Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : physiology


Phantom Limb Pain

Fakhrurrazy .; Husnul Khatimah; Fauziah .; Huldani .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 3179-3186

Amputation is often causing chronic postoperative pain with an incidence of 85%. Phantom limb pain or PLP is one of the post-amputation phenomena characterized by pain in the limb that has been removed, including the amputation. Neuropathic pain occurs due to hyperexcitability of damaged nerves and other functional nerves around them, causing changes in neuroma sensitivity, decreased potassium channel expression, and increased voltage-gate of sodium channel (VGSC) activity. VGSC buildup triggers cell membrane hyperexcitability, becomes an ectopic initiator of pain, and causes central and peripheral sensitization. Neuromas in the stump respond more to stimuli because they are sensitive to cytokines and amines, causes the massive process of nociceptive impulses and resulting in pain. Neural plasticity allows the nervous system to compensate for the damage after amputation, the brain undergoes a somatotopic map adjustment due to missing limbs. Plasticity is the brain's response to pain that causes the increase of pain signal transmission in the spinal cord. This is known as central sensitization and causes hyperalgesia and allodynia. The plasticity of nerve damage leads to ectopic discharge, it leads to spontaneous pain in the area innervated by the damaged nerve or the nerves surrounding the damaged nerve. Plasticity is the brain's response to pain that causes the transmission of pain signals in the spinal cord to increase. This mechanism is known as central sensitization, which causes hyperalgesia and allodynia. The plasticity of nerve damage leads to ectopic discharge, which can lead to spontaneous pain in the area innervated by the damaged nerve or the nerves surrounding the damaged nerve.

Electrolyte Physiology In Physical Exercise

Siti Kaidah; Huldani .; Fauziah .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4656-4663

Physical activity causes various changes in the body's regulatory system, these changes are
influenced by the type, frequency, duration, and intensity of the exercise. One of the
changes is sweating to regulate body temperature. The fluid that comes out through sweat
contains water and electrolytes such as sodium and potassium which are important for
body metabolism. Electrolyte balance affects fluid balance and cell function. When
exercise, increased sodium can occur due to a deficit in body fluids due to water excretion
that far exceeds sodium excretion and insufficient water intake. The increase in serum
potassium levels occurs due to the transfer of potassium from the intracellular fluid (CIS)
to the extracellular fluid (CES), which is then excreted together with sweat as a result of
increased body heat. The increase in serum calcium levels after physical activity is caused
by the activation of the body's homeostasis mechanism to maintain normal serum calcium
levels as an essential substance in the process of muscle contraction. There is also a
temporary transfer of magnesium from the extracellular fluid to the skeletal muscle tissue
so that the amount of magnesium contained in the skeletal muscle increases while the
plasma magnesium concentration decreases. Changes in electrolyte levels due to physical
exercise are influenced by the type, duration, and intensity of exercise performed. so that
the amount of magnesium contained in skeletal muscle becomes more while the plasma
magnesium concentration decreases. Changes in electrolyte levels due to physical exercise
are influenced by the type, duration, and intensity of exercise performed. so that the
amount of magnesium contained in skeletal muscle becomes more while the plasma
magnesium concentration decreases. Changes in electrolyte levels due to physical exercise
are influenced by the type, duration, and intensity of exercise.

Seizure Due To Electrolyte Imbalance In Pediatric

Nurul Hidayah; Huldani .; Fauziah .; M Naufal Risyad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4664-4668

Seizures are symptoms that are temporary and sudden as a result of abnormal electrical
activity in the brain. Seizures can be caused by various conditions, for example, epilepsy,
fever, hypoglycemia, hypoxia, hypotension, brain tumors, meningitis, electrolyte
imbalance, and drug overdose. Severe and acute electrolyte disturbances cause
neurological deficits such as seizures, which may be the sole presenting
symptom. Electrolytes are compounds in a solution that dissociate into particles with a
positive (cation) or negative (anion) charge. Most of the metabolic processes require and
are affected by electrolytes. Electrolyte imbalances are common in clinical practice and the
diagnosis is confirmed by laboratory tests. Seizures are common in patients with
hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesia. Tonic-clonic seizures or other types can
be found due to these electrolyte disturbances. Hypo or hyperkalemia can also cause
seizures, but it is very rare. These electrolyte disturbances can trigger epileptic areas in the
brain. Central nervous system disorders due to electrolyte imbalance are reversible.
However, if this is not treated immediately it will cause permanent brain damage