Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : women


Dr. Esha Khanuja .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 5028-5032

Background: Ovarian cysts are fairly common in neonates, resulting from exaggerated follicular development stimulated by the maternal hormones.  The present study was conducted to assess ovarian cysts.
Materials & Methods: 64 cases of ovarian cysts were recorded. Clinical features such as type, marital status, location, side and clinical findings etc. were recorded.
Results: Age group 20-25 years had 30, 25-30 years had 20 and >30 years had 14 cases. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). Common type was dermoid in 16, functional in 22, benign cyst adenoma in 5, endometriosis in 14, malignant in 4 and complicated in 3 cases. Patients were single in 24 and married in 40. Type was ovarian in 54, para ovarian in 6 and retroperitoneal in 4 cases, side was left in 30 and right in 34. Clinical features were abdominal painin 32, vaginal bleeding in 58, abdominal swelling in 64 and infertility in 5 cases. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Common type was dermoid, functional, benign cyst adenoma, endometriosis, malignant and complicated. Most common location was ovarian.

A Questionnaire-Based Study To Evaluate Health-Related Behaviors Of Women Of Reproductive Age In South India- An Original Research

Dr. Zare V. R., Dr. Ummul Huda, Dr. Saba Shaikh, Dr. Radhika D, Dr. Heena Dixit Tiwari, Dr. Nannuri Viswa Samtha .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 8, Pages 1911-1916

Aim: The purpose of the present study was to assess the health-related issues and behaviours of women of South India who were in reproductive age.
Methodology: Cross- sectional study with sample size of 200 was conducted in three villages. Women of aged 20 years and above were included in the study. Data was collected by predesigned pretested semi- structured questionnaire. Data was presented in proportions with confidence interval and Chi- square test was applied to find the association between variables by using SPSS ver. 25.
Results: Only 34.5% [95% CI: 27.9, 41.5] of the subjects seek medical care as soon as symptoms appear and 69% [95% CI: 62.1, 75.3] of the participants were aware of nearby functioning health centres. Majority (60.5%) of the subjects Visits qualified medical practitioner during illness.
Conclusion: The present study found that there is still a need to create awareness about the importance of healthcare and available health centers as significant proportion of women population approached unqualified medical practitioners and seeking home remedies as first consultancy source for their health remedies.

Assessing barriers to acceptance of permanent female sterilization procedures in women attending tertiary health centre: A cross sectional study on 100 couples

Dr. Vrinda Goel, Dr. Aleeza Pal, Dr. Monika Gupta, Dr. Neerja Singhal, Dr. Shivanshi Sharma, Dr. Santosh Minhas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9533-9537

Background: Tubal sterilization is an effective method of contraception that can be done or accepted at any point of time unrelated to pregnancy or the postpartum period. Majority of the women have little or incomplete knowledge about various methods of family planning which adds up to the barriers that prevent women from accepting tubal ligation like religious reasons, cultural reasons, interference by family, fear of worsening of health, fear of loss of fertility and many more.
Aim: To assess barriers in acceptance of permanent female sterilization procedures in women.
Methodology: After obtaining approval from the Hospital Ethical Committee, a cross sectional study was conducted on 100 couples who had at least 1 living children after taking written informed consent to elicit reasons as to why patients did not opt for tubal ligation.
Results: Among the reasons for not accepting permanent sterilization as their mode of contraception, maximum couples (22%) were willing to opt for temporary method of contraception over permanent method while 21% couples, out of which 18% were primiparas confessed that they wanted one or more male or female child.
Conclusion: With a lot of National programs being run by the Government of India and incentives being given at the grass root level of healthcare system for female sterilization to be successful we need to address the issues like dominance of couples in decision making, gender equality, confidence in health sector, awareness of abortion leading health risks, better techniques for improving reversal rates and reduction in failure rates

Nurse-Led Intervention on Reproductive health among young women in India

Princey Shaji, Dr. Maharaj Singh, RN, BSN, MSN, PhD, Dr. Bharti Sahu, MS, FICOG

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 5664-574

Historically, developed nations with high incomes have had the majority of the world's obese people. In low-income nations, the prevalence of overweight or obesity has recently increased dramatically. Over 30 million people in India are either overweight or obese. Women are more likely to have it than men. This study examines the results for obese women's reproductive health among women. For the investigation of the prevalence of overweight or obesity and its correlation with female reproductive health outcomes, the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 2005–2006, was used. Overweight/obesity prevalence among women has significantly increased over time. Compared to women with a normal BMI, obese and overweight women had worse outcomes for their reproductive health.
The study determined the effectiveness of the Nurse – Led intervention approach to improving the reproductive health in young women from selected rural communities in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh
A quasi-experimental, pre-interventional, and post-interventional control group design study was conducted in selected communities of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India. Using a non-probability purposive sample method, young obese women were selected for the study.300 young obese women were chosen, 150 were placed in a research group, and the remaining 150 were placed in a control group. After receiving exercise instruction from an investigator for 30 minutes, three times per week for 24 weeks, participants were urged to carry out the exercises on their own for the following 12 weeks. The researcher developed a meal menu plan with the assistance of a dietitian as a component of the lifestyle change programme. A low-calorie diet plan (often 1200–1500 kcal/d) is advised for young obese women. To make sure that lifestyle adjustments were made on a regular basis, a practice diary was maintained. The subjects were called once every seven days. Young obese women in the control group received five days of lifestyle change package training after the trial, but they did not participate in the program.
After 12, and 24 weeks of the nurse-led intervention, there was a very statistically significant difference (P=0.001) between the study group and the control group. At weeks 12 and 24, the study group's average gain score was high. In comparison to the control group, the study group's total mean gain score was 30 as opposed to 28. The overall mean gain score difference between the study group and the control group throughout all of the nurse-led intervention life was 2. The study group had significant improvements in reproductive health after putting a 24-week lifestyle change programme into practise. Following the implementation of the lifestyle modification package, the women reported no negative side effects

Knowledge and Perception about Alcoholism among Adult Females Residing in the Rural Field Practice Area of Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences, Ranchi, Jharkhand: A CrossSectional Study

Dr. Swati Shikha; Dr. Abhishek Kumar; . Prof. (Dr) , VivekKashyap

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 724-729

Introduction: The habit of alcohol consumption and alcoholism is known to adversely affect the health and well being of the people especially that of women but stillthe trends of its consumption is on rise even in India. Women in rural areas are exposed to limited source of knowledge regarding the ill effects of alcohol consumption


Dr. Ashwini Rege-Gundawar, Dr. Sneha Joshi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3671-3693

Introduction: Cervical carcinoma (Ca Cx) is a high incidence malignancy in India (6–29% of all cancers in women). The Pap smear test is a proven effective measure for reducing cervical carcinoma incidence. Lack of population level screening program in India corresponds with the detection of most cervical lesions at a late stage of disease (stage II or stage III) with consequent high mortality and morbidity. The hospital where this study was conducted offers Pap smear free of cost.
Aims & Objectives:

1.      To study the spectrum of cervical lesions by analyzing the results of Pap smear tests -for a period of one year.
2.      To evaluate clinical utility of Pap smear testing by studying histopathological correlation- wherever feasible, for the same one-year period.

Materials and Methods: Retrospective observational study conducted by retrieving data for 1 year, pertaining to conventional Pap smear tests and related histopathological examination reports.
Results ([1]): Of 808 Pap smear tests done, 788 (97.5%) were satisfactory for evaluation. These were reported using, “The Bethesda system for evaluation of cervical pathology (2014)”. Results were divided into: i) Inflammatory (70.56%), ii) NILM (23.60%), iii) Atrophic (3.42%) and iv) Epithelial cell abnormalities [ECA] (2.41%). The ECAs included ASCUS, LSIL, HSIL and SCC. The inflammatory Pap smears included 28 cases of Trichomonas vaginalis, 7 cases of Yeast, (likely Candida) infection, and 2 cases with presence of blue wool like microorganisms morphologically resembling Actinomyces. Histopathological report association was done for 118 (14.97%) cases. Of these, 112 (94.91%) cases were reported as inflammatory pathology and 6 (5.08%) cases as ECAs. The ECAs included 3 HSILs, 2 LSIL/inflammatory changes and 1 case of SCC. All 118 cases were reported with 100% concurrence rate for cytopathology –histopathology correlation.
Conclusions: 1) Pap smear is a good screening as well as diagnostic test. 2)However more significant yield towards prevention of Ca Cx will be achieved by adding supplemental testing e.g., HPV DNA testing.3) Concentrated efforts need to be made to target screening efforts towards older age group women and also towards follow up and treatment of the Positive Pap smear cases

Clinical profile and management of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding

Dr. Swapna Y, Dr. Juveria Fatima .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5356-5362

Background:Global prevalence of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) ranges from 3%-30% among women 15-45 years. It is necessary to rule out any pathological condition that may be responsible for AUB so that it can be corrected at the earliest.
Objective:To study and review various causes, diagnostic and treatment modalities in evaluating abnormal uterine bleeding
Methods:Hospital based cross sectional study was carried out among 240 women with AUB. History, examination, USG pelvis and relevant examination was carried out. PALM-COEIN criteria was used to classify AUB. Appropriate management was followed.
Results:Prevalence of AUB was 19%. Majority belonged to 31-40 years. 21.7% had hypertension. Majority (58.3%) presented with heavy menstrual bleeding. 60% had AUB for 3-6 months.Per speculum examination showed that 11.7% had polyp and 22.1% had cervical erosions. On per vaginal examination, 52.9% had bulky uterus. On USG examination, 23.8% were found to have fibroids.Most common histopathological diagnosis was proliferative phase in 19.6% of the cases.55% of the women were found to have polyp followed by leiomyoma in 25% of the cases as per PALM criteria while as per COEIN criteria, most common cause of AUB was endometrial in 21.3% of the cases followed by ovulatory in 13.8% of the cases.70% cases of AUB could be managed conservatively while surgery was required in 27.9% of the cases; however, five cases resolved without any sort of intervention.
Conclusion:Prevalence of AUB was high in the study population. Age 31-40 years, associated co-morbidities, obesity and lower-class women had higher prevalence of AUB. It can be managed conservatively in most of the cases.

Maternal serum alpha-feto-protein as a predictor of the pregnancy outcome

Dr Heena Mir, Dr Saima Sadiq, Dr Saba Musharaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3028-3033

Background: Elevated levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein are associated with pregnancy complicated by Pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, placental infections, chronic villositis, low birth weight and preterm labor. The present study investigated the possibility that maternal serum alpha-feto-protein can be used to predict the pregnancy outcome as a routine test.
Materials & Methods: 250 patients in the Postgraduate Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Lalla Ded Hospital, Government Medical College Srinagar, over a period of one year were assessed for maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein by human serum by microplate immuno-enzymometric assay by EIA-AFP kit.
Results: Age group 20-23 years had 31, 24-27 years had 80, 28-31 years had 104 and 32-35 years had 35 patients. The mean of the maternal serum alphafeto protein (overall) was 65.32+33.95. The mean of the maternal serum alphafeto protein in pregnancies with normal outcome was 53.47+25.65. The mean of the maternal serum alphafeto protein in pregnancies with adverse outcome was 92.96+34.99. 4 (1.6%) patients out of 250 developed low- lying placenta. 2 out of 4 had raised values of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. 6 patients out of 250 had still birth. 4 out of 6 had raised values of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. 19 (7.6%) patients out of 250 had low birth weight babies. 18 had raised values of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. 12 (4.8%) patients out of 250 had intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) of babies. 11 had raised values of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein.
Conclusion: There is no relation between preterm rupture of membranes, low lying placenta and still birth with raised levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. It is easily done and is cost effective.

Induction of Labor: A comprehensive review

Walid Abd-ELsalam, Youssef Abo-Elwan ,Fatma Al-Zahraa Sherif, Basem Hamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 682-687

Labor induction rates have more than doubled in the United States over the last two
decades. Indications and risk factors for induction of labor are also gaining in
popularity. Professional organizations such as the American College of
Obstetricians and Gynecologists and The Joint Commission have taken steps to
discourage elective induction of labor prior to 39 weeks' gestation and have defined
new terms such as early-term, full-term, late-term, and postterm gestation to assist
clinicians in determining the appropriate timing of birth for specified indications.
Induction of labor carries the risk of harm to both the mother and her fetus. The
cost of inducing labor and its influence on the health care system are a major
source of worry. Women's education and the shared decision-making process used
to get informed permission are critical elements in lowering early elective deliveries.
The use of scheduling forms, hard stop procedures, induction of labor indication
tools, and informed consents may assist the provider in reducing overdiagnosis,
overtreatment, and disease creep. This article discusses induction of labor trends,
medical indications and criteria, related dangers, cost and health system impact,
and measures to reduce induction of labor.

Molecular Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis in Infertile Women in Basrah

Maysoon Sharief; Mayada T. Abdulrahman; Hanadi A. Jasim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 530-539

ABSTRACTBackground Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram negative bacteria, which involve in sexually transmitted disease. This study was aimed to detect C. trachomatis by molecular methods and to evaluate Chlamydial infections in women suffering from primary and secondary infertility with special emphasis. Method 200 endocervical cytobrush were obtained from 200 infertile women having primary and secondary infertility. The work has been carried out at Basra Maternity and Child Hospital for molecular analysis of C. trachomatis . The primer CT1& CT4 w used to investigate the 144bp of MOMP of C. trachomatis in the endocervical brush samples. Results Out of 200 infertile women 96(48%) were positive for C. trachomatis by PCR. Conclusion The percentage of C.trachomatis in primary infertile women with blocked tubes was higher than women with patent tubes and also higher than C. trachomatis in secondary infertile women with both blocked and patent tubes.

Participation of Women in Terrorist Activity: A global threat

Dr Anitha K N

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8943-8954

World has been witnessing women in every way of life. Positively, there is no work which a woman cannot do. But women while running behind the horse of success,  going away from the work which should have been done. She is getting herself involved in the illegal activities too. One can witness sharp growth of that globally.Now, in the technological era its become easy to co ordinate to do illegal/disruptive activities.Though comparatively, participation of women in these kind of activities are less than men, we cannot ruled out the consequence as less. This article  focus on the meaning , different female terrorist groups, thereason for women to involve in terrorism etc.


Biju P; Dr. P Vinayagamurthy; Dr. Reeja P S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2049-2054

The present research aimed at understanding the urban women's health and hygien
e consciousness and selfsteem level in Kottayam municipality, Kerala state. Health is a
dynamic, multidimensional term that encompasses an individual's physical, mental and
emotional elements. Municipality of Kottayam in Kerala was seen as the universe of the
current research. 410 samples were selected from the beneficiaries of the Kottayam
municipal area, Kerala. Beneficiaries who had completed the construction of their urban
homes were considered. The study mainly focused on demographic factors to figure out the
health and hygiene of the respondents. Face to face questionnaire survey method was used
for data collection. Statistical analysis was performed on the gathered data. The result
indicates that, respondents vary in their standard of health and hygiene on the basis of
education. The research also demonstrates the variation in level of health and hygiene of
the respondent on the basis of family type. Therefore, relative to nuclear family
respondents, the joint family has a stronger outlook on wellbeing and grooming. It is also
assumed that after the building of own homes, there is still a major connexion between
self-esteem than before. Individuals have a good optimistic self-esteem relationship after
creating their own home.

Effectiveness Of The SGSY Programme For Self Help Groups

Amita Yadav; Nikita Bisht; Amardeep .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2312-2320

The present research study was carried out to find out the effectiveness of the scheme of Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (SGSY) in Udham Singh Nagar district of Uttarakhand. On the basis of the collected data it is clear that how much the programme was effective to its beneficiaries i.e. swarojgaris and to the SHGs. The knowledge about important issues such as overall project cost, loan and subsidy that can be availed by different groups of society was missing in some cases. This information remained confined to the group leader, because of ineffective leadership and due to ignorance on the part of SHG members. But in most of the cases, SHGs 75 per cent were well acquainted with this aspect. The progress of SHG needs to be periodically reviewed and monitored to isolate the hindering factors and enabling smooth functioning of the unit. A block level committee is formed for this purpose. Although all the surveyed areas had this committee but their functionality was questionable, because some of the SHGs 37.5 per cent were unaware about this reporting unit. So it was not functional in some of the cases and did not play its role as it should. When it comes to the income of the SHG members, half of the surveyed SHGs had no knowledge about the stipulated guidelines of the government on monthly income

Women's Issue And Its Historical-Retrospective Discourses In Turkestan In The Late Of Xix And Early Xx Centuries

Yusupova Dildora Dilshatovna; Madaeva Shahnoza Omonillaevna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 6218-6228

This article is devoted to the issue of women in Turkestan in the last century, which includes parandja, discourses on parandja, the "Khudjum" movement, the role of women in spiritual and enlightenment life, social status in the family, the religious and political situation in Turkestan, the factors that led to the religious situation , gender characteristics have been analyzed in a historically retrospective, philosophical context. It also seeks to broaden the views of Eastern and Western ideologists on the subject of the parandja, the issue of women in Islamic and Sharia law, their rights, as well as a broad approach to the original goals and objectives of the work done in the discovery of a new modern female image.
At the end of the article it is stated in the proposals and comments that it is important to study and analyze the religious and political life of the past in order to find solutions to the problematic situations related to the religious factor in Uzbekistan today.

Multifarious Faces Of Diaspora In The Works Jhumpa Lahiri

Mathivadhana P; Sinduja B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2178-2182

Diaspora is a term that encompasses cultural and emotional conflicts. Nationality and nativity contradict each other in the diasporic context. Nativity is an innate emotional bonding that creates a sense of belongingness, while nationality limits itself to the physical presence. Diasporic writings record the immigrants ‘strivings to feel the warmth of native land in a foreign nation across the boundaries. Adaptation in a foreign country is highly influenced by the socio-cultural factors and in other words, these are the crucial factors in determining the immigrant life of an individual. Diasporic literature focuses on reflecting the realistic experiences of the people away from their homeland and also in breaking the myths surrounding their lives. Though India within itself has multicultural shades, Indian immigrants in other countries are still encountering the disillusionment and struggle to cope up with the different environment. The British colonialism in India plays a pivotal role in the migration of Indians to various countries, especially, England and America. Most of the Indian diasporic writings deal with the immigrants’ social and psychological confrontations in these two countries and the effects are greater upon the women due to their social status. Jhumpa Lahiri had written vintage diasporic novels and stories in which she takes the readers across the nations to visualize the life of a migrant from a developing nation to a developed nation. As a woman writer, her representations of women characters are highly realistic and deeply moving. Her famous short story collection, Interpreter of Maladies includes nine short stories and each story projects the different dimensions of diaspora through the various characters sketched in the story. The paper attempts to decode the myriad diasporic elements in Jhumpa Lahiri’s short stories and also to study the impact of diasporic experiences over the ages.

Domestic Harassment Of Women And Children During COVID-19

Mukesh Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 754-761

Domestic abuse, a prevalent problem in all cultures, and debates about this phenomenon are related to the complexities and the tabous. Domestic violence / harassment of relationships refers to romantic marriages or partnerships between spouses and in these situations often the female gender is the survivor. There are many women who experience psychological and physical violence in their close relationships and immediate social environment which later become a serious health problem for them. Domestic violence is a pattern of coercive behaviour which involves physical , psychological, mental, economic and emotional abuse committed by one individual against another near individual with the purpose of gaining and retaining power and control. Domestic abuse can be found in all sorts of intimate marriages, such as married spouses, single spouses, living in families, individuals with shared children, same-sex partners, in past partnerships etc. The aim of this study is to find out the nature and various causes of domestic violence against women during COVID-19's lockdown situation. Using standard questionnaire and random sampling, samples of 165 females from various sectors with varying educational qualifications and family status levels were surveyed. To get the appropriate results, a T-test was applied. Specific causes and character of domestic violence can be found in the COVID-19 case, such as oral bullying, abuse , physical abuse, assault, mistreatment, spouse's aggressive behavior and sexual abuse due in part to factors such as female identity, financial distress, domination, alcohol and extra-marital problems, etc..


Iskandarov Aziz; AdilovUtkir .; Natalia Slavinskaya .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 2803-2809

Abstract: Nowadays,the issues of labor hygiene of women working at
modern, modernized grainage plants of the republic are not studied, the levels of
harmful production factors are not established, the degree of their influence on
biological age is not defined.The research aim was to study the working
conditions of women working at modern grainage plants of Uzbekistan with
further assessment of their biological age, taking into account their work
experience. The research results of the biological age of women working in
unfavorable conditions of grainage production are presented. The work
experience in grainage production has been determined (10 years), which causes
premature aging and increased risk of health impairment.

Self-Help Groups: A Study on Their Roles and Impacts on Women Empowerment

Leelashree . M; Dr. PSV Balaji Rao

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1538-1552

Economic empowerment is considered as a key step that can be taken towards attaining
the goal of equal involvement of women in community as well as household and also to
overcome the social stereotypes and challenges with the help of Self Help Groups (SHGs). In
order to withstandin a society, it is important that the course of social empowerment begins
together with a development of independence and self-assuranceamongst women. When proper
actions are taken to address all the prevailing social issues, women of the society will attain
better education, sense of ownership and belonging along with the leadership and more prospect
to have a better future. This study tries to scrutinizeon the impact of SHGs with regards towomen
empowerment on the first-hand information.This tries to identify initiatives taken by SHGsto
attain individual and communal empowerment in Mysore city. Individual empowerment is
examined through their level of awareness, leadership skills, communalization,
economicliberation, empathy from family, betterstandard of living, acknowledgement,
participation in the process of decision making. Collective empowerment is observed through
schemes provided, involvement in social and political aspects.

The Effect of COL1A and COL3A Gene Polymorphisms on Pelvic Organ Prolapse among the Women of the Belgorod Region

Alexandra S. Ustyuzhina; Sergei P. Pakhomov; Umeda G. Shokirova; Alina V. Matrosova; Ibragim M. Soliman; Larisa V. Pakhomova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 102-104

Relevance: The problem of genital prolapse, despite such a long history of the
disease, still does not have a definite solution. Currently, the problem of genital
prolapse in women remains relevant due to the high impact on the social part of life.
Genital prolapse and impaired function of neighboring organs significantly reduce the
quality of life. Every year there are more and more articles linking genital prolapse with
connective tissue pathology and with a change in collagen structure. This paper
describes the relationship of polymorphisms of the collagen genes COL1A1 and
COL3A1 and pelvic organ prolapse in women. This study aimed to analyze the effect of
rs1800012 and rs1107946 polymorphisms of the COL1A1 gene, rs1800255 of the
COL3A1 gene on the development of pelvic organ prolapse in women of the Belgorod
Material and Methods: In 2018 we analyzed 268 women who were residents of the
city of Belgorod and the Belgorod region, among which 2 groups were identified.
Group 1 (N = 53) included women who had signs of pelvic organ prolapse. Group 2 (N
= 215) consisted of women with an objectively proven absence of prolapse. The study
was carried out in the gynecological department of Belgorod Regional Clinical Hospital
of St. Joasaph.
Results: In our study, it was found that the frequencies of polymorphisms of the
COL1A1 and COL3A1 genes in residents of the Belgorod region did not differ from
those in representatives of European populations. Thus, in the studied population of
Belgorod women, the allele A of the rs1800255 polymorphism of the COL3A1 gene
was characterized by a protective effect in relation to the predisposition to pelvic organ
Conclusion: In our study, a high association of rs1800255 polymorphism of the
COL3A1 gene to pelvic organ prolapse in women of the Belgorod region was
confirmed. At the same time, no connection between the rs1800012 and rs1107946
polymorphisms of the COL1A1 gene and genital prolapse was detected.

Impact Of Media On The Dissemination Of Me Too Movement

Sabeeha Shaheen; Pavitar Parkash Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6372-6375

With the advent of digital media we are more accessible to world happenings and startling occurrences. We live in the age of less objectivity and more fabrication. Media and social media are seemingly incomprehensible. They paved a way to such a movement that shook the entire globe since its inception. ME Too fathomed immense publicity and wobbled the world with its revelations and disclosures about the influential personalities of the world. Me Too as a moment was need of the hour given the kind of struggle women go through every day, it was meant to be out one day. Media being the driven force added to the authority of the movement and augmented its reach. The study will enlighten us about the importance of such a movement and how media amplified its reach.


Sharwini Baskar; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Preetha. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 748-763

Pregnancy has some physiological changes which complicate the process of diagnosis and treatment. Over 200 million people suffer from anaemia especially among women of reproductive age. Anaemia is a major health problem among pregnant and non-pregnant women. Anaemia during pregnancy is considered as a public health problem especially in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined anaemia during pregnancy as a haemoglobin concentration of less than 11g/dl. In severe anaemia, the haemoglobin level is 6g/dl. Anaemia threatens both mother and foetus. The causes may be multifactorial, such as nutrient deficiency, parasitic infections or chronic infections. It may also be due to acute blood loss. It may also depend on geographical location and economic status. The effects of anaemia on mothers are tiredness, weakness, dizziness and affects the immune system. In children, it may cause preterm delivery, low birth weight. On both the mother and the fetus it can cause mortality and morbidity. Intake of balanced diet and awareness programmes on anaemia is a measure to prevent anaemia. This study is to evaluate the awareness and prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women. A cross-sectional survey was conducted containing a set of self-developed questionnaires. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software. The results are analysed and tabulated. The result was gained as follows, 25% of the participated population‟s haemoglobin level is less than 11, 75.89% of the population participated are aware that anaemia can affect pregnant women, 66.07% of the population agree that haemoglobin level less than 11 can cause anaemia. From the study, it is obvious that there is an awareness between the effects of anaemia during pregnancy.