor Social and COVID management had significantly higher levels of sleeping disorders, anxiety, stress, and depression.

LongiFIT Home DNA Testing For Neuropsychiatric Disorders Like Stress, Anxiety, Depression and Personalised Ashwagandha Dosage for Prevention and Cure: A Review of Recent Development

Gautam Chikkara, Pallavi Mittal and Surendra K Chikara .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 3929-3938

Worldwide 284+ million people suffer from stress, anxiety and depression disorders and modern lifestyle, environments and unhealthy diets are causing an epidemic of stress, anxiety & depression (SAD) disorders. Other risk factors which contribute to SAD disorder are compromised genetics, weak immune system, low response to stress & brain neuroplasticity. Several studies had investigated genes, single nucleotide variation, Indels, large deletions, inversions & triple repeat polymorphism involved in various molecular and biological mechanisms underlying the disease initiation & progression. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 150+ genes and genetic association of 44 risk variants [1, 2] for detection of SAD disorders. Nowadays At-home DNA tests (direct-to-consumer DNA tests) are gaining popularity for wellness and healthy longevity. These tests predict risk for micronutrient & vitamin deficiency, antioxidant activity, neuro-muscular functionality, risk for SAD disorders, efficacy of pharmacologically active herbal formulations for prevention & cure. On the basis of genetic outcome, medicinal plants/ herbs have been greatly employed to combat and reduce stress, anxiety & depression and thereby enhance general wellbeing in recent years. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera, fam. Solanaceae) is a most versatile and potential herb of the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine as a Rasayana. It is also accredited as a ‘royal herb’ having potential therapeutic applications. There are more than 33,787 publications for genetic markers for SAD & due to health awareness Ashwagandha research has gained scientific importance as evidenced by 77 publications documented since 2010 in NCBI PubMed [3]. The present review concludes with a discussion of prospects for clinical translation of genetic findings based on DNA testing, mode of action & personalized dosage of Ashwagandha as potent anti-SAD medicinal supplement

Difficulties Faced By Dentists During COVID Pandemic-A Survey

Mithil Darshan Vora; Mrs.S. Sangeetha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 744-756

To assess the hardships faced by dentists during covid pandemic.
Introduction: COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The primary clinical appearances are respiratory in nature. Dental practitioners are among the most elevated hazard categories for transmission of covid since numerous dental methods have the potential to transmit the disease.
Materials and Methods:
A cross sectional survey via an online questionnaire of 11 close ended questions was done. It was circulated via Google forms. The questionnaire contains questions on demographic details also. Data was collected and tabulated in excel sheet and statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 23. A total of 133 dentists responded to the study.
Results:
Most of the dentists reported that they were worried about operational and financial challenges to run their practice during Covid-19 pandemic.  53.4% of the dentists were male while 46.6% of the participants were female. Most of the dentists agreed that they are at higher risk of contracting covid-19 than other medical professionals. Most of the dentists agreed that they may be the major cause of transmitting the infection to their patients.

Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Depression, Anxiety, and Pain Coping Strategies in Women with Breast Cancer

Dr. Pantea Nabian

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1995-2005

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate The Efficacy of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on depression, anxiety, and Pain Coping Strategies in women with breast cancer.
Methods: The present study is a semi-experimental research wth a pretest-posttest With the control group. For this purpose, 50 people Of women with breast cancer were admitted to the Medical university hospitals of Tehran method Purposive sampling was Selected Randomly in two experimental and control groups were replaced. The experimental group underwent group therapy for 10 sessions of 1.5 hours per week after fully explaining the research and expressing their consent on how to do the work. Demographic statistics, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation), and inferential statistics (analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)) were used to perform statistical calculations and data analysis (SPSS 25).
Results: The results showed that Cognitive-behavioral group therapy significantly reduces depression and anxiety in women with breast cancer. Also in the use field of Pain Coping Strategies Between the experimental and control groups, there is a significant difference. 
Conclusion: The results showed that Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy reduces depression and anxiety and increases the use of Pain Coping Strategies in women with breast cancer. 

The Effect of Play Therapy on Reducing Post-operative Anxiety and Pain Levels Among Children in a Selected Hospital, Bhubaneswar, Odisha

Tongbram Rabina Devi , Dr. Niyati Das , Mrs. Purnima Sahoo , Mrs. Jayasmini Mohanty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 7600-7615

Background: Post surgery is a painful experience for everyone, children are more vulnerable to stress and it is important to manage anxiety and pain after surgery. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a play intervention in reducing anxiety and pain levels among post-operative hospitalized children admitted in a selected hospital. Methods: A randomized controlled Trial, 126 participants were recruited from paediatric surgery ward. Ages between 6-12 years, play activities were performed 63 children in intervention group provided play therapy and 63 in control group obtained the daily routine care without any play intervention. Children who received play intervention were less negative and had lower levels of anxiety and pain than children who received normal daily routine care.

Evaluation of Effectiveness of Smart Phone Dental Simulation Application in Management of Child's Anxiety

Dr. Niharika Sharma, Dr. Rooposhi Sourabh Nandi, Dr. Maheen Shaikh, Dr. Priya Patel, Dr. Suganya M, Dr. Juhi Rawal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5694-5700

The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of Smart Phone Dental Simulation Application in controlling children's anxiety.
Material and Method: Fifty children in the age group of 6–10 years who visited to dental clinic for the first time and fulfilled the inclusion criteria were randomly selected from the Outpatient Department of Pedodontics and Preventive dentistry. Selected subjects were made to use mobile dental app called "Little Lovely Dentist" mobile dentistry app from Leaf Cottage Games, which is available on the Google Play Store for Android. Their anxiety levels were noted before and after playing the game using the facial imaging scale.
Result: It was observed that the mean anxiety level before use of smart phone dental application was 3.42 ± 0.32 which was reduced to 1.12 ± 0.25 after use of smart phone dental application which was found to statistically significant.
Conclusion: It was revealed that the mobile dental application was useful in the dental setting to minimize the anxiety of the young patients

Effect of music on anxiety levels in patients undergoing Refractive surgery.

Dr. Kiran Kumar K, Dr. SharadaMoortu, Dr. Vandana Maganty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2034-2040

AIM: To evaluate the effect of music on the anxiety levels and vital parameters of patients undergoing refractive surgery under topical anaesthesia.
METHODS: After screening for inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included 100 participants undergoing refractive surgery for the study. The participants were randomly assigned into music group and control group with 50 participants each. Anxiety levels were assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaire before and after the music therapy. Vital parameters (heart rate and blood pressure) was recorded pre-operatively and intraoperatively. The data was compared and analysed.
RESULTS: There were 50 patients each in music and control group with similar demographic profile and baseline STAI-S score. The music group reported a reduction in anxiety score following 1-hour of pre-operative music therapy, but the difference was not statistically significant (P-value = 1.18). Mean heart rate during surgerywas lower in music group (91.7 + 24.75) compared to control group (97 + 7.07) and this difference was statistically significant (P-value < 0.05). No significant difference was found between groups in blood pressure.
CONCLUSION: Listening to music preoperatively can alleviate patient’s anxiety and improve the patient satisfaction with the procedure.

Impact of second wave of covid-19 pandemic on mental health of health care workers and general population: A comparative study

Bishnoi D, Bhardwaj P, Singh R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9831-9836

With the rise of covid-19 world saw what was unprecedented, and just when we thought we got things under control second wave of covid-19 virus hit us. No one was left unaffected, either directly or indirectly covid caused disruptions in everyone’s lives and thus left with psychological problems in unforeseen majority. Aim of this study was to measure the psychological impact it had on health care workers and general public. Results showed significant differences between the socio demographic profiles of the two groups. Significant difference was found in scores of stress, anxiety, insomnia and depression. This study highlights the need for specialist guided assistance and action towards betterment of mental health of health care workers as well as general public in post covid era.

A cross-sectional observational study to assess the need for mental health check-up as a part of annual health check-up in health care workers

Dr. Priyanka Gupta; Dr. Saurabh Yakhmi; Dr. Ravi Chand Sharma; Dr. Bhawna; Dr. Amrita Bhatia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 2032-2038

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are the frontline warriors in dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic and similar health crises. In developing countries, HCWs face high stress because they have to deal with the increased patient load and limited infrastructure. Long-term exposure to stress, anxiety, and depression may lead to impaired mental health in HCWs. It is, therefore, essential to assess the mental health of HCWs as a part of their annual health check-up. Objective: The present cross-sectional observational study was aimed to assess the mental health of HCWs by analysing the stress, anxiety and depression during their annual health check-up at a tertiary care hospital in North India. Methods: Total 200 participants, including the consultants, and junior and senior resident doctors, were included in the study. The stress level was analyzed using PSS-10, and anxiety and depression were analyzed using GAD-7 and PHQ-9 respectively. Results: The mean PSS-10 score was 9.39 ± 8.53, indicating low stress among HCWs; the mean GAD-7 score was 5.20 ± 4.19, indicating mild anxiety in HCWs and the mean PHQ-9 score was 3.41 ± 3.59, indicating minimal depression among HCWs. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the HCWs faced minimal to mild stress, anxiety, and depression. It is therefore recommended that the mental health check-up should be made a regular part of the annual health check-up in HCWs so that adequate, timely steps are taken to address the same.

Psychiatric morbidity in patients with diabetes mellitus attending a rural teaching hospital

Dr. P Krishna , Chaitanya; Dr. Sathish , Dande; Dr. M Srikanth Reddy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1704-1719

Background: Diabetes mellitus, a common somatic ailment that can have psychological ramifications, is caused when insulin does not operate as well as it should. Diabetes is caused by insulin not working as effectively as it should. It is gradually gaining a reputation as a possible epidemic on a scale that encompasses the entire of the world.

ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

Farheen Sultana, Ragini Muddasani, Anurag Srivastava

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2586-2598

Background: To study the prevalence of anxiety and depression in postmenopausal women attending Mediciti Institute of Medical sciences.
Materials and Methods: Out of 40 consecutive patients presenting to Mediciti Institute of Medical Sciences, Ghanpur with history of menopause, 10 were excluded as they refuse to give consent, and 30 patients were taken into the study. A detailed history of the Patient was taken after taking the consent using the case proforma and were Diagnosed post-menopausal using 1yr criteria after the cessation of last menstrual period , both natural and surgical induced menopause were included, followed by assessment of the patients psychological profile using SCL90, Becks Depression Inventory, Hamilton Anxiety scales.
Results: In the study statistically significant increased rates of anxiety was found to occur in post-menopausal women (P =0.000075). In the study it was observed that Hamilton Anxiety scores were significantly high in surgical induced menopausal women when compared with natural menopause (unpaired T test p= 0.0446). The study also shows that there was a significantly higher incidence of somatization on SCL90 subscale, in surgical induced menopause than natural menopausal women with a P value = 0.0001.
Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference among natural menopause and surgical induced menopausal women on other subscales like OCD, Interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, phobic, Paranoid Ideation, or Psychoticism.

Psychological morbidity among post-COVID-19 patients: A cross-sectional study

Dr. Gopal Das CM, Dr. Vijay Raj N, Dr. Anantha Kalyan D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1445-1452

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health threat and is by far the largest outbreak of atypical pneumonia, since the SARS outbreak in 2003. A range of psychiatric morbidities such as persistent depression, anxiety, panic attacks, delirium and suicidality were observed in the post infectious state across the world. Hence, the aim of the study was to understand the psychological status of the patients affected by COVID during their post-COVID follow-up period and to examine the socio-demographic and clinical factors associated with high psychological morbidity.
Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in the post-COVID follow up clinic, at a tertiary care hospital between the months of July 2021-November 2021, using a semi structured proforma and rating scales such as Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) for depression, anxiety and insomnia, respectively.
Results: The study results indicate that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among post-COVID-19 patients was 21.9% and 11.9%, respectively. Insomnia was observed among 21.7% among various socio- demographic and clinical variables examined, it was observed that female gender, patients with ongoing stressors and patients with post-COVID-19 persistent physical symptoms were found to be associated with greater depression and anxiety among the study population.
Conclusion: Persistent physical symptoms and ongoing life stressors are found to be associated with depression and anxiety among post-COVID-19 patients. Hence, periodic screening for individuals with persisting physical symptoms and care for the vulnerable population such as those with ongoing stressors will provide a significant advantage in the follow up of the mental health of the patients affected with COVID-19.

Preoperative knowledge about spinal anesthesia on anxiety and pain in patients undergoing cesarean section

Dr. Shalini Nagpal, Dr. Yogesh Kumar Chhetty, Dr. Ila Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1808-1811

Background: Preoperative counseling is one for pregnant women help to improve the surgical outcome and also reduce the number of analgesics used. Though it is known that preoperative counseling is effective, there are limited studies to testify to its importance.
Objective: The present study was undertaken to observe the preoperative knowledge about spinal anesthesia on anxiety and pain in patients undergoing cesarean section.
Materials and methods: A total of 60 patients who were elected under CS anesthesia were part of the study after obtaining informed consent. After recording the baseline pain scores, depression, anxiety and stress scores, the participants were randomly grouped into control and intervention groups with 30 participants in each group. Preoperative counseling was offered to the participants of the intervention group. No counseling was offered to the participants of the control group. Post-surgical pain and depression, anxiety and stress scores were recorded in both groups. A visual analog scale was used to record the pain scores. Depression, anxiety and stress scores were recorded using DASS 42.
Results: There was no significant difference in the scores of depressions, anxiety and stress among the control and intervention group participants before the counseling. There was a significant decrease in the depression, anxiety and stress scores in the intervention group participants. Further, a significant decrease was observed in the pain scores also in the participants of the intervention group.
Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in the pain scores, depression, anxiety and stress scores after the surgery in the intervention group participants who underwent the preoperative counseling. The study recommends further detailed study in this area to recommend the implementation of preoperative counseling for the women undergoing cesarean section.

Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Tejinder Singh,Neelam Rathi, Raman Baliyan, Anurag Timothy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10541-10546

Background:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, diffuse
interstitial lung disease of unknown cause that occurs primarily in older adults. Several
causes for IPF have been proposed, including diabetes mellitus, smoking, metal
particles, and sawdust. IPF is the commonest and most severe form of idiopathic
interstitial pneumonia. No curative medical treatment is available for IPF, and lung
transplantation remains the only effective treatment. Psychiatric comorbidities are
common in patients of IPF. Among them, depression and anxiety are more common.
Aim and objective: To study the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis who
visited Chest and TB OPD were recruited in the study. They were assessed in detail for
the presence of depression and anxiety with the help of the Hamilton Depression and
Anxiety rating scale.
Results: A total of 30(60%) patients out of 50 have comorbid depression and anxiety.
Conclusion: Depression and Anxiety were found to be a common problem in patients
with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. A proper address of this issue is important for
management, better outcome, and policymaking in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary
Fibrosis.

SEVERITY OF DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND STRESS AMONG RECOVERED PATIENTS OF COVID-19: AN CROSS-SECTIONAL OBSERVATION STUDY VIA TELEPHONIC CONVERSATION.

Dr.Tarun Pal, Dr.Chitrakshee Singh, Dr.Gyanendra Kumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5306-5310

As a major virus outbreak in the 21st century, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented hazards to mental health globally. While psychological support is being provided to patients and healthcare workers, the general public's mental health requires significant attention as well. This systematic review aims to synthesize extant literature that reports on the effects of COVID-19 on psychological outcomes of the general population and its associated risk factors. A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus from inception  following the PRISMA guidelines. Relatively high rates of symptoms of anxiety , depression , post-traumatic stress disorder , psychological distress , and stress  are reported in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic . Risk factors associated with distress measures include female gender, younger age group , presence of chronic/psychiatric illnesses, unemployment, student status, and frequent exposure to social media/news concerning COVID-19.The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with highly significant levels of psychological distress that, in many cases, would meet the threshold for clinical relevance. Mitigating the hazardous effects of COVID-19 on mental health is an international public health priority.

Depression, Anxiety and Stress in healthcare workers (HCWs) during COVID-19 pandemic- an observational study from central India

Mansi Anand, Kavya Rawat, Srikanth Reddy, Hiral Kotadia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1715-1721

Background: Since March-April 2020, India and its overburdened health care services have faced a new challenge of COVID-19 pandemic. HCWs, along with stress of rigorous duties and long work hours have faced additional stress like fear of infection, transmission, alienation and rejection.Burden not only undermines the quality of life of HCWs but also impacts the quality of health services provided by them, increase practice errors, leading to worse outcomes and additional costs. As our hospital was one of the busiest tertiary care centers of central India with maximum patient load, during this pandemic, we initiated this study to assess how mental health of the HCWs is being affected.To measure the level of Depression, Anxiety & Stress in Health care workers (Resident doctors & Consultants) working in a tertiary care centre in central India. To compare the depression, anxiety & stress scores between various factors related to the work profile.
Material and Methods: It was a Cross sectional study carried out in a tertiary care center in central India. 145 HCWs (resident doctors and consultants) working in COVID wards and ICUs were included in the study. After taking an informed consent, socio-demographic details were obtained and DASS-21 (Depression, anxiety and stress scale) was applied.
Results: 78 (53.7%) of HCWs were males and 67 (46.2%) were females. Majority 97 (66.8%) were from medicine allied branches and 48 (33.1%) from surgery allied branches. Majority [110 (7.6%)] were 1st and 2nd year residents. 72 (49.6%) had more than 4 months of duty. 84 (57.9%) had 1-60 hours of ICU duty. The prevalence rates of depression, anxiety and stress were 62%, 66%, and 56% respectively.  Out of these extremely severe grades of depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms were seen in 30%, 18% and 10% respectively. Significantly higher scores were observed in residents of surgery allied branches (54 +/- 32.5), HCWs who had no previous experience (52.18 +/- 31.8), 1st (56.6+/-34.6) and 2nd (43.2+/-27.6) year residents, total duration of duty upto 2 months (59.12+/-36.4) and ICU duty of 100 hours (62.1+/- 33.2). However the scores decreased in HCWs who had duties of more than 2 months and ICU duty of more than 100 hours.
Conclusion: More than half of HCWs had depression, anxiety & stress. Significantly higher scores were seen in junior residents, more number of ICU work hours and total duration of duties, and the HCWs with no prior experience. Reducing the duty hours, adequate training in intensive care settings and sensitization about various methods to regulate emotions might help to reduce the stress in HCWs in such difficult times.

PSYCHOLOGICAL MORBIDITY IN PREGNANCY DURING COVID-19 LOCKDOWN

Dr.Saima Sadiq,Dr. Rajesh Chandel,Dr.Heena Mir,Dr. Anil Mehta, Dr Sonali Sharma,Dr Rouf Gul6,Mr.Pawan kumar,Mr. Ravi kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 46-53

AIM: Study aimed to assess the burden of psychological morbidity due to lockdown in
the pregnant females.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: It was an observational study conducted in the
department of obstetrics &gynecology, GMC Kathua during the covid lockdown period
from June 2020 to August 2020. 100 antenatal patients attending OPD were included
in the study after excluding those with hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, bleeding
pv,IUGR,oligohydramnios,threatened preterm labour, known psychiatric illness or
taking psychotropic medication, prior sleep disorder. The patients were assessed using a
questionnairewhich was framed using various scales such as PHQ-9 for Depression,
GAD7 for anxiety, Perceived Stress Scale and Insomnia severity index , in addition to
incorporating various sociodemographic and obstetrical details.The arbitrary division
of PHQ‑ 9 scores into ratings of minimal (0–4),mild (5–9), and moderate to severe
depression (≥10) suggested by Reddy et al. was used in this study. Cutoff points of 5, 10,
and 15 were interpreted as representing mild, moderate, and severe levels of anxiety on
the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7). Insomnia severity index scored on a fivepoint
Likert’s scale (0 = no problem to 4 = very severe problem). Score of 0–7 depicted
absence of insomnia, 8–14 showedsubthreshold insomnia, 15–21 represented moderate,
and 22–28 showed severe insomnia.

Effect OfYoga Practice On Anxiety During The COVID-19 Pandemic

Dr. PoojaTripathi Pandey,Dr.Manila Jain, Dr. Sapana Jaiswal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 140-145

Stress and anxiety have been implicated as contributors to many chronic diseases and to
decreased quality of life, even with pharmacologic treatment. Efforts are underway to find
non-pharmacologic therapies to relieve stress and anxiety, and yoga is one option for
which results are promising. The focus of this review is on the results of human trials
assessing the role of yoga in improving the signs and symptoms of stress and anxiety. A
significant decrease in stress and/or anxiety symptoms when a yoga regimen was
implemented; however, many of the studies were also hindered by limitations, such as
small study populations, lack of randomization, and lack of a control group. Biochemical
and physiological markers of stress and anxiety, but yielded inconsistent support of yoga
for relief of stress and anxiety. Evaluation of the current primary literature is suggestive of
benefits of yoga in relieving stress and anxiety, but further investigation into this
relationship using large, well-defined populations, adequate controls, randomization and
long duration should be explored before recommending yoga as a treatment option.

Assessment of the stress, anxiety, and depression in students during COVID-19 pandemic

Dr Rajveer Basu, Dr Preeti Lahari, Kiran Lahari, Dr Jugvendra Lahari .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1835-1841

Background: shifting of the school classes to online format owing to social distancing
norms led to amplification of academic stress, independent learning pressure, dropouts,
everyday life abandonment, less study chance made researchers focus on assessing the
impact of coronavirus on the mental condition of the students. This requires prompt
intervention as stress can further increase in subjects adopting conventional coping
strategies and in subjects with pre-existing stressors.
Aim: The present study was conducted to assess stress, anxiety, and depression in subjects
at a defined geographical area to assess psychological needs in subjects dealing with
causal factors and the pandemic.
Methods: In 156 subjects, DASS 21 scale was used having 21 questionnaires that were
answered by the subjects themselves and were concerned about stress, anxiety, and
depression. The responses were recorded on a scale of 0 to 4 where 0 meant little time/none
and 3 meant most of the time. The responses were recorded based on symptoms severity in
the last week before answering the questionnaire. The interpretation of the DASS 21 scale
was divided into categories of normal, mild, moderate, severe, or very severe. The collected
data were subjected to statistical evaluation.
Results: For gender, only anxiety was statistically significant (p=0.01) which was higher in
females with the value of 1.72±0.993 compared to males with the value of 1.47±0.881. For
the age anxiety levels were significantly higher in subjects of age ≤ 20 years with 1.76±1.01
compared to ≥ 21 years with the value of 1.52±0.883 (p=0.02). For familial history also
significantly correlated to anxiety with p=0.004, whereas for depression and stress the pvalues
were 0.758 and 0.238 respectively and were non-significant. For family history, it
was significantly related to anxiety with a p-value of 0.12, whereas, it was non-significantly
related to depression and stress with respective p-values of 0.753 and 0.297. The
socioeconomic status was also significantly associated with anxiety with the low
socioeconomic group having a strong association having a p-value of 0.25.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that the depression, anxiety, and stress in
students during COVID-19 was seen ranging from mild to severe levels, whereas, majority
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of the students showed normal levels of DASS. Also, positive family history of COVID-19
and family income was associated with increased depression, anxiety, and stress in the
students.

DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AMONG THYROID PATIENTS AND THEIR TREATMENT IMPACTS

Sami Hasan Husseinalali, Sufian F. A. Nairoukh Soubhi Zitouni, Fisal Haritani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 1986-1991

The complication of the Thyroid is endless, affecting the lifestyle due to the effect on direct neurological disturbances. Mainly, depression and anxiety are closely linked with hypothyroidism. In this work, initially, we clinically describe Thyroid and its classification. Then we disseminate the genetic causes and the methods involved in diagnosing hypothyroidism. Finally, the effects of different treatments on curing chronic illness have been discussed.

Stress, Anxiety and Depression among vitiligo patients visiting dermatology clinic.

Malak Abdullah Alshilli, Aref Salem Zaban Alzeyadi, Turki Ali Hamed Almaliki

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3195-3209

Background: Vitiligo has a significant effect on patients’ quality of life; they feel stigmatized and disturbed by their condition. A lot of vitiligo patients, according to reports, suffer from psychological disturbances. The aim of the study is to find the relation between vitiligo and stress, anxiety, and depression and to measure how vitiligo affects the quality-of-life index. Methods of study is a case-control involving fifty patients of both sexes with the diagnosis of vitiligo and fifty healthy volunteers as a control group matched in age, gender, and academic level. Patients were selected from patients who visiting dermatology clinic at King Abdul-Aziz hospital in Makkah Al-Mokarramah. All patients were assessed by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) to determine the severity of anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scale to evaluate their quality of life while the control group underwent only the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Results: The prevalence of stress was 76%, anxiety was 78%, and depression was 80%; the difference was statistically significant between patient group and control group regarding stress, anxiety, and depression. Gender had a significant relationship with stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05) (female affected more than male). Also, there was a statistically significant relation between the degree of vitiligo and anxiety (p < 0.05). Vitiligo has a moderate to very severe effect on the quality of life index. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between stress and feeling of embarrassment from vitiligo and clothes choice. Conclusion: Vitiligo is a psych cutaneous disease that does not only affect the patient’s physical status, but also his mental and psychological status.

DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY AMONG STUDENTS COMMUNITY DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC LOCKDOWN IN TAMIL NADU - A WEB BASED DESCRIPTIVE CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

K. Saravanan; S. Hariharan; R. Karthikeyan; B.Krishna Prasanth; Supraja Nagarathinam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1076-1080

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has had an appreciable impact on public
mental health. Hence continuous monitoring of the population’s mental health
especially during a pandemic demands immediate attention. The COVID-19
pandemic contributing to a rise in depression and anxiety among college students,
with more than one third of them experiencing detrimental mental health challenges.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression
and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic among medical college students.

Structural Equation Model Factors Affecting Suicidal Ideation among Undergraduate Students

Herlina J. EL- Matury; Besral .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2424-2437

The term suicide refers to the experience that one’s life is undeserved that starts with a thought and advances to the actual action to kill oneself or an obsession with self-destruction. This study aimed to construct a structural equation model of factors that affect suicidal ideation among undergraduate students. This study was conducted at 14 colleges at state universities in Jakarta, Indonesia. Method: A cross-sectional design was used in this study. A sample of 504 students was selected using a stratified random sampling method at 14 colleges. Data was analyzed with structural equation modelling testing. Results: Depression, anxiety, stress, and social support were significant factors that affected students’ suicidal ideation. Low social support was associated with increased suicidal ideation in college students. Depression, anxiety, and stress triggered suicidal ideation in students. Conclusion: Universities need to plan activities that can raise awareness and prevent students from experiencing depression, anxiety, and stress so that students can avoid suicidal ideation

Anxiety and aggressiveness in Peruvian postgraduate students in COVID-19 context

Nancy Isabel Herrera Paico; Sanchez Diaz Sebastian; Juan Méndez Vergaray; Edith Gissela Rivera Arellano; Enaidy Reynosa Navarro

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 713-726

The objective of this work was to determine the level of anxiety and aggressiveness in
graduate students from a private university in Lima; likewise, establish the level of
association between the variables under study in the COVID-19 context.
Methodology: quantitative approach, non-experimental descriptive cross-sectional
design; population made up of 378 graduate students from the César Vallejo
University (San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima-Peru Campus). Non-probabilistic sample
of 203 doctoral students from the mentioned university. The instrument used to
measure state anxiety and trait anxiety was the STAI “State-trait Anxiety inventory”
and the Buss and Perry aggressiveness questionnaire (AQ). Results: 84.7% of the
participants presented a high level of state anxiety, while 44.3% presented a trait
anxiety above the average; on the other hand, 60.6% showed a low level of
aggressiveness. The Chi-squared test showed a significant association between the
variable state anxiety and aggressiveness at a confidence level of p = 0.008 ˂ 0.05;
Likewise, the association between trait anxiety and aggressiveness showed a
confidence level of p = 0.009 ˂ 0.05. Conclusions: As a consequence of the
confinement caused by COVID-19, the levels of state anxiety and trait anxiety
increased, which is probably associated with the increase in aggressiveness in its
different variants.

COVID-19: Fear and anxiety among healthcare students in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

Sameer Shaikh; Syed Fareed Mohsin; Muhammad Atif Saleem Agwan; Saqib Ali; Ziyad Ahmad Alsuwaydani; Saleh Ahmad AlSuwaydani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1638-1647

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly discovered respiratory syndrome which has adversely affected millions of people around the world. The study aims to estimate the psychological impacts of COVID-19 in the form of fear and anxiety among the healthcare students of the Central Region of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted amongst health care students in Saudi Arabia. A non-probability convenience samplingapproach was adopted to collect data by mean of an online questionnaire on social media. The sample size was determined by using Epi info software; the minimum sample required for this study was 567. Likert scale with five points was used to measure healthcare students' fear and anxiety level. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23. The descriptive data were expressed as frequencies and percentages. Spearman correlation was used to determine the strength of the relationship between variables. Amongst 571 health care students, 359 were males, and 212 were females. Data revealed that 84 (15%) of students had a severe level of anxiety, 438 (77%) had a moderate level of anxiety and 49 (9%) of the students had mild level of anxiety. Correlation coefficient was found insignificant between gender, academic year and institute (=0.066, p=0.116), (=0.018, p=0.661) and (=0.034, p=0.423) respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on higher education because of the long-lasting pandemic situation. Our study's results illustrate the critical need to implement approaches and prevention measures to address healthcare students' mental health.

Effects of Buteyko Breathing Technique on Physiological and Psychological Parameters among University Football Players

Dr. Sarika Chaudhary; Sonakshi Khanna; Umesh Kumar Maurya; Dr. Shweta Shenoy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1790-1800

Background: A new conception is emerging by acknowledging that right breathing volume is elemental for good health, based on the devotional work of Russian scientist Konstantin Buteyko. Buteyko breathing technique (BBT) is committed to reduce pulmonary ventilation which raises the levels of carbon dioxide in the body. Thus, it increases oxygen delivery to the tissues and cells.
Objectives: To analyse the effectiveness of the Buteyko Breathing Technique on physiological and psychological parameters of football players.
Methodology: 40 male footballers were included in the study and randomly divided into two groups. Group A (n=20) received 6 weeks BBT (5 sessions/week) where as Group B (n=20) continued with regular training. Resting Heart Rate (RHR), Resting Blood Pressure (RBP), VO2max, Control Pause Test and Anxiety were measured at the beginning and after the completion of the protocol in both the groups.
Results: Paired t test revealed a significant decrease in RHR, and Anxiety by 5.76% and 12.4% respectively. Resting Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 4.26% and 5% respectively, whereas massive improvement was seen in Control Pause by 134.2% and VO2max by 15.54% in Group A. No significant change was seen in group B. Conclusion: BBT was found to be useful technique to enhance endurance of the players as it
has showed a positive improvement in cardio respiratory parameters. This technique was also helpful in reducing anxiety

PAIN PERCEPTION IN DIFFERENT INJECTION TECHNIQUES IN PAEDIATRIC DENTISTRY: AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Dr. Arjun Sreenivas; Dr. Anju S Raj; Dr. Veronica Rose Puthenpurackal; Dr. Teena Haneef; Dr. Gadha R Pillai; Dr. Deepak Jose; Dr. Greeshma SG

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3049-3055

Aim: To evaluate and compare the pain perception by the pediatric patients, while experiencing computerized injection device computerized syringe and the conventional injection technique during dental clinical procedures
Methodology: Forty children aged 10‑14 years requiring local anaesthesia on two sides of the dental arch were included in the study. The patients served as their own control, and on the appointed day through computerized injection technique local anesthesia was injected and on the second day, anesthesia was achieved with the help of traditional method. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and faces pain rating scale (FRS) were used to evaluate pain perception of pediatric patients. Along with this, various other physiological parameters were also taken into consideration.
Results: Paired t‑test discovered a statistically significant variance in the pain acuity in pediatric patients using VAS and FRS scales to compare amid computerized and conventional technique. No statistically significant difference was observed when physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure) were compared at various intervals
between the computerized and the conventional technique
Conclusion: Computerized controlled injection technique provides less painful injections when compared to the conventional injection technique.

The Impact of LSSR Policy on the Anxiety Level of Undergraduate Students during COVID-19

Xindy Imey Pratiwi; Jayanti Dian Eka Sari; Bela Yuli Selfia; Ianatul Ulya Dewi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2178-2186

Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19) is an infectious disease caused by the new corona virus and causes most sufferers to experience respiratory disease. The current situation of Covid-19 until December 15, 2020 is known to be 623,309 people in Indonesia who have been confirmed as infected Covid-19. As a result of the continuous increase in the number of confirmed Covid-19 cases, the government implemented a LSSR policy to prevent the spread of Covid-19. However, this policy is felt to have a negative impact on the education sector, especially for undergraduate students. This research was an observational analytic study using a cross-sectional method located in cities and districts in East Java Province and was conducted from August to November 2020. The population in this study were all final semester students domiciled in East Java in 2020 with the number a sample of 385 people. This study was conducted to determine the effect of LSSR policy on the level of anxiety of final semester students in East Java. This study found that there was a significant influence between the implementation of the LSSR policy and the level of student anxiety in the final semester in East Java that was positive. This means that if there is an increase in the effect of the implementation of the LSSR policy on respondents, the level of anxiety will also increase.

ASSESSMENT of IMPACT of COVID-19 (NOVEL CORONA VIRUS DISEASE) on ADULT INDIAN POPULATION: A CROSS SECTIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE BASED SURVEY

Shweta Patel; Manindra Rajak; Kamini Khatak; Ranjana Patnaik; Diwakar Chauhan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 10-23

Background As the pandemic COVID-19 (due to novel Corona virus) is widely spreading across the globe, it is creating extensive fear, anxiety, apprehension and stress. These are all inevitable and growing reactions to the changing and uncertain situation in which all of us find ourselves. Objectives This study was carried out to assess the psychological impact of the novel, unprecedented situation arising due to pandemic in adult Indian population. Method The data was collected with self-reported questionnaire based survey. The survey was circulated in social media as Google form and participation was completely voluntary. Data was statistically analysed by using chi square test for the calculation of significance. Results The responders had moderate level of perceived stress and anxiety 71%; 63.1% were found to be above average in terms of wellness, 80% were reported to smoke/chew tobacco/consume alcohol and 98.1% were well aware of COVID-19 and seriously followed social distancing. Conclusion Since disruptive effect of COVID-19 social distancing is dominating our daily lives, it is important to maintain connection. Anxiety and fears of each and every individual should be acknowledged and better understood by other individuals, communities and caregivers.

Assessment of anxiety and fear of getting infected among dentists while working in current corona virus disease outbreak- A study

Vidyut Prince; Ankita Bhargava; Lubna Nazneen; Ami Rawal; Raksha Thakur; Challagondla Bhargavi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 5263-5268

Background: Health care workers and dentists in particular are categorized as at high risk of catching Covid- 19 infection. The present study assessed anxiety and fear among dentists while working in current corona virus pandemic.
Materials & Methods: 150 dentists of both genders were provided with a questionnaire. Each positive response “Yes” was marked as “1” while “No” was marked with “0.” The frequency of the positive/negative responses was used to assess the dentists’ anxiety.
Results: Out of 150 subjects, males were 90 and females were 60. 70 were BDS, 80 were MDS, 50 were working in clinic, 60 in hospital and 40 in both, 95 were working in private sector and 55 in government sector. The anxiety of being infected with COVID-19 was seenin 67%, afraid of providing treatment for any patient was seen in 70%, anxious talking tothe patients in close proximity in 65%, afraid that you could carry the infection from your practice back to your family in 84%, feel anxious when you hear that one of your coworkers or colleagues has been infected with COVID-19 in 80% and 72% knew the illness problems associated with COVID-19 virus. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Dentists had anxiety and fear while working in Covid- 19 pandemic.

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF EFFICACY OF INTRAVENOUS SEDATION REGIMENS IN DENTISTRY: AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Dr. A V Thomas Raja; Dr. Siva Kumar Pendyala; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Sharnjot Kaur; Dr. Fida Qadri; Dr. Mohammed Ibrahim; Dr. Heena Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3035-3041

Aim Purpose of our research was to compare and analyze the efficacy of sedation regimens frequently used in dentistry by intravenous approach.
Methodology A total of 50 patients were provided one of four treatments: placebo; midazolam provided (mean dose, 8.6 milligrams); fentanyl (1.4 micrograms/kilogram) plus midazolam to get similar amount of sedation (mean dose, 5.7 mg); or fentanyl (1.4 (μg/kg), midazolam (mean dose, 5.8 mg) and methohexital (mean dose, 61.0 mg) used in the surgery.
Results Each drug regimen decreased anxiety during surgery when compared with placebo, with the combination of midazolam, fentanyl and methohexital resulting in drastically less anxiety in as compared to other treatment groups. Pain felt by patients during surgery decreased significantly by the combination of fentanyl, midazolam and methohexital.
Conclusion It was observed that drugs and doses evaluated resulted in therapeutic benefit for patients undergoing dental procedures, with less possibility of potentially serious adverse effects

Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Disorders among Nursing College Students in Mosul University / Iraq

Shatha Abdul-Rahman H. Al-Ghurairi; Eman Salem Khaffaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1270-1276

High levels of depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) can adversely influence the academic and clinical performance of nursing students, psychological well-being, and physical health. Large numbers of studies have recognized the factors that related by depression, anxiety, and stress. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress and their levels among undergraduate nursing students in the Mosul University /Mosul/ Iraq. A confidential questionnaire was done in this cross-sectional survey study which is carried out using a depression anxiety stress scale DASS reported by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995a) carried out from 22th of January- 20th of March 2020. Among 800 nursing students analyzed, the age distribution shows that (83%) and (67%) respectively in the third class in morning and evening courses are between age group 22-25 years, 84% and 87% are female in the third class with significant p values. About the prevalence of moderate stress (26%) of third and 25% of second class respectively of morning and evening courses and mild anxiety 26% and 28% respectively of morning and evening courses. Finally, moderate depression was seen among 24% of the fourth class of morning and 35% of second class evening courses. The DAS and their levels among learner nursing students in the Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq had a high prevalence in comparison with others. Prospect research can localize on the need to set up social and mental health screening and hold up services, such as psychotherapy centers in nursing colleges.

The Effect of Social Media Exposure on Depression and Anxiety Disorders in Facing Covid-19 Pandemic

Aris Widiyanto; Asruria Sani Fajriah; Joko Tri Atmojo; Rina Tri Handayani; Lidia Ekiq Kurniavie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 942-950

Background: WHO has designated Covid-19 as a pandemic, this has an effect on mental health when people are stuck at home and it is unknown when the social distancing rule ends. This affects the quality of student learning faced with stressors in dealing with lecture material and exposure to Covid-19 information from social media. This study aims to predict the effect of social media exposure on depression and anxiety disorders in health students in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic. Methode: This research is a cross sectional study with a sample of students majoring in health in Indonesia in May 2020. Data were collected using a questionnaire through an online survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression with Stata 13. Result: Results from the study found that there was a significant effect of social media exposure on depression (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.05 hingga 2.57; p=0.031) and anxiety disorders (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.18 to 3.40; p=0.008) in dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic. Conclusion: Exposure to social media during this pandemic can increase the risk of depression and anxiety disorders in college students. So, it is expected that students also need to know the steps to protect themselves from excessive stress and panic in the midst of the Covid-19 outbreak.

An Assessment Of Depression, Anxiety And Stress Among Collegiate Athletes

Mr. Sunil Kumar; Mr. Mahendra Singh Parmar; Mr Ashutosh Sharma; Mr. Malkhan Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6396-6399

In this investigation university competitors, who used to participate in between school matches and competitions was chosen as subjects to survey the downturn, tension and stress. the specialist chose thirty (30) players of Lakshmibai public organization of physical training, Gwalior (M.P.). The age gathering of the subjects was run from (20-25) a long time. To quantify despondency, nervousness and worry among university competitors, a poll Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS 42) created by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995) was utilized to assess the downturn, tension and worry of the subjects. The information was gathered from the school players who used to partake in between school matches and competitions. the current examination, uncovers that Anxiety, gloom and stress were unprecedented among university competitors where sorrow has the least mean score (M= 7.60) with standard deviation (SD= 4.13) and nervousness has the most noteworthy mean score (M=9.13) with standard deviation (SD= 5.31) while mean score of pressure was (M=8.66) with standard deviation ( SD= 4.67). the examination additionally shows that the seriousness of gloom, and stress were ordinary in university competitors and the seriousness of tension was gentle in university competitors..

Effects of Psychological Distress on Hypertension among Liquefaction Refugees in Petobo Shelter

Herawanto .; Vidyana Aulia Rahma; Muh. Jusman Rau; Sendhy Krisnasari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 89-96

The purpose of this research is to know the psychological disorder in the incidence of hypertension among liquefaction refugees in Petobo Shelter. A cross-sectional design was performed. The total number of patients who visit the health post at a Petobo shelter is 3,079 people taken in accidental sampling. The analysis uses the univariate and bivariate analyses at a degree of confidence of 95% (α = 0.05). The chi-square test results show that anxiety (ρ = 0,031), depression (ρ = 0,008), and stress (ρ = 0,000) are associated with the incidence of hypertension. It is expected that hypertension sufferers should do breathing exercises, perform physical activity and meditation relaxation to avoid anxiety, negative thoughts, also avoiding depression, stress and do interact with someone else so that the mind is not saturated and easy to forget the negative thoughts.

Mental Health Issues and Consideration in Post Covid-19 era

M.Yousuf Adam; Dr.Muhammad Amin Wani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6330-6336

Background: Corona virus disease (Covid-19) entered at the end of last year in China, and slowly occupied rest of world. In India, Government declared complete Lockdown in second half of March, soon after three or four months later country slowly lifted Lockdown. But, covid-19 pandemic is still there. Along with biological complication due to covid-19, we suffered with lots of mental health issues due to psychological and economical aspects.
Objective: Aim of this study is to assess mental health status irrespective of gender, age group, location, stress, chronic disease and covid-19 infection. Also, to investigate mean difference between various demographic variables in order to examine most vulnerable people towards mental health illness.
Material and method: Due to covid-19 and social distancing, the researchers were carried this study using demographic variables and the mental health inventory (MHI-38) in internet and social media platform from September 13 to September 23, 2020. The data collected were more than hundred, but the researchers took only hundred respondents to analyse data statistically and the results were interpreted.
Conclusion: The result revealed that mean difference of mental health in relation to gender, age group, and stress were statistically significant and their corresponding p-value were 0.0447, 0.0048 and 0.0001 respectively. Mental health status increases with increase income, and there were no statistical significant in respective to covid-19 testing, location, or chronic disease. The researchers have concluded this study with mental health consideration from latest reviewed paper and mentioned possible strategies to control mental health problem.

The Effect Of Social Media Exposure On Depression And Anxiety Disorders In Facing Covid-19 Pandemic

Aris Widiyanto; Asruria Sani Fajriah; Joko Tri Atmojo; Rina Tri Handayani; Lidia Ekiq Kurniavie

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 4635-4643

Background: WHO has designated Covid-19 as a pandemic, this has an effect on mental health when people are stuck at home and it is unknown when the social distancing rule ends. This affects the quality of student learning faced with stressors in dealing with lecture material and exposure to Covid-19 information from social media. This study aims to predict the effect of social media exposure on depression and anxiety disorders in health students in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic.
Methode: This research is a cross sectional study with a sample of students majoring in health in Indonesia in May 2020. Data were collected using a questionnaire through an online survey. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression with Stata 13.
Result: Results from the study found that there was a significant effect of social media exposure on depression (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.05 hingga 2.57; p=0.031) and anxiety disorders (OR=1.64; CI 95%=1.18 to 3.40; p=0.008) in dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic.
Conclusion: Exposure to social media during this pandemic can increase the risk of depression and anxiety disorders in college students. So, it is expected that students also need to know the steps to protect themselves from excessive stress and panic in the midst of the Covid-19 outbreak.

Study of Adolescent Stage and Its Impacts on Adolescents

Shelly Agarwal; Ruchi Srivastava; Manisha Jindal; Pooja Rastogi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1369-1375

Youngsters in their teens represent the world's largest age demographic, in a special period known worldwide as the bridge between childhood and maturity in the life cycle. Longitudinal surveys and accurate assessments of teenage activity in both developed and emerging countries are providing new perspectives. Throughout adolescence, physical and psychosocial shifts cause incarnate challenges of centuries and early childhood to appear in human differences in areas such as maturity, academic achievement, self-confidence, peer pressure, and family proximity. The wellbeing and well-being threats to parents are therefore foreseen. Multi-disciplinary methodologies, in particular biological-social science, socio-economic and cultural variability and determinants of positive results needed to raise understanding at that stage. Depression, anxiety, and eating disorders are especially common during the days of the puberty. Adolescents with anxiety or mood disorders may suffer from physical symptoms such as exhaustion or chronic fatigue, dizziness, headache and pain in the abdomen or arms. The five main features of puberty are biological growth and development, an unclear status, increased decision-making, increased anxiety, and self-search. Adolescence is a lifetime with specific needs and rights relating to health and development. It is also a time to develop awareness and skills, learn to control feelings and relationships, and gain qualities and skills that would be necessary for teenage years to be experienced and adult positions to take on.

Exploring TheJewish Dread And AnxietyIn J A Novel By Howard Jacobson

Smita Devi; Dr.Ajoy Batta; Dr. Manish Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6418-6422

Jews are often brutallyvictimised and rejected from the society. This begins from the medieval era and continues till present era. Jews are also alleged for the blood-libel and also considered as the soul responsible for the death of Jesus Christ. Jews are being persecuted, tortured, interrogated with prejudice and also murdered. Such situation creates barriers for Jews to assimilate and acculturate with the other people of the society. Even, writers have penned down the history and tragedy of Jews to make society aware of their ongoing conditions as well as to prevent the dreadful antisemiticactions like the Holocaust. As tragedy and repressed memory of Jewish past create a sense of dreadfulness and anxiety in their inner minds. Therefore, they intentionally isolate themselves from the mainstream of the society. Nevertheless, alienation of Jews often brings psychological ailment like neurosis, psychosis, paranoia or other anxiety disorder. So, one needs to understand the tragic conditions of the victims considering the humanitarian ground. The understanding may help in preventing the re-occurrence of tragic past like the Holocaust which is still fuming. It haunts them and terrifies them with the futuristic consequences. Therefore, this paper is an attempt to project the fear and anxiety ofKevernand Ailinn in the J a Novel by Jacobson along with the impact of tragic past memories. This paper argues Kevern’s inner dread of reoccurrence of catastrophic event like “What Happened if It Happened”. It also tries to uncover the reason behind Kevern’sgruesome act of self-killing.

Anxiety Studentstowards Closed And Open Form Assignments On Online E-Learning Medium In Associate Degree Of Midwiferymegarezky University Makassar

Amina Ahmad; Yusring Sanusi Baso; Saidah Syamsuddin; Burnahuddin Bahar; Muhammad Tamar; Jibril .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 4932-4941

Giving assignments is one method that can motivate students to learn or train students' level of discipline and psychomotor. This study aims to identify the effect of giving closed and open forms of assignments on the online medium of E-Learning on the level of anxiety experienced by students in the Associate Degree of Midwifery of Megarezky University, Makassar.
This study used a Combination Method between research and development methods (Research and Development) with the Experiment Method. About 55 respondents chosen by the sampling technique. The assignment was given twice, including pre-and post-test.At pre-test, the open and closed assignments to develop the product model assignment in the Indonesia Online College application were given to the students. In Post-test, the data collected only using the Google Forms Hars Scale questionnaire instrument. This research was conducted at the Department of Midwifery, Megarezky University, Makassar in
November 2020. The data were analyzed using statistical tests using the Mann Whitney test.
The study found that the meanvalue of open assignments was 20.93, witha minimum value of 10 and a maximum value of 39. In closed assignments, the mean value was 30.98, with the minimum value was 13 and the maximum value was 48. Based on the Mann Whitney test analysis, the results of giving closed and open onlineassignments through e-learning mediareached a probability value Asymp Sig (2-tailed) 0.000 <0.005.
There was a significant influence between giving closed and open forms of assignments on students' anxiety in E-Learning online medium, such as using the Indonesia Kuliah Online application.

A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY OF DEPRESSION, ANXIETY, STRESS AND RESILIENCE AMONG THE PRIMARY CAREGIVERS OF PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA FROM TERTIARY CARE RURAL HOSPITAL IN CENTRAL INDIA

Rashmi Shukla; Dr. Ajinkya Ghogare; Dr. Pradeep Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2113-2121

Background: Schizophrenia is characterized by disordered thoughts, emotions, perceptions, language, sense of self and behavior. Primary caregivers of individuals with Schizophrenia encounter comprehensive care giving challenges that causes physical as well as mental stress and can deteriorate the family functioning. However, if primary caregivers are resilient enough with strong and positive mindset, they can overcome burden associated with patient care and preserve own health and health of family as well.
Aim: To assess the relationship between depression, anxiety, stress and resilience perceived by primary caregivers of persons with Schizophrenia 
Materials and Methods: Primary caregivers of person diagnosed with Schizophrenia disease reporting to OPD and IPD of Department of Psychiatry of Medical College as per DSM-5 diagnostic criteria will be assessed for depression, anxiety, stress and resilience after taking informed consent for the study by applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then psychological scales will be applied on these primary caregivers. The Depression Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21) and Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) scales will be applied and accordingly the points will be given.
Conclusion: We expect to find significant relationship between depression, anxiety, stress and resilience perceived by caregivers of persons with Schizophrenia.

“McGurk Effect” in Pediatric Dental Practice - A review

Umamaheswari N. MDS; Saranyan. MDS; Jeyshree Mohan. MDS; Raj Mohan. MDS,Ph.D; Sharath Asokan. MDS, Ph.D; Thanga Kumaran. S MDS.Ph.D

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1119-1128

Background: In Pediatric Dentistry, Fear and anxiety associated with dental treatment are a well recognized factor which has a negative impact on the child’s willingness towards dental treatment. The role of a dentist in managing a child is to treat the problem with which the child report with anxiety and to modify and shape the behavior of a child towards a positive dental response.
Aim: This review article aims to discuss the development of dental anxiety, various coping strategies and whether the newer psychological approach of McGurk Effect in Attention Focused Coping Strategy can be acceptable at the reduction of dental anxiety in children in near future.
Methods: An electronic search was performed using databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and Scopus by using keywords such as (“McGurk Effect”) AND(“Coping Strategy” OR “Coping Style” OR “Distraction”) AND (“Fear” OR “Anxiety”) AND (“Behavior” OR “Behavior management”) AND/OR (“Pediatric Dentistry” OR “dentistry”). The last search was performed in March 2020. Exclusion criteria included studies published in a language other than English and abstracts from congress.
Results: The McGurk Effect based Attention focused coping style with incongruent audiovisual stimuli can be an innovative behavioral technique in pediatric dentistry in reducing the child’s anxiety regarding dental drill.
Conclusion: It seems that the highly structured McGurk Effect based Attention focused coping style can be effective in managing the internal perceptions and emotions (e.g., anxiety, fear) that are aroused during the dental restorative procedure and can guide favorably the child’s behavior in the dental setting However, more evidence is required regarding the clinical outcome of applying this new coping strategy in behavioral pedodontics in near future

PREVALENCE AND IMPACT OF STRESS AND DEPRESSION IN ADULTS WITH DIABETES - A SURVEY

Preety Rajesh; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Manjari Chaudhary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 799-809

Depression occurrence is found to be three times higher in people with diabetes mellitus. Sometimes the majority of the cases with depression are under diagnosed. According to the International diabetes federation, diabetes is the largest global health emergency of the 21st century. A questionnaire was created with a set of ten questions related to diabetic patients and depression. 100 random participants of the age 25- 50 years took the survey and a random sampling method was done. More than half the participants are well aware that depression is common in adults with diabetes (57.5%). 71.3% think that diabetic patients are more anxious than a normal person, 54.5% are aware that using antidepressants in diabetic adults can be risky, 51% think that diabetes can be under diagnosed during treatment and 70% are aware that glucose metabolism will be altered if the doabetic patient is under depression or stress. Awareness about diabetic patients who could possibly be dealing with stress and depression was created.

NOMOPHOBIA AND ITS IMPACT ON HEALTH AND MIND - A STRUCTURED REVIEW

Aarthi. K; Dr.Lavanya Prathap; Jothi Priya. A; Dr. Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 334-341

Introduction: The term used to describe a growing fear in today‟s world is Nomophobia, a portmanteau for “ no mobile phone phobia”,refers to the discomfort or anxiety caused to a person by the non- availability of a phone. Nomophobia arises from a feeling of not being able to make and receive phone calls, send or receive text messages, losing internet connectivity and access to social networking sites and being able to access information online .The aim of the review is to explore Nomophobia and its impact on health ocomplications.
Materials and methods: The articles were collected from PubMed Database and the selection criteria for screening the literature were population with Nomophobia age group between 17 - 25. The search keywords included were nomophobia, cell phone addiction, health implication, anxiety, no mobile phone phobia. The study was conducted in the year 2020. The study group consisted of a population with Nomophobia between the age group 17-25.
Result and Conclusion: This review is done to understand the clinical symptoms, complications and various preventive measures taken against nomophobia and from the obtained results after screening relevant articles based on selection criteria it can be concluded that the addiction towards cell phones and social media might lead to depression , loss of memory and anxiety.

A SURVEY ON THE EMOTIONAL AND ANXIETY LEVELS DURING POST VACATION PERIOD AMONG HOME SICKNESS INDUCED COLLEGE STUDENTS

Deepika. R; G. Sridevi; A.K. Anjali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 501-517

Homesickness is the mental and physical distress caused by the anticipated separation of students from their families. This homesickness may lead to depression, stress, and other psychological problems. The objective of this study is to observe the post-vacation mental state of the students who have been suffering from homesickness in the hostel. In this study, a standardized tool that measures the level of anxiety of the students was used. A questionnaire DASS-21 (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale), containing 21 questions was used which was circulated among 100 -1st-year dental students of Saveetha Dental College who were affected by homesickness. Data collection was done through the administration of Google forms and the data were analyzed in SPSS version-15 using cumulative frequency and percentage analysis. The results of the study showed that the post-vacation period had considerable changes in the student population. The students developed a feeling of positivity, had good energy levels and they were not stressed and anxious and felt enthusiastic during the post-vacation period. Thus the present study concludes that physical and mental stress disorders can only be reduced by spending time with family and home place.