Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Epidemiology


Kuldip Singh Sandhu, Dharminder Singh, Akashdeep Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 3249-3256

Background: Corona pandemic and its resultant lockdown have caused a devastated effect of life of human beings. We conducted this study during Covid-19 period to analyze the effects of lockdown on pediatric trauma variations in injury pattern and its severity among children in a tertiary hospital.
Materials and Methods: Patients of less than 16 year presented to orthopedic trauma were defined in this study. The study has been divided into three time periods. Patients presented from March 2019 to July 2019 (base line period), March 2020 to July 2020 (Lockdown period) and March 2021 to July 2021 (post lockdown period) were identified and compared in this retrospective cross sectional study. The children included in this study were either requiring manipulation under anesthesia or surgical intervention in operation theatre. We conducted unadjusted bivariate analyses of injury patterns during these periods. Segmented linear regression models were used to evaluate the rates of injuries before, during and after pandemic period. The one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the differences in means of three independent groups.
Results: A total of 231 numbers of children with orthopedic trauma were presented to our tertiary hospital.  Out of these, 111 were admitted during pre-pandemic period and 45 in the pandemic period with 75 children during post pandemic period. During lockdown period, mean age of children with significant orthopedic trauma has decreased to 7.5 years in comparison to base line which was about 8.5 years and post lockdown period 9.25 years. Boys outnumbered the girls during this study. The outdoor injury has drastically decreased from 65.75% in base line to 35.65% in lockdown period, but this pattern has increased to 85.25% in post lockdown period.
Conclusion: Our study has shown that during lock down in Covid pandemic, there was a decrease of 59.46% cases of pediatric trauma patients in which surgical intervention or manipulation in operation theatre was required. These changes in epidemiology may be due to modified approach followed by surgeon while following strict Covid guidelines. Our study has also mentioned increase in domestic injuries requiring surgical intervention which may be due to lock down implications by national protocols. We recommend to create a safe environment for children during indoor and outdoor activities and creating awareness among parents to safe guard their siblings. All above these measures may reduce the burden on health care facilities.


Elizabeth Caroline P, Siril P, Jayalatha N, Krishna Chaitanya, Vishal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1233-1240

Background:Hitherto, incidence burden of childhood cancer in India has been derived from GLOBOCAN data. Recent analyses have challenged whether this accurately measures the true incidence of childhood cancer. Objective: To use observed data rather than simulation to estimate the number of children (0-14 years), as well as number of children and adolescents (0-19 years), in India who develop cancer every year at the national and state/union territory (UT) level.
Materials and Methods: Age-specific (five-year groups), sex-specific, and state/UT specific population data from India Census 2011 was used. Global average incidence rates from the International Incidence of Childhood Cancer 3 (IICC3) report were used. Incidence rates per million person years for the 0-14 years and 0-19 years age groups were age-adjusted using the world standard population to provide age-standardized incidence rates, using the age-specific incidence rates for individual age groups (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years).
Results: The national number of children (0-14 years) and, children and adolescents (0-19 years) that may develop cancer every year based on 2011 census are 52,366 and 76,805 persons respectively. Cancer type specific incidence is provided for each state/UT for these age ranges. This national incidence is approximately double of the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of incidence of children diagnosed and registered with cancer and the differential is greater in girls.
Conclusion: Our analysis proposes new estimates of incident childhood cancer cases in India for children and adolescents. Future regional, national and international research on childhood cancer epidemiology and healthcare accessibility would help further refine these estimates.

Spectrum of Ocular Manifestations in SARS COV – 2 Patients at Tertiary Care Center

Suhani Sharma, Pooja Yadav, Pratibha Shekhawat, Gautam Lunia, Yogendra Taneja, Kirti Shekhawat

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5761-5768

Introduction: The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a highly
contagious and deadly infection.
Aim: To evaluate the epidemiological pattern and spectrum of the covid ocular
morbidity and appraise the typical presentation of ocular manifestations in hospitalized
covid patients.
Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted on individuals, who were
hospitalized for COVID treatment between May 2021 and June 2021. The Data on
patient history, physical exam, thorough ocular examination, laboratory results, and
hospital disposition were collected and analyzed.
Results: A total of 658 patients were included. Ocular signs and symptoms were noted
in 162 (24.62%) patients. 51.6% patients wereof >50 years of age and 54.1% were
males. 71.6% of them belonged to urban community.75.3% patients developed ocular
discomfort with in acute (<1 week) period of covid infection. The most common ocular
abnormality was watering with conjunctival irritation, followed by conjunctival
injection and lid swelling. Among the 162 patients, 30 (79.0%) developed ocular
involvement prior to day 30 of onset of their COVID symptoms. 56.7% patients relieved
from ocular discomfort after treatment. 5.7% patients reported deterioration of visual
acuity. 65.8% patients reported ocular discomfort associated with regular oxygen mask
wearing. Most significant ocular morbidity was black discoloration of lids and peri
ocular skin, lid swelling, and redness and purulent discharge of conjunctivitis needed
emergency ophthalmic reference.


Ch. Rama Mohan, M. Nagaswetha, S.Praveen Kumar, B. Sankar Kumar, Ch.Sudha Rani, G. Narasimha Rao Netha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11126-11137

Background:Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with a
relatively high prevalence varying from 0.9 % to 1.2%. It may be confined to oral
cavity or associated with the skin, nails and other mucosal sites. Oral lesions are
chronic, rarely undergo spontaneous remission and are often a source of morbidity.
OBJECTIVE - To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral
lichen planus (OLP) in a group of patients.
Materials and Methods: This is retrospective study done at Gandhi Hospital from 2017
to 2019. A total of 64 lichen planus patients with oral involvement were included. OLP
is diagnosed based on the morphology and associated lesions on the skin, nails or other
mucosa. A biopsy was done in doubtful cases.
Results: Out of 64 studied patients females(41) outnumbered males(23) .The common
age group was 30-60yrs. Isolated OLP was observed in 42%, with cutaneous LP 50%,
with nail involvement 3%, and with genital mucosa 4 %. Buccal mucosa is the
commonest site (84%) followed by tongue 28% and lip 20%. LP involving the lower lip
with actinic changes 5(39%) and pigmentation in 8(61%). The common patterns
observed were reticular 65.6%, erosive 11% and pigmented 11%. Other associations
were submucosal fibrosis in 6, diabetes 10, hypothyroidism 4, vitiligo 1, retro-positive 4,
HCV in 2.
Conclusion: In our study reticular pattern involving the buccal mucosa was the
commonest. Our study showed that LP involving the lower lip was mimicking actinic
cheilitis which may be differentiated. Association of LP with HCV was seen in only in
3.1 % of cases. Regular follow-up was needed for erosive or ulcerative and atrophic LP.

Staphylococcus aureus: An Overview of Discovery, Characteristics, Epidemiology, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Sensitivity

Narin A Rasheed; Nawfal R Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1160-1183

Staphylococcus aureus is an important infectious pathogen in health sector and communities. S. aureus was first described by the Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogaston in surgical abscess in 1881. It causes various infections ranged between simple to life threating infections. Owing potent toxins and other virulence factors enabled the bacteria to be very virulent. Additionally, acquisition of antimicrobial resistant genes increased the challenge in treating the infections caused by bacteria especially methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) that are often multidrug resistant strains. The circulation of MRSA between health settings and communities resulted in changing even the genetic map for the strains in both places. Vancomycin was used for years and still acts as the drug of choice for treating MRSA infections but recently the resistance to vancomycin has risen and vancomycin resistant S. aureus were recorded. Consequently, different regimes were used like combination of antibiotics to reduce the resistance rate to antibiotics if they were used as a single drug and practiced the control measures at health settings to reduce the spread of MRSA strains. At last, global health organizations call for research and finding new antibiotics agents and put MRSA on the top list of infectious agents that need more antibiotics.


Ellisa Dwijayanti, Isti Suharjanti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 4710-4712

Background: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is the most common form of median nerve neuropathy and about 90% of all types of neuropathy. This syndrome is also one of the most common hand disorders associated with work.This study aimed to demonstrate the epidemiological characteristics in patients treated for carpal tunnel syndrome in a general hospital.
Objective:To report clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with CTS in outpatient care unit of a general hospital.
Methods:This is a retrospective study. All patients who were treated in outpatient care unit in January-September 2021.
Results: We obtained data from 44 patients in outpatient care unit. The ratio of men and women was 1:3.4. The mean of age was 49 years old.Bilateral manifestation is more common than unilateral (59.1%).
Conclusion: Female with bilateral symptoms of median nerve neuropathy was the most common characteristic in CTS patient’s profile.

A Retrospective Analysis of Maxillofacial Trauma in a Tertiary Care Centre in central India: A 8-year study

Dr. Karuna Jindwani, Dr. Amit Kumar Sahu, Dr. Geeta Tripathi, Dr. Divashree Sharma, Dr. Juhi Singh

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 2383-2395

Introduction: The incidence of maxillofacial fractures varies worldwide. The
information on epidemiological characteristics in association with the etiology and
incidence of injuries help in prevention and appropriate treatment of such injuries.
Purpose: Thus, the aim of this retrospective study was to describe the prevalence,
incidence, pattern, etiology, management of trauma cases at Shyam Shah Medical
College (S. S. M. C), in a span of 8 years.
Patients & Methods: The data collected included age, sex, date and month (seasonal
variations), etiology, site of fracture, associated injuries, treatment modalities used for
the management of maxillofacial trauma patients reporting in the Department of
Dentistry and emergency casualty department of S. S. M. C., Rewa from February 2013
till January 2021.
Results: A total of 892 cases depicted fractures of the facial skeleton. The mean age was
36 years. Though patients ranging from 4-75 years reported for treatment. Males
outnumbered females with a male: female ratio of 8:1. Injuries commonly occurred in
the 21-30 years age group. Road traffic accidents (RTAs) were the most common
etiological factor in 631 patients followed by inter personal violence (IPV) in 147
patients. Mandibular fracture was the most frequently encountered fracture. The
seasonal variation showed the peak incidence of cases in the months of January and
December with 23.4 % of total patients. 15.13 % of the cases were managed
conservatively, 7.29% patients with debridement and soft tissue repair, while closed
reduction was used in 60.54 % of patients and 17.04 % were treated with surgical open
reduction and internal fixation. There was no serious complication in any of our patient
in the average follow up span of 6 months.
Conclusion: This study verified a young male predominance involved in maxillofacial
trauma. RTAs contributed as the major etiological factor. Thus, similar long-span multi
centric epidemiologic studies may help government and authorities to plan periodic
review of driving skills & strict implementation of traffic rules policies.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Congenital Anomalies among the sick neonates of the Ladakh region of India

Mohd Murtaza; MdNiamat Ali; MahrukhHameed Zargar; Oliyath Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1083-1092

Congenital anomalies are the structural and functional irregularities at birth. In this progressive study, all the neonates who are admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit during the three year period from 1st June 2017 to 31 May 2020.
Aim: The study aims to examine the prevalence, type, and epidemiological factors of congenital anomalies among the population of Ladakh India.
Subject and methods: All the neonates during the study period were examined by pediatrics and questionnaire filled by the consent of the family. A total of 936 parents of neonates was agreed to participate in this study and among them, 524 are male neonate and 412 was female.
Results: Four and a half percent were diagnosed as being congenital malformed and the common system affected by congenital anomalies in the digestive system followed by the mucso-skeletal system. In this study, based on the logistic regression consanguineous marriage with OR of 9.862 (4.221; 23.041), P= <0.001, familial congenital anomalies in the family with OR of 17.008 (4.343; 66.606), P=0.001, an anaemic mother with OR of .124 (.029; .538). P = .005, Apgar score with .033 (.016: .067), P-value of <0.001 and paternal smoking with OR of 13.305 (5.558: 31.854) with P value of <0.001 had shown a very good significant correlation with the congenital anomalies.
Conclusion: The occurrence and distribution of congenital anomalies in Ladakh were reported. More active prenatal screening and the possible role of genomics study are major importance to uncovering the susceptibilities.


Yogesh Mishra; Sk Hasane Ahammad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 2609-2414

Mankind's history is watching an abnormal time battling an imperceptible foe; the novel COVID-19 coronavirus. At first, I saw in the Wuhan area of China, presently fastly spreading the world over. SARS-CoV-2 is a new virus responsible for an outbreak of respiratory illness known as COVID-19, which has spread to several countries around the world. There is no specific treatment for disease caused by a novel coronavirus. However, many of the symptoms can be treated and therefore, treatment based on the patient's clinical condition. The specific manifestations incorporate fever, hack, weariness, pneumonia, migraine, the runs, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive estimates, aimed at example, covers, hand cleanliness rehearses, evasion of open contact, case identification, contact following, then isolates remain compelling aimed at diminishing the transmission. Until this point in time, no particular antiviral treatment is demonstrated powerful. Thus, contaminated individuals principally depend on symptomatic treatment and substantial consideration. Even though these investigations had significance towards control an open crisis, more research should be led to give significant & dependable approaches to deal with this sort of general wellbeing crisis in both short-and long haul.

Improving the epidemiology, epizootology, and prevention of echinococcosis in Uzbekistan

Sh.M. Rasulov; G.S. Matnazarova; A. Mirtazayev; N.T. Xamzayeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3029-3052

Echinococcus (Echinococcus granulosus) is a parasitic disease
that occurs in some mammals and humans, is transmitted orally, infects human
parenchymal organs (liver, lungs, spleen, and various other organs), and is
chronic, causing echinococcal vomiting. The Republic of Uzbekistan is an
endemic area for echinococcosis. According to official data, the damage rate is
6-9 people per 100,000 population. The number of surgeries performed
annually due to echinococcosis ranges from 1,000 to 1,500. The article
provides an analysis of the prevalence of echinococcosis among humans and
animals, the long-term (1994-2019) dynamics of echinococcosis among the
population of the Republic of Uzbekistan, routes of transmission, infectious
factors, epidemiological and epizootiological features.

Knowledge, Awareness And Risk Factors Of Childhood Obesity Among Adolescent Population In Chennai - A Survey Based Analysis

Jagadheeswari Ramamoorthy; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Geo Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3156-3174

IntroductionChildhood obesity is termed as excess body fat accumulation which negatively affects a child's health or well-being. As methods to work out body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is usually supported by BMI. A Body mass Index of 30 or more is considered as obesity. Children are considered to be obese if they are above the normal weight for their height in relation to their age. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle income countries. The rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects it's being recognized as a significant public health concern. AimThe aim of this study is to assess the Knowledge, awareness and risk factors of childhood obesity among the adolescent population.
Materials and MethodThis is a survey based study and was conducted on an online forum, Survey Planet with a sample of 100 participants .Adolescents of age group between 10-21 participated in the study. A questionnaire with 10 questions was circulated among the Chennai population. The responses were collected. The data was summarised as the number and percentage and analysed using SPSS.Chi square test was done and a P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
ResultsIn this survey, we observed that 29% of them consider their current weight to be harmful for their health. 40% of them check their weight regularly. Half of the population were aware that chronic stress can lead to weight gain. Only 41% of the participants have the habit of exercising regularly. 67% of the participants were aware of the complications of obesity. Among all the respondents 28% of them had a family history of obesity.
ConclusionWithin the limits of this survey, we can conclude that awareness on childhood obesity is present among the adolescent population. Females were more aware of Childhood obesity than males. However regular exercise and healthy diet is essential to maintain a healthy weight and prevent obesity.


T. Santhosh; Jayanth kumar Vadivel; Sankari malaiappan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1547-1554

Oral Lichen Planus(OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease which has potential to transform into a malignancy mainly into squamous cell carcinoma. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence of erosive OLP among all OLP cases in a particular ethinic group of people. Materials and method :Data retrieved was from 86000 case sheets from saveetha dental college. The case sheets showed 94 patients with OLP. Most of the patients were in the age group of 50-60 years with a female predominance. 48 patients were erosive OLP variant. A chi square analysis showed erosive OLP had a tendency to occur more in the buccal mucosa(p<0.05). A chi square analysis to compare gender was not significant(p>0.05) This study shows that there is more prevalence of erosive OLP with a female predominance and affecting the buccal mucoa.

Epidemiological study of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant woman and their neonates; report of thirteen confirmed COVID-19 pregnant women

Alireza Kamali; Behnam Mahmodiyeh; Amir Almasi-Hashiani; Morteza Mousavi Hasanzadeh; Maryam Shokrpour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4455-4461

Background: In new pandemic, the probable effects of COVID-19 pneumonia on pregnant woman and their infant is one of new critical challenge for health care. Here we presented clinical symptoms, laboratory findings and outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant woman. Methods: In a case series study, from 15 Feb to 15 June 2020, all women with RT-PCR COVID-19 who referred to two hospitals (Taleghani and Qods Hospital) affiliated to Arak University of Medical Sciences were selected. The epidemiological and demographic variables, laboratory test and outcomes obtained from patient’s medical records. Results: In this case series, we presented thirteen confirmed COVID-19 pregnant women. Their mean age was 34.6 (S.D.: 5.9) years and the mean gestational age was 32.4 (S.D.: 7.3) weeks. Most of patient didn’t show any maternal complication and intrauterine vertical transmission. The large number of pregnant women had normal HRCT and also in terms of laboratory most of the patients had normal laboratory tests. Amniotic fluids, cord blood, the throat swab of neonate in our pregnant woman with delivery were tested for COVID-19 and all of them were negative. Conclusion: The COVID-19 mothers and their infant didn’t have higher risk for morbidity and mortality and this virus didn’t associate with intrauterine vertical transmission.