Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Type 2 DM

Study of cardiac co-morbidities in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with help of 2D echocardiography

Pranav Shamraj, Amitkumar Vishwasrao Bhalerao, Sagar Subhash Nanaware, Pankaj Narayan Baravkar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 874-880

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder distinguished by chronic hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)-majorly coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure (HF), and stroke are the major cause of death and disability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the study was to asses cardiac co-morbidities in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with the help of echocardiography at a tertiary hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, cross-sectional, observational study conducted in newly diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellites (diagnosed in last 3 months), clinically asymptomatic, blood pressure <130/80mmHg, with normal ECG, underwent, conventional 2 D echocardiography.
Results: In present study, 60 asymptomatic type 2 diabetes mellitus patients underwent 2-D echocardiography, majority were male (73.33 %) as compared to females (26.67 %). Most common age group was 41-50 years and 51-60 years (26.66 % each), followed by 31-40 years (21.67 %). On 2-D echocardiography, diastolic dysfunction was noted in 10 patients (16.67 %). Grade I, II and III diastolic dysfunction was noted in 10 %, 5 % and 1.67 % patients respectively. Reduced early mitral inflow velocity was noted in 7 cases (11.67 %) and mitral annular early diastolic velocity was noted in 11 cases (18.33 %). As HbA1c increases, severity of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction increases, difference was statistically significant. We noted a statistically significant difference in values of age (years), BMI (kg/m2), FBS (mg/dl), PPBS (mg/dl) and HbA1c (%) between patients with LVDD and patients without LVDD. Conclusion: 2D Echo is recommended for screening for cardiovascular abnormalities in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes melites patients to prevent further progression to symptomatic cardiovascular abnormalities. 


Chiluka Kiran, Sanath Kumar, Bandi Suman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3058-3066

Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global epidemic that is often asymptomatic and silent, and progresses slowly and is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease. NAFLD affects a third of the world population with very much high prevalence among patients with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypothyroidism etc. The natural history of NAFLD ranges from pure steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis and in some patientsto hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD has been found to be the hepatic components of metabolic syndrome which is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease. This study aimed to determine the biochemical hepatic markers and lipid profile among NAFLD patients and their possible relationship with degrees of fatty liver and other comorbidities to aid the clinician tointervene early in order to delay the occurrence of complications associated with NAFLD.
Materials and Methods: In this analytical cross sectional study, 145 individuals aged 20–69 years referred to the Govt Medical College/ GGH Hospital Suryapet during the period from June 2021 to May 2022, were included through sequential sampling method after meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria and after taking informed consent and ethical committee approval. Serum lipid profile and Serum liver enzymes was estimated on ERBA EM 360 auto analyzer.
Results: We found significant increase in lipid parameters (TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG), liver enzymes (AST, ALT, and GGT) and decrease in HDL-C and AST/ALT (Deritis ratio) in NAFLD with type 2 DM compared to controls.
Conclusion: We conclude from our study that in obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypothyroidism and Type 2 DM the elevated liver enzymes and lipid profile could be biomarkers for the early diagnosis of NAFLD with Type 2 DM and other comorbidities.

Anaemia and Its Associated Factors Among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Eastern India: A Cross Sectional Study

Shaibal Guha, Amit Kumar Das

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5591-5598

Background: Anaemia is a common diabetes mellitus (DM) consequence that has a
negative impact on the progression and development of other diabetes-related
problems. Despite this, little is known about the prevalence of anaemia and its
associated variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. As a result, the
purpose of this study was to look at the prevalence of anaemia and its associated
variables in T2DM patients.
Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out on 249 T2DM patients
who were chosen by a systematic random sample procedure. Face-to-face interviews,
anthropometric measurements, and laboratory testing such as haemoglobin
measurements, red blood indices, and serum creatinine analysis were used to collect
data. The data were coded and entered into Epi-data management version before
being analysed using SPSS version 22. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression
analysis were used to discover the determinants of anaemia. P-values less than 0.05 were
considered statistically significant.
Results: According to the findings of the study, 20.1 percent of the individuals were
anaemic. Age >60 years (AOR=3.06, 95 percent CI: 1.32–7.11), poor glycemic control
(AOR=2.95, 95 percent CI: 1.22–7.15), eGFR 60–89.9 mL/min/1.73m2 (AOR=2.91, 95
percent CI: 1.15–7.37), eGFR 10 years (AOR=2.75, 95 percent CI: 1.17–6.48), and
experiencing diabetic complications (AOR=3.81, 95% CI: 1.65–8.81) were significantly
associated with anaemia.

The Compatibility Of Hba1c And Glycated Albumin Levels As Markers For Blood Glucose Follow-Up In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Edward Kurnia Setiawan Limijadi; Ivan Kurniawan Effendy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2312-2318

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases, characterized by hyperglycaemia that occurs due to abnormalities in insulin secretion. Uncontrolled diabetes will lead to the development of further complications. HbA1c level measurement is the current gold standard for monitoring glucose levels in DM patients. Glycated albumin (GA) is a fructosamine formed through a non-enzymatic glycation process. There are still few studies on the correlation between HbA1c and GA levels in T2DM patients. Therefore, we decided to investigate the correlation between HbA1c and GA levels in T2DM patients.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the correlation between HbA1c and GA levels in T2DM patients.
METHODS: This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design conducted on 69 T2DM patients at Diponegoro National Hospital from June to August 2020. We collected data consisting of age, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, HbA1c and GA levels. We measured HbA1c levels using I-chroma Boditech tool with the enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA) method, and GA levels using the Architect C8000 tool with an enzymatic method. Finally, we performed statistical analysis using Spearman's correlation test.
RESULTS: The median ± SE values of HbA1c and GA levels were (7.1 ± 0.19%) and (21.2 ± 0.85%), respectively. The Spearman's correlation test results between HbA1c and GA levels were p <0.001; r = 0.775.
DISCUSSION: Maintenance of blood glucose levels in the body is essential for T2DM patients. HbA1c and GA levels can be used for clinical evaluation of T2DM patients.
CONCLUSION: There was a strong significant correlation between HbA1c and GA levels in T2DM patients. HbA1c and GA levels can be used for clinical evaluation of DM patients according to the patient's condition.