Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Electrolytes


Effect of phototherapy on serum electrolytes in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

Dr. Shrdha Sharma, Dr. Rajeev Vinayak, Dr. Rita Hajela

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1-9

Introduction: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is the most common clinical finding noted during
the first seven days following birth. Amongst all the modalities available for management of
neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, phototherapy is proven to be the safest. However, like any other
intervention, phototherapy too has some of its own side effects.
Aim & objectives: To estimate and compare alterations in serum electrolytes of healthy term
neonates before and after phototherapy.
Material & methods: A hospital based prospective observational comparative study was
conducted over a period of 18 months in the department of Pediatrics on 110 healthy term
neonates with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia who were subjected to phototherapy as per
American Academy Pediatrics guidelines. Electrolytes including sodium, potassium, chloride
and calcium were analyzed from serum using standard laboratory techniques.
Results: The mean sodium, chloride, potassium and calcium levels before phototherapy was
141.3±2.69 meq/L, 102.2±2.98 meq/L, 4.43±0.52 meq/L, 9.14±0.46 mg/dl and after
phototherapy was 140.5±2.70 meq/L, 102.0±2.93 meq/L, 4.23±0.48 meq/L and 8.09±0.55
mg/dl respectively. All were found to be statistically significant (p-value <0.05); although none
were clinically significant and conveyed no symptom of dyselectrolytemia in this study.
Conclusion: This study shows that neonates exposed to phototherapy are at a risk of
developing electrolyte imbalances and consequently their complications. Hence, close
monitoring of such babies are needed to prevent imbalances and their untoward consequences.

A Study of Serum Electrolytes in Thyroid Patients Attending A Tertiary Care Hospital

Ratna Rajesh Gogulamudi, Laxmi Narayana Sripuram, Sreevani Namani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 855-863

Background: The aim is to study the serum electrolyte levels in thyroid patients
attending a tertiary care hospital.
Materials and Methods: Thyroid hormones plays vital role in maintaining body's
metabolism, BMR, thermoregulation and hemodynamic status and present study was
prospective study done in the patients attending TRR Medical College & Hospital. The
study was conducted over duration of 2 years from December 2019 to June 2021. All the
patients in the age group of 18- 40 years were taken in the study. Total 100 patients
were included in the study (50 cases, 50 controls) to study the evaluation of serum
electrolytes on thyroid patients.
Results: In the present study, with respect to association of cases and controls with age,
no significant causation was seen. In this study thyroid patients have no association with
age, with not much mean difference in age of cases (32.11 years) and controls (30.02)
years. Thyroid cases were found to be more females (90%) as compared to males (10%),
but the association of sex with disease is not significant. This further concludes that
though females are commonly affected with thyroid disorders, but their association is
by chance and not significant. All serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-), TSH shows a
positive relationship it signifies that as TSH increases in patient the level of these
electrolytes also increases, but this relationship of TSH with all the electrolytes was not
significant (p>0.05).

Study of Serum Calcium, Magnesium and Phosphorous Levels in Hypothyroidism

Bonala Sharat Babu, Azmatulla Shaik, Md. Siddique Ahmed Khan, Naveed Altaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1286-1292

Background: Thyroid disorders are the most common endocrine abnormality in the
world secondary to diabetes mellitus. Thyroid hormones are essential for growth,
neuronal development, reproduction and regulation of energy metabolism. It influences
the metabolism of all substrates including minerals. Many studies have shown that
mineral metabolism is frequently disturbed in thyroid disorders.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on sixty newly confirmed
hypothyroid cases based on the thyroid profile and sixty euthyroid cases were recruited
as controls. Blood samples were collected from all the patients for the estimation of
serum T3, T4, FT3, FT4, TSH, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by auto analyzer
method. Modified spectrophotometric micro-method was used to measure Serum
copper using Bathocuprine Disulphonate Disodium Salt (BCDS) and Guanidine
hydrochloride salt. The Statistical software namely SPSS 18.0, and R environment
ver.3.2.2 were used for the analysis of the data.
Results: It was found that the levels of serum sodium, potassium and calcium were
significantly decreased in cases than the controls. Serum magnesium and phosphorus
were significantly elevated in cases than controls.
Conclusion: Serum calcium, magnesium and phosphorous levels are significantly
altered in patients having hypothyroidism. Thyroid diseases have wide spread systemic
manifestations including their effects on bone and mineral metabolism. Also thyroid
hormone affects the glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, tubular reabsorption
and excretion of minerals which have direct effect on Calcium, Magnesium and
phosphorous level. Thus monitoring of these minerals in hypothyroid patient will be of
great benefit in improving clinical manifestation and can be treated appropriately.

Serum Electrolytes Levels in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: An Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northern India

Amit Kumar Sharma, Dr. Sheikh Yasir Islam, P S Nayyer

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1266-1273

Background: Blood glucose and electrolytes have a complicated relationship that is
influenced by a number of other factors such as age and concomitant conditions. As
there is paucity of such studies in India, so present study was to determine the most
prevalent electrolyte disturbances among diabetic in-patients and to explore an
association between blood sugar and electrolyte imbalances.
Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried for a duration of
two years among 271 adult patients with diabetes mellitus admitted to the wards and
ICU in a tertiary care centre. Patient-specific information was collected in a structured
schedule and blood sample was collected for laboratory investigations after obtaining
written informed consent. All tests were performed at a 5% level of significance; thus,
an association was significant if the p value was less than 0.05.
Results: In present study (Table 1), the mean age of study subjects was 58.92 ± 13.15
years, with nearly equal representation from males (49.4%) and females (50.6%). The
mean duration of diabetes among subjects was 9.72 ± 6.57 years. The mean HbA1C was
7.65 ± 1.23 % which reflect uncontrolled diabetes. The most common electrolyte
imbalance among enrolled subjects was hyponatremia (33.6%). The mean levels of
serum sodium (group A: 132.82 ± 3.99 vs group B: 135.62 ± 5.12), were statistically
different (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The importance of evaluating serum electrolytes in patients with type 2
diabetes was presented in the study. Electrolytes, particularly sodium, chloride, and
potassium, become significantly disturbed as fasting blood glucose rises.

Electrolyte Physiology In Physical Exercise

Siti Kaidah; Huldani .; Fauziah .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4656-4663

Physical activity causes various changes in the body's regulatory system, these changes are
influenced by the type, frequency, duration, and intensity of the exercise. One of the
changes is sweating to regulate body temperature. The fluid that comes out through sweat
contains water and electrolytes such as sodium and potassium which are important for
body metabolism. Electrolyte balance affects fluid balance and cell function. When
exercise, increased sodium can occur due to a deficit in body fluids due to water excretion
that far exceeds sodium excretion and insufficient water intake. The increase in serum
potassium levels occurs due to the transfer of potassium from the intracellular fluid (CIS)
to the extracellular fluid (CES), which is then excreted together with sweat as a result of
increased body heat. The increase in serum calcium levels after physical activity is caused
by the activation of the body's homeostasis mechanism to maintain normal serum calcium
levels as an essential substance in the process of muscle contraction. There is also a
temporary transfer of magnesium from the extracellular fluid to the skeletal muscle tissue
so that the amount of magnesium contained in the skeletal muscle increases while the
plasma magnesium concentration decreases. Changes in electrolyte levels due to physical
exercise are influenced by the type, duration, and intensity of exercise performed. so that
the amount of magnesium contained in skeletal muscle becomes more while the plasma
magnesium concentration decreases. Changes in electrolyte levels due to physical exercise
are influenced by the type, duration, and intensity of exercise performed. so that the
amount of magnesium contained in skeletal muscle becomes more while the plasma
magnesium concentration decreases. Changes in electrolyte levels due to physical exercise
are influenced by the type, duration, and intensity of exercise.