Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Adolescents


Analysis of Lumbar Spine Stress Injuries in Adolescent Cricket Fast Bowlers

Jujhar Singh, Shikhar Dogra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 351-357

Background: Fast bowling in cricket is associated with a high prevalence of lumbar spine stress injuries, especially in adolescents. This cannot be correlated with risk factors identified in adult players. This study aimed to examine the incidence of lumbar spine stress injuries in adolescent fast bowlers as a prospective study so as to predict risk factors.
Methodology: 32 asymptomatic male fast bowlers (aged 14–17 years) received baseline & annual lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, musculoskeletal and bowling workload assessment. These were followed up after one year to calculate the prevalence at baseline and annual incidence. Potential risk factors were compared between the injured and uninjured groups using T-tests with Hedges’ g effect sizes.
Results: At baseline, 7 cricketers (21.8%) had evidence of lumbar spine stress injury. Subsequent incidence was 27.3 ± 18.6 injuries per 100 players per year (mean ± 95% CI). Injured bowlers were older on average at the beginning of the season preceding injury (16.7 versus 15.5 years, g = 1.396, P = 0.047)
Conclusion: Risk of lumbar spine stress injury coincides with increases in bowling & cricketing workload as well as intensity as bowlers step up playing levels to more senior teams during late adolescence whilst the lumbar spine is immature and less robust.

Reproductive health awareness among adolescents attending gynecology and pediatrics OPD at tertiary centre

Dr. Anitha N, Dr. Prathibha SD, Dr. Dhruviben Nileshkumar Pola, Dr. Santosh S Basarakod, Dr. Ullas Mahesh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 407-415

Background: The sexual and reproductive health needs of very young adolescents aged 10–14 in developing countries require increased attention.(9)This study aims to assess the awareness of adolescents about puberty changes
Method: Adoloscent girls attending our OPD were asked to attend to a questionnaire with a set of 14 questions and their awareness was assessed based on a “yes” or “no” response.
Results: We found that there was significant association between reproductive health awareness and education and age with little knowledge about contraception, teenage pregnancies and its complications.
Conclusion: There is an increasing need to educate the most vulnerable population regarding teenage pregnancies, unsafe sexual practices and and contraception to prevent them from contracting sexual transmitted diseases and other such complications

The Clinical Profile of Anaemiaand Factors Associated with Anaemia Among Adolescent (13-19 Yrs) Girls

Guruprasad Hosamani, Rashmi M. B, Rashmi Ullagaddi, Sushrit A. Neelopant

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 353-361

Background: The worldwide prevalence of anaemia among adolescents is high and even
higher in developing countries. The burden of anaemia is a major contributor for low
birth weight, lowered resistance to infection, poor cognitive and motor development,
weakness, fatigue, difficulty in concentrating and lower productivity. India had
reported high prevalence of anaemia among adolescent girls, which is apparently higher
when compared with the other developing nations. Objectives: To study the clinical
profile of anaemia among Adolescent (13-19 years) girl students and to determine the
factors associated with anaemia in Adolescent girl students like socio – demographic
factors, prevalence of anaemia and clinical profile.
Materials and Methods: Single centre, cross sectional study, sociodemographic and
clinical details were collected and analyzed. Blood test was done to estimate anaemia
and to classify type of anaemia. Prevalence of anaemia was compared with
sociodemographic and other details to look for association.
Results: The prevalence of anaemia in the present study was 25%, 78 (39%) girls
belonged to class IV. Students not wearing footwear, not washing hand, not consuming
jaggery, history of recurrent infections, passing worms, irregular cycle were anemic.
Majority of cases had microcytic hypochromic anaemia.
Conclusion: 25% prevalence is noted in our study which is of moderate magnitude.
Most commonly microcytic hypochromic anaemia 60% was noted followed by
normocytic normochromic 30%. High risk factors were students belonging to low socio
– economic groups, with Low BMI, not using foot wear, and present of menstrual
abnormalities like polymenorrhoea.

Risk Factors For Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Among Adolescent Girls In Urban Visakhapatnam

Dr. D. Errayya, Dr SunitaSreegiri, Dr.Ch Padmavathi,Dr. B Devi Madhavi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 28-35

Introduction:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine
abnormality affecting women of reproductive age, but this condition is still not
completely understood. As it is linked with many chronic conditions such as
cardiovascular and diabetes, there is need to identify the condition at the earliest.
Methods: A cross-sectional Community-based study was conducted in urban
Visakhapatnam in November 2020 among 132 adolescent girls aged between 15 to 19
years to study the prevalence of PCOS among adolescents to identify the risk factors for
polycystic ovarian syndrome. Multistage sampling was used to select the study
participants from six urban zones, information collected using a PCOS validated
questionnaire modified to suit locally. Diagnosis of PCOS was based on
Rotterdam/ESHRE criteria examination for obesity, hirsutism, acne and acanthosis.
Results: Six percentof the study subjects were found to have possible diagnosis of
PCOS. Family history of risk factors for PCOS such as maternal menstrual
irregularities, diabetes and obesity was found in 12.1% of study subjects.Increased BMI
was seen in 6.8% girls and 24 .1% had abnormal menstruation.
Conclusion:Family history, increased BMIand presence of clinical findings as abnormal
growth of hair and acne are found to be significantly associated.

HEARING LOSS PREVALENCE AND DETERMINANTS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SELECTED SAMBALPUR SCHOOLS

Kamalini Bepari, Soubhagini Acharya, Sayambika Mishra, Fakir Mohan Mohanta 1Kamalini Bepari, 2Soubhagini Acharya, 3Sayambika Mishra, 4Fakir Mohan Mohanta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11185-11192

Background: Hearing impairment in school-aged children is especially essential because
it is at this age that the basis for education, mental, and language development is built.
The current study attempts to quantify the burden of hearing impairment among school
children in Sambalpur, Odisha, both rural and urban.
Methods: In addition to clinical evaluation, pure tone audiometry at speech frequency
was performed on 5500 pupils in Burla, Sambalpur, and Hirakud to screen out cases of
deafness. Attempts were made to delve into the numerous circumstances that
contributed to their deafness. In addition, other information such as the respondents'
parents' socioeconomic position, social adequacy, history of the current and past
disease, and so on was gathered.
Results: Sambalpur has the greatest incidence of deafness (11.25 percent), followed by
Hirakud NAC (10.48 percent) and Burla (9.15 percent). Deafness was most common in
children aged 5-6 years (42.93 percent, with 40.97 percent conductive and 1.81 percent
sensorineural) and least common (7.55 percent) in children aged 13 and up. There was
no discernible variation in the incidence of deafness by sex or side of affection.
Secretory otitis media (37.21 percent) was the most common cause of deafness among
cases of conductive deafness, especially among children under the age of five.
Conclusion: The study emphasises the significant prevalence of hearing impairment in
the study population and the need to increase hearing impairment-focused school health
initiatives.

Retrospective study of medial Physeal stapling for primary and secondary genu valgum in late childhood and adolescents

Dr. K Sundaresh, Dr. Raghavendra, Dr. Rahul, Dr. Yugandhar S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 2395-2403

Purpose: To study the outcome of staples (Temporary hemiepiphysiodesis) in the management of angular plane deformities of the knee in skeletally immature children.
Methods
Retrospective study: A Total of 20 patients with bilateral affected knee joints having minimum of 1 year of skeletal growth remaining were included in our study-out of 20, 16 being Primary genu valgum and 4 being secondary genu valgum due to renal rickets. Angular correction was measured by recording anatomical Tibio femoral angles.
The correction rate (degree per month) and complications were recorded.
Results: The most common was idiopathic genu valgum.
Rate of correction was 1.2 degree.
We had excellent and good outcomes according to modified Zueze et al. Criteria.
Conclusion: We recommend use of staples for primary and secondary genu valgum in late childhood and adolescence. However, the staples can carry a risk like extrusion, breakage and implant failure.

Assessment Of Risk Factors For The Development Of Allergic Diseases In Children

Nurmamatova Kurbonoy Choriyevna; Abdashimov Zafar Bahtiyarovich; Karimova Mukhabat Umarovna; Stojarova Nelli Kamilovna; Tangirov Abdixoliq Lolayevich

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 319-329

Allergy is a pathology of countries with a high index of socio-economic development and most of all residents of large cities. By 2025, according to the WHO, 50% of the world's population will suffer from allergies [14]. This article examines the main risk factors for the development of allergic diseases in children under the age of 18 in Tashkent. The most significant factors were: the presence of an inherited predisposition on the line of one (RCh 1.9) or both parents (OR 5.6), closely related marriages between parents (RCh 2.8), the age of parents over 40 at the time of conception of the child (RCh 1.4) and some others.

VO2 MAX VALUE OF ADOLESCENT BASKETBALL PLAYERS AND THE DIFFERENCE IN THE LYMPHOCYTES AND EOSINOPHIL COUNT BETWEEN BASKET TRAINED AND NOT

Huldani .; Ahmad Husairi; Asnawati .; Dwi Setyohadi; Afiif Eko Wibowo; Gandhi Mahesa Priambodo; Aminuddin Prahatama Putra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1517-1524

This study aims to explain the VO2 max value in adolescents and the differences in lymphocytes and eosinophil
levels after moderate aerobic exercise. The study was conducted with a post-test only control group design on 15
basketball player students and 15 non-basketball player students at SMAN 1 Banjarbaru. The sampling
technique was carried out by using purposive sampling method. Measurement of VO2 max value was executed
on the first day with MFT (Multistage Fitness Tes / Bleep Test) and measurement of lymphocytes and eosinophil
levels was executed on the third day by trained medical personnel after the subject did the moderate aerobic
exercise. Data analysis used was the Mann-Whitney test for VO2 max value and Saphiro-Wilk test for
lymphocytes and the Mann-Whitney test for eosinophil levels. The results of the data analysis is the VO2 max
value between groups were significantly different (p = 0.000) and there were no difference in lymphocytes (p >
0.05) and eosinophil (p > 0.05) count between groups after the moderate aerobic exercise. We conclude that
basketball players student have a better VO2 max value than non-basketball players and moderate aerobic
exercise were unable to make any significant difference between the groups in the number of lymphocytes and
eosinophils

ASTHMA CORRELATES AMONG ADOLESCENCE IN COUNTRY: AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH

Dr. Sanjay D. Gabhale; Dr. Preetha Anand; Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari; Dr. Heena Tiwari; Dr.Savitri Ranjeri; Dr. Abhinav Vilas Lambe

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 6606-6612

Aim: Purpose of our research is to establish the increased incidence of asthma with adolescent age group
Methodology: A cross-sectional, school-based study carried out amongst 1200 children. In
our study, we took into consideration about various demographic patterns like lifestyle
patterns, health issues, as well a comparison between asthmatics and non- asthmatics.
Comparison between the two groups was done by analysing data using Statistical Analysis
Software 25.0.
Results: Among a final sample of 1198 participants, the prevalence of self-reported asthma
was found to be 8.2%. Various characteristics were found significantly different between
the 2 groups including the gender, the weight and dietary patterns. Self –reported
asthmatic were more likely to be males, overweight or obese.
Conclusion: Asthma disease remains prevalent among adolescents and requires higher
awareness and better guidance for its prevention and treatment. Further efforts should
focus on health promotion and as well as improved quality of life so as to prevent this
chronic disease.

Factors That Affectsexual and Mental Health experienceperinatally-Acquired womenadolescents with HIV

PravatiTripathy .; MadhusmitaNayak .; DebjaniNayak .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1045-1055

The social, cultural and economic realities facing women and men with HIV are defined as well-being, but are challenged as well. Women and men with HIV are responsible for their sexual health with a sexual rights approach. Precise and accessible information is best provided through peer training and health care professionals trained in empathic approaches to sensitive matters to make informed choices and secure, enjoyable sexual relations. Young people living with HIV acquired perinatally require appropriate support in terms of sex and intercourse in advance of adulthood.HIV affects both sexes, but evidence shows that young women are especially vulnerable to sexual abuse and are more susceptible to sexual conduct to satisfy their daily needs of survival. This can lead to poor sexualand reproductive health (SRH). This paper examines young women's sex and relationship experiences with perinatally acquired HIV to learn how they can improve SRH care and related outcomes.A comprehensive case study approach has been implemented, in each case, a young woman (15–19 years), a caregiver and a service provider with perinatally diagnosed HIV

Characteristic Of The Cardiovascular System In Children And Adolescents At Obesity In Accompanience Of Arterial Hypertension.

Lilya Garifulina; Maksuda Ashurova; Nargiza Goyibova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3171-3175

62 children and adolescents with obesity accompanied by arterial hypertension were examined. It was revealed that the development of myocardial hypertrophy is affected by body weight, blood pressure, vasoconstriction processes, as well as insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia. These parameters serve as early markers of myocardial hypertrophy.

CHARACTERISTIC OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS AT OBESITY IN ACCOMPANIENCE OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

GarifulinaLilya Maratovna; AshurovaMaksuda Zhamshedovna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 2790-2793

62 children and adolescents with obesity accompanied by arterial hypertension were examined. It was revealed that the development of myocardial hypertrophy is affected by body weight, blood pressure,vasoconstriction processes, as well as insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia. These parameters serve as early markers of myocardial hypertrophy.

Knowledge and Practice on menstrual hygiene among specially abled (Deaf & Dump) adolescent Girls at selected centres in Bhubaneswar, Odisha State -A Pilot Project

Mrs. Serma Subathra Arunachalam; Prof.(Dr).Asha P. Shetty; Ms. Shyama Devi; Mr. Karthick Murugesan; Dr. Shankar Shanmugam Rajendran

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1352-1367

Introduction:
Disabilities are nuanced and multifaceted; 15% of the world's population is disabled and has trouble working. Deaf and dumb cause major lifestyle changes and habits among adolescent girls that lead to physical, psychological, and social adjustment issues. Menstruation is a normal physiological process every teenage girl experiences every month. The ability to manage menstruation hygienically is essential to the dignity and wellbeing of women, which is an integral part of basic hygiene, sanitation and reproductive health services. Objective: To determine the existing knowledge and practice of menstrual hygiene among specially abled adolescent girls at selected centres in Bhubaneswar(BBSR). Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2020 and November 2020 in Bhubaneswar town of Odisha. Total census sample of 22 deaf and mute adolescent girls from B.B.C Govt High School for the Deaf (Unit III), Bhubaneswar. A questionnaire consisting of three parts namely Part A: Sociodemographic and obstetrical and gynaecological information; Part B: Menstrual hygiene knowledge questionnaire; and Part C: Menstrual hygiene practice checklist. Results:The finding of the study reported that 45.46 per cent had moderately adequate knowledge on menstrual hygiene; 27 per cent of study participants had proportionately inadequate and adequate knowledge of menstrual hygiene, and 86.37 per cent had reported good practice in menstrual hygiene.The Mean and SD of Knowledge score was 37.958 ,Practice was 8.50 and Karl Pearson Correlation (r =0.26, p=0.23) estimated that there was no significant positive fair correlation between knowledge score and practice score. Conclusion: Good menstrual hygiene triggers women's health, trust and self-esteem and is linked to gender equality and fundamental human rights. Setting realistic time-limited targets, including education (Videos and Information Booklets) on hygienic practices followed during menstruation using sign language for deaf and mute adolescent girls, would be a welcome effort to provide basic hygiene and reproductive services to specially-enabled girls and women.

Investigation of Depression, Anxiety & Stress Symptoms on Students

Suchismita Pahantasingh; Ranjita Jena; Sarika M L

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 1242-1252

The most common psychiatric disorder in young people is depression. Unipolar depressive disorder in young people are common globally but still unrecognized. The incidence is growing sharply following the puberty, especially in girls, and the 1-year prevalence rate at the end of adolescence exceeds by 4%. In middle and low-income nations, the burden is highest. Depression is related to current and potential illness and raises the risk of suicide. A family history of depression and exposure to psycho-social stress were the most important risk factors for depression in young people. Adolescence is a physical, social, sexual and emotional stress phase and it is a topic of concern at this stage of life if there are mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety and stress. The inherited risks, developmental factors, sexual hormones and psycho-social adversity interact in order to increase risk by hormone and associated neural disturbance factors. In this study, the student's executive functions were studied and compared with those of a stable person with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. These scales are structured to measure depression, anxiety and stress in negative emotional states.

PREDICTIVE CRITERIA FOR ASSESSING THE PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE OF ADOLESCENTS INVOLVED IN DIFFERENT SPORTS

Raimkulova D.F.; Rizaev J.A.; Sadikov A.A.; Aladova L.Yu; Babadjanov O.A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3091-3101

The purpose of this study was to study the content of free and bound carnitine in
the blood of young athletes involved in various sports. 101 young athletes of
various sports qualifications at the age from 15 to 17 years old were examined.
For the research, young men were divided into two groups: I - types of sports of
complex impact (football) - 38 people, II - cyclic type (rowing) - 31 people.
Girls (32) are divided into three groups: I - types of sports of complex impact
(football) - 14 people, II - a cyclical sport that predominantly develops
endurance (rowing) - 6 people, and III - a complex coordination sport (rhythmic
gymnastics) - 12 person. It was revealed that the assessment of carnitine
metabolism indices allows predicting the degree of physical working capacity of
athletes involved in various sports. At the same time, it was found that indicators
of carnitine metabolism, body composition, have prognostic value in assessing
the physical performance of young athletes.

Counselingevaluation of adolescentreproductive health in private junior high school

Indana Tri Rahmawati; Ratna Dwi Wulandari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 434-440

The problem of adolescents should get serious attention and focus on directing adolescents to a more positive direction, which focuses on creating a system to deal with delinquency among adolescents. The type of research used in this research is the evaluation research (evaluation study). The adolescent reproductive health counseling program carried out is one of a series of Field Learning Practice Programs (PBL) conducted by the Department of Public Health, Universitas Negeri Malang. To evaluate the success of this activity, an evaluation was carried out containing the pretest,posttest, and rating questionnaire. The resultsof the evaluation showed that students who studiedhealth increased from an average value of 41.47 to 90 after counseling. Based on the evaluation of the Adolescent Reproductive Health or called ”Kesehatan Reproduksi Remaja“(KRR) counseling program through a questionnaire, an average score of 86.79 was obtained, which indicated that the Adolescent Reproductive Health Renewal Programwas given according to a top category. Thus, it can be concluded that supporting good health will increase knowledge about adolescent health

Counselingevaluation of adolescentreproductive health in private junior high school.

Indana Tri Rahmawati; Ratna Dwi Wulandari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 644-650

The problem of adolescents should get serious attention and focus on directing adolescents to a more positive direction, which focuses on creating a system to deal with delinquency among adolescents. The type of research used in this research is the evaluation research (evaluation study). The adolescent reproductive health counseling program carried out is one of a series of Field Learning Practice Programs (PBL) conducted by the Department of Public Health, Universitas Negeri Malang. To evaluate the success of this activity, an evaluation was carried out containing the pretest,posttest, and rating questionnaire. The resultsof the evaluation showed that students who studiedhealth increased from an average value of 41.47 to 90 after counseling. Based on the evaluation of the Adolescent Reproductive Health or called ”Kesehatan Reproduksi Remaja“(KRR) counseling program through a questionnaire, an average score of 86.79 was obtained, which indicated that the Adolescent Reproductive Health Renewal Programwas given according to a top category. Thus, it can be concluded that supporting good health will increase knowledge about adolescent health.

Malocclusion And Deleterious Oral Habits In South Indian Adolscent Population: A Correlation Study

Dr. Suneetha. M; Dr. Ramya Alla; Dr Suraj Potdar; Dr. Tanya Anand; Dr. Nasir Khan; Dr. Afreen Kauser; Dr. Heena Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6552-6557

Aim: Purpose of the study was to judge the prevalence of malocclusion and associated predisposing deleterious oral habits in South Indian teen population. Methodology: Prevalence of malocclusion and treatment need was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) among a sample of 1000, 12 and 15-year-old school children in prominent South Indian cities, who received no treatment before or during the study. Subjects were also assessed for deleterious oral habits. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test was wont to test the correlation of habits with mean DAI score and malocclusion traits. Results: Mean DAI score was 26.81±5.25. Nearly 52% of the study sample presented with malocclusion, starting from ‘definite’ to ‘handicapping’ supported the DAI scores. The prevalence of varied deleterious oral habits was 21.2%. About 35% of youngsters with any oral habit developed malocclusion as compared to those with none habit (P value=0.014). Tongue thrusting, mouth breathing and thumb sucking habits had a major impact on malocclusion.Conclusion: It was evident from the results of our study that presence of malocclusion directly depends upon the presence of deleterious oral habits in general.

Results Ofintegrated Treatment Of Hypertrophic Gingivitis In Adolescents

Saidova N.A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3749-3756

Among dental diseases, periodontal diseases dominate in their intensity, prevalence and devastating consequences for the dentition of the person. In this regard, the search for effective methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of inflammatory periodontal diseases remains urgent. Recent studies have allowed to expand and complement the modern view in the regulation of many physiological processes of the body. Periodontal diseases are no exception. It is well known that in the complex treatment of periodontal diseases, dentists use a wide arsenal of medications that affect both the microflora of periodontal pockets and various mechanisms of the pathogenesis of the inflammatory process. However, modern methods and tools do not fully justify their clinical effectiveness. In this regard, an integrated approach to the treatment of gingivitis is gaining increasing recognition in dental practice.
Aim:To study the causes of hypertrophic gingivitis in adolescence, find optimal treatment options, introduce new methods in the treatment algorithm.
Material and research methods.
The study used material (oral fluid, gingival blood) obtained from 50 patients aged 12-18 years with a diagnosis of moderate hypertrophic gingivitis and 20 healthy individuals.
Depending on the treatment and preventive measures taken, all patients were divided into 2 groups of 25 people each. In the 1st control group for treatment, traditional antiseptic treatment of the oral cavity was used using a 0.05% solution of chlorhexidinebigluconate and periodontal pockets were injected with a metrogel dent gel under a bandage in the amount of 10 g for 5-7 days. In the 2nd group (n = 25), patients underwent anti-microbial, topically anti-inflammatory and decongestant therapy. Traumeel C 301.5 mg in the form of a paste was injected into the interdental space under a dressing in the amount of 10 g for 5-7 days. The 2nd group was taken as the main one.
The clinical condition of periodontal tissues was evaluated using the following indices: hygienic (Green-Wermillion), PI (Russel). The state of immune resistance of the oral cavity was evaluated using cytological methods (determination of the content of cellular elements in the liquid of the periodontal pocket); assessment of the absorption activity of neutrophilic leukocytes by calculating the phagocytic number during the induction of phagocytosis by latex particles, as well as the test of spontaneous reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium (HCT test).
Statistical data processing was performed on a PVEM using MS Excel 10.0 tools.
Results.When examining patients, hyperemia of the gingival mucosa, swelling, loose consistency, bleeding, a small amount of supra and subgingival tartar, profuse soft plaque, false pockets up to 5 mm with serous exudate, papillae enlarged and deformed, hypertrophy up to 1/2 were determined the length of the crown of the teeth, the average value of the clinical indices was IG - 2.58 ± 0.5 and PI - 5.5 ± 0.4. After completion of the 
course of therapy, improvement was noted in patients of all groups: tightening of the gingival margin, decreased bleeding, disappearance of false pockets. The positive dynamics of changes in the index indicators of the periodontal condition was noted. The highest results were achieved in the 2nd group, where the value of the PI indicator from 2.58 ± 0.5 points to 0.14 ± 0.1, PI from 5.5 ± 0.4 to 2.56 ± 0.8 (p <0.05).
Conclusion. Thus, the effectiveness of the local use of the drug "Traumeel C" is confirmed by the results of clinical and laboratory studies.

PREVALENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AMONG ADOLESCENT VISITING DENTAL COLLEGE OVER A PERIOD TWO YEAR

Anjana. G; Dr. Gheena. S; Dr.R. Balakrishna

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1341-1345

Dental caries(DC) is one of the most prevalent oral diseases of health concern often affecting adolescents.Dental caries is a biofilm mediated,diet modulated, multifactorial, non communicable,dynamic disease resulting in net mineral loss of hard fissure of the oral cavity. It is determined by biological, physiological, behavioural and environmental factors of an individual. As a consequence a carious lesion is produced. People of all ages are affected by dental caries.Adolescents are individuals between 10-19 years old and proven to have a high caries experience. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of Dental caries among 10-19 years old patients visiting Saveetha Dental college between june 2019-april 2020. A total of 5445 patients data was analysed from their case records and analysed for incidence among gender,correlation with age.It was found that out of 5445 patients,3021 patients(73%) were male and 2412 patients(25%) were female and 2 patients(2%) were transgenders.Patients of the age group of 13-19 years had more incidence and the age group of 14-15 year old had least incidence. Within the limitations of this study it can be concluded that male patients have more DC than female patients among the 10-19 years age group in an outpatient population of a Dental College.

IMPACT OF FAST FOOD ON DEPRESSION IN THE ADOLESCENT POPULATION

B. Aishwarya Reddy; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Nivethigaa. B

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 532-539

Depression In adolescence is linked with a range of adverse outcomes and substantial risk for morbidity
and mortality across the life span. Fast food is a common element of many adolescent’s diets. This leads to
pediatric obesity and the consequence could be increased risk of depression. A diet high in sodium could
develop symptoms of depression in early adolescence and that diet could be a modifiable risk factor for
depression in adolescent patients.The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between fast food
intake and mental health in the adolescent population.An online questionnaire was prepared and circulated
among the adolescent population.The sample size is 100. The data was tabulated and then imported to
SPSS software by IBM and the statistical Chi square test was done.Out of 100 adolescents, 71% were
females and 29% of them were males. 81% of them follow a mixed diet. 90% of the adolescents consume
fast food.The prevalence of consumption of fast food is much higher in the adolescent population. Out of
various types of fast foods, the prevalence of consumption of sweets is much higher in the adolescent
population. And most