Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : ESBL

To Assess Genotyphic Methods in the identification of ESBL producing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

Kanaparthi Anil Kumar, Dr. Madhurendra Rajput

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 435-444

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infections affecting approximately 11% of adult women each year globally, with approximately 60% of women experiencing UTI during their lifetime. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are extremely broad spectrum β-lactamase enzymes, which can be produced by Gram-negative bacteria. They are mainly found in a family of Enterobacteriaceae. ESBLs are produced by the mutation of the TEM-1, TEM-2, and SHV-1 β-lactamases.

Comparison of association of ESBL producing bacteria to the duration of the diabetes: An original research

Dr Raveendran SR, Dr Prathish Kumar, Dr Ashok Kumar, Dr Archana Mukunda, Dr Yogesh TL

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 1494-1502

Introduction: Diabetes is a common disease of the current population and its most common complication is recurrent urinary tract infection. Recurrent infections are treated with recurrent antibiotic therapy which leads to emergence of resistant strains of bacteria like ESBL, which can prove to be fatal.
Materials and Methods: Patients with confirmed cases of diabetes were selected based o inclusion and exclusion criteria. The urine samples of all patients were analyzed for bacterial isolates and further analyzed for ESBL producing organisms. ESBL producing strains were tested for their antibiotic sensitivity   
Results: A total of 164 patients comprising of 82 males patients and 82 female patients of both genders in the age groups of 30-60yrs were selected. Out of this 58 females and 32 males had recurrent UTI. 45.73% urine samples showed gram negative isolates and among them 25.33% were found to be positive for ESBL isolates using combination disc method. The predominant micro organism was found to be E coli (33%) in urine samples of both genders. E coli was the largest producer of EBSL (57.9%) followed by K pneumoniae (21.1%). We found a strong association between increasing years of diabetes with ESBL production. 
Conclusion: We found that recurrent UTI in diabetics was most common in sixth decade of life and was noted to be more in female population. E coli and K pneumoniae were the most common GNB isolates as well as ESBL producers respectively. They were resistant to 3rd generation cephalosporin but were highly sensitive to amaikacin and nitrofurantoin.

Study of antibiotic sensitivity pattern of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms in pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital

Parag Mahankar, Bibhudatta Dash, Dr. Priyanka Badjate

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1038-1046

Background: The broad spectrum ß-lactam antibiotics are commonly used empirically for the treatment of gram negative sepsis. But the emergence of ESBL producing organisms has posed a serious threat for their continuing use. Present study was undertaken to find out the magnitude of the problem of infections due to extended spectrum β-lactamase producing organisms.
Material and Methods: Present study was a descriptive & observational study, conducted in patients < 18 years age, all cultures showing a significant growth of ESBL producing organisms from any of the clinical specimens, as per CLSI guidelines.
Results: Infections by ESBL producing organisms were found more common in 13-18 years of age group (36.25%) & males (71.25%). K. pneumoniae has been found to be the most commonly isolated ESBL producing organism (56.25%) followed by E. coli (38.75%). ESBL producing organisms were most commonly grown in urine samples (51.25%) followed by pus culture (11.25%) and blood (10%). All were sensitive to tigecycline and colistin (100%). In the carbapenem group, sensitivity to imipenem was highest (93.75%) followed by ertapenem (66.25%), doripenem (65%) and meropenem (53.75%). Among the 45 isolates of ESBL K. pneumoniae, all were sensitive to tigecycline and colistin. Sensitivity to imipenem is 93.33% while that to meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem were 46.66%, 62.22% and 64.44% respectively. Out of the 31 isolates of ESBL producing E. coli, all were sensitive to tigecycline and colistin. Sensitivity to Imipenem was 96.77% while that to meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem were 64.71%, 70.96% and 70.96% respectively. Sensitivity to meropenem has gone down dramatically from 71.42% to 22.22%, which is significant.
Conclusion: A growing resistance in the ESBL producing organisms is noted which is very alarming. A limited number of drugs are available against these ESBL producing organisms and the drug of choice is carbapenem.

Bacteriological profile of orthopaedic implant site infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a tertiary care hospital

Santosh Kumar, Dharitri Mohapatra, Sasmita Khatua, Nirupama Chayani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1207-1217

Orthopaedic implant site infection is one of the major surgical site infection in orthopaedic surgery with high morbidity and mortality. Due to the use of implants, which are foreign to the body, orthopaedic trauma surgery is at the grave risk of microbial contamination. Overall 5% of the internal fixation devises get infected. The incidence of infection after internal fixation of closed fractures is generally lower (0.5-1%), where as in case of internal fixation of open fractures, the incidence is still higher and may exceed 30%. The prevalence of orthopaedic implant site infection reported in India is about 2.6%.

Molecular Characterization of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Bacteria Isolated from a River Surface Water

Fazlul MKK; Mohamad Farouk Abdullah; Nomani Kabir; Saeid Reza Doustjalali; Negar Shafiei Sabet; Srikumar C; Rashid MA; Jassim M. SaadounMohammed A. KadhimSalah M. S. Al-Atab; Nazmul MHM

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1570-1580

The existence and prevalence of multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum βlactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in the river water is a major cause of numerous diseases worldwide. In this study, the molecular characterization of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria producing ESBL encoding genes was investigated for a better understanding of the risk factors and public health issues. The potential ESBL-producing bacterial species were detected using 16S ribose ribonucleic acid (rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This served as a screening step to detect potential ESBLs encoding genes which were confirmed by phenotypes (DDST and E-test) and genotypes (PCR) assays with the presence of the bla genes; TEM, CTX-M, OXA-1 and SHV. Furthermore, all the confirmed bacterial isolates producing ESBL encoding genes were analysed for antibiotic susceptibility patterns against 10 different classes of antibiotics as a choice of therapy using antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by the disc diffusion method. The highest bacterial isolates were confirmed as Enterobacteriaceae (89.5%), predominantly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Among the 20 bacterial isolates, 12 (60 %) bacteria possessed one or more ESBLs encoding genes. Relatively high occurrence rates of β-lactamase genes; bla TEM 35%, bla SHV 20%, bla OXA-15% and bla CTX-M 10% were recorded. All the ESBLs encoding isolates showed high resistance to penicillin’s, third-generation cephalosporins, monobactams, cephamycins and carbapenems. High occurrences of ESBLs producing bacteria in the environment pose a threat to exposed communities. Therefore, early detection of MDR beta-lactamase mediated resistance genes are essential to avoid numerous diseases due to the dissemination of ESBLs producing strains.