Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Menstruation


Dr. Divya Joshi; Dr. Shrikant Shete; Dr. Samadhan Mitkari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 4172-4178

Introduction: Menstruation is the monthly shedding of a women uterine lining. The four phases of the menstrual cycle are menstruation, the follicular phase, ovulation and the luteal phase.  Common menstrual problems include heavy or painful periods, premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and menorrhagia.
Objective: To access and compare hemoglobin level before and after menstruation in rural and urban girls of Ist year MBBS of JMC, Jhalawar

Effect Of Covid 19 Vaccine On Menstrual Cycle In Reproductive Age Group: An Observational Cross Sectional Study

Dr. Maryada Jain, Dr. Shubhra Agarwal, Dr. Ratna Tejaswi Papola, Dr. Priyanka Pachauri .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1289-1294

Covid 19 has been responsible for one of the deadliest pandemics in human history, resulting in widespread human suffering and loss of life. Minor alterations in the menstrual cycle have caused females to worry about the covid 19 vaccination because they are seen as a threat to the health and fertility that regular menstruation represents. Understanding the correlation between the covid-19 vaccine & changes in menstural cycle is crucial for sustaining community confidence in vaccination programmes.
Aim: To analyse menstrual cycle patterns in reproductive age group women who have received covid 19 vaccination.
Materials & methods: It was an observational cross-sectional study of 382 women wherein before & after getting the immunisation, women were surveyed through web-based questionnaire to assess changes in menstrual cycle parameters such as menstrual cycle length, its duration, flow volume. Menstrual cycle patterns were evaluated before vaccination, between first and second dose, between second and third dose and post booster dose.
Results: Out of 382 women, majority of women were between the age group of 26-35 years.. Seventy-five percent of women got the covishield vaccine, and seventy percent of those were Hindu. Only 16% of women saw transient, minor changes in menstrual cycle characteristics such as flow volume and frequency of cycles.
Conclusion: Immunisation against COVID-19 did not significantly alter the characteristics of the menstrual cycle. Therefore, more research is needed to assuage worries about the impact of covid immunisation on the menstrual phase.

A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls

Dr. AditiGothi, Dr. Gajendra Kalal, Dr. Ravi Ghoghra, Dr. Arihant Tater .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 1914-1920

Background: Menstrual hygiene management is an important issue for adolescent girls. Lack of education and communication regarding reproductive system further adds to the problem. Good menstrual hygienic practices such as the use of sanitary pads and adequate washing of genital area are essential during menstruation.
Aims and objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls in Sothern Rajasthan India.
Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 185 school going adolescent girls of southern Rajasthan. A pre formed pre-tested questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions.
Result: Most of the girls (84.3%) attaining menarche in the age group of 12-13 years. 74.6% girls residing at rural area, 56.2% belonged to joint family and 58.4% was lower socio-economic class. Knowledge of menstruation before menarche was found in 39.5% of girls. 84.3% menstrual habits were inculcated by their mothers.76.7% girls were using sanitary napkins as absorbent material during their menstrual cycle. 82.7% were doing vaginal wash daily. 64.6% of girls were having good menstrual practice.

Knowledge and practices of menstrual hygiene in adolescent school girls of urban and rural schools of Gadag district

Dr. Shruti Bhavi Patil

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 127-132

Background: Menstruation is generally considered unclean in the Indian society though its a
physiological process indicating beginning of reproductive life. Several prohibitions and the
negative attitude of parents in discussing the related issues openly have blocked the access of
adolescent girls to the right kind of information. Various studies indicate that a huge
information gap exists among rural and urban adolescent girls regarding menstrual hygiene.
The data about the level of knowledge and practices which are followed by them with respect
to menses are beneficial in planning a program for improving the awareness level with
respect to their quality of life.
Materials and Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted from July
2018 to September 2018 on 708 school going adolescent girls of Gadag district, Karnataka.
Girls between age group 11 to 18 years were included. Data was collected by a predesigned,
pretested questionnaire.
Result: Awareness of menstruation was only among 12.07% of rural school girls and 38.09%
among urban school girls. The first source of information regarding menstruation was mother
in 8o% and only 17% from friends in both urban and rural girls. 18% of urban school girls
always missed school and 35% of urban girls missed sometimes. Only 5.39% girls in rural
areas always missed and 15.57% in rural areas missed sometimes. 76.22% girls from rural
schools used sanitary pads and 68.31% of girls used in urban schools. Around 50% of girls
both in rural as well as urban schools changed their pads twice a day. It was found that among
the urban school girls 70.45 % of them disposed the sanitary pads by wrapping it in a paper,
10.82% flushed it in the toilets. In the rural schools, surprisingly 71.53% of them buried the
sanitary pads, 7.56% flushed it and only 20.83% of them wrapped it in a paper. 40.93% of
urban girls and 34.52% of rural school girls still practiced in the social taboos like diet
restrictions, not attending religious functions or places of workshop.
Conclusion: There a need for adequate information both in rural and urban school girls. The
knowledge about hygienic practices is lacking. There is also a need to address social taboos in
both the groups. There is a need to emphasise on significance and physiological implications
of menstruation.

A study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of menstrual hygiene among women of reproductive age group in a tertiary care hospital

Dr. Aakansha Mahajan, Dr. Shagufta, Dr. Neha Majotra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1765-1771

Background: Menstruation is a normal physiological process and determines reproductive health. Poor menstrual hygiene can lead to various urinary tract, vaginal infections, skin infections or even pelvic inflammatory disease.
Aims: To assess the knowledge of menstrual hygiene among women of reproductive age group i.e.; 15-49 years attending the OPD of a tertiary care hospital and to assess their attitude and practices regarding the same.
Methods: A cross sectional observation study where an interview was conducted among 100 women of reproductive age group (15-49 years) attending the OPD clinic of our hospital over a period of 6 months and data was analysed according to that.
Results: Mean age of the participants was 32.43 ± 7.74 years. Out of 100 participants, 68% had good overall knowledge regarding menstruation.62% were using commercially available disposable sanitary napkins, 28% were using washable cloth and 10% were using homemade reusable cloth napkins. 70% of the participants were practicing good menstrual hygiene practices. 45% of the participants had local complaints suggestive of reproductive/urinary tract infection associated during menstruation out of whom 35% were not following satisfactory menstrual hygiene practices.
Conclusion: Menstrual hygiene is an important aspect of reproductive women's health. Unsatisfactory menstrual hygiene management acts as a risk factor for reproductive tract infections. This calls for spreading awareness to bring about a change in attitude and practices regarding the same.

Traditional Beliefs, A dark and Bloody Cage for Young Girls; An Ethnography Study

Suriah .; Ety Dusra; Fairus Prihatin Idris; Ahmad Yani; Hadi Khoshab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2840-2853

The Pinamou traditional procession is a ritual performed on female adolescents over the transition to adulthood. They were exiled to Posune (small hut) to undergo the Pinamou ritual during menstruation. During this procession, there are various activities related to personal hygiene that can adversely affect the health of young girls. The present study elaborated and traced the beliefs adopted by the Nuaulu female adolescents displayed in their local customs using ethnographic designs. Sources of information were traced through the snowballing technique. The findings reveal that the belief adhered to by girls related to personal hygiene is a ban on bathing during seclusion in Posune. Their bodies are only covered with charcoal. Replace traditional pads made of cloth that are used repeatedly only 2-3 times a day. Defecation is done in the middle of the forest and should not be seen by the opposite sex. Violation of the provisions of the Pinamou traditional procession is believed to trigger disasters for individuals, families, and village communities.This finding has implications for the need for a cultural communication strategy to wisely shift traditional activities that negatively impact the health of young girls through customary stakeholders, community leaders, and the local government.