Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : epidemiology

Staphylococcus aureus: An Overview of Discovery, Characteristics, Epidemiology, Virulence Factors and Antimicrobial Sensitivity

Narin A Rasheed; Nawfal R Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1160-1183

Staphylococcus aureus is an important infectious pathogen in health sector and communities. S. aureus was first described by the Scottish surgeon Alexander Ogaston in surgical abscess in 1881. It causes various infections ranged between simple to life threating infections. Owing potent toxins and other virulence factors enabled the bacteria to be very virulent. Additionally, acquisition of antimicrobial resistant genes increased the challenge in treating the infections caused by bacteria especially methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) that are often multidrug resistant strains. The circulation of MRSA between health settings and communities resulted in changing even the genetic map for the strains in both places. Vancomycin was used for years and still acts as the drug of choice for treating MRSA infections but recently the resistance to vancomycin has risen and vancomycin resistant S. aureus were recorded. Consequently, different regimes were used like combination of antibiotics to reduce the resistance rate to antibiotics if they were used as a single drug and practiced the control measures at health settings to reduce the spread of MRSA strains. At last, global health organizations call for research and finding new antibiotics agents and put MRSA on the top list of infectious agents that need more antibiotics.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Congenital Anomalies among the sick neonates of the Ladakh region of India

Mohd Murtaza; MdNiamat Ali; MahrukhHameed Zargar; Oliyath Ali

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1083-1092

Congenital anomalies are the structural and functional irregularities at birth. In this progressive study, all the neonates who are admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit during the three year period from 1st June 2017 to 31 May 2020.
Aim: The study aims to examine the prevalence, type, and epidemiological factors of congenital anomalies among the population of Ladakh India.
Subject and methods: All the neonates during the study period were examined by pediatrics and questionnaire filled by the consent of the family. A total of 936 parents of neonates was agreed to participate in this study and among them, 524 are male neonate and 412 was female.
Results: Four and a half percent were diagnosed as being congenital malformed and the common system affected by congenital anomalies in the digestive system followed by the mucso-skeletal system. In this study, based on the logistic regression consanguineous marriage with OR of 9.862 (4.221; 23.041), P= <0.001, familial congenital anomalies in the family with OR of 17.008 (4.343; 66.606), P=0.001, an anaemic mother with OR of .124 (.029; .538). P = .005, Apgar score with .033 (.016: .067), P-value of <0.001 and paternal smoking with OR of 13.305 (5.558: 31.854) with P value of <0.001 had shown a very good significant correlation with the congenital anomalies.
Conclusion: The occurrence and distribution of congenital anomalies in Ladakh were reported. More active prenatal screening and the possible role of genomics study are major importance to uncovering the susceptibilities.


Yogesh Mishra; Sk Hasane Ahammad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 2609-2414

Mankind's history is watching an abnormal time battling an imperceptible foe; the novel COVID-19 coronavirus. At first, I saw in the Wuhan area of China, presently fastly spreading the world over. SARS-CoV-2 is a new virus responsible for an outbreak of respiratory illness known as COVID-19, which has spread to several countries around the world. There is no specific treatment for disease caused by a novel coronavirus. However, many of the symptoms can be treated and therefore, treatment based on the patient's clinical condition. The specific manifestations incorporate fever, hack, weariness, pneumonia, migraine, the runs, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive estimates, aimed at example, covers, hand cleanliness rehearses, evasion of open contact, case identification, contact following, then isolates remain compelling aimed at diminishing the transmission. Until this point in time, no particular antiviral treatment is demonstrated powerful. Thus, contaminated individuals principally depend on symptomatic treatment and substantial consideration. Even though these investigations had significance towards control an open crisis, more research should be led to give significant & dependable approaches to deal with this sort of general wellbeing crisis in both short-and long haul.

Improving the epidemiology, epizootology, and prevention of echinococcosis in Uzbekistan

Sh.M. Rasulov; G.S. Matnazarova; A. Mirtazayev; N.T. Xamzayeva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 3029-3052

Echinococcus (Echinococcus granulosus) is a parasitic disease
that occurs in some mammals and humans, is transmitted orally, infects human
parenchymal organs (liver, lungs, spleen, and various other organs), and is
chronic, causing echinococcal vomiting. The Republic of Uzbekistan is an
endemic area for echinococcosis. According to official data, the damage rate is
6-9 people per 100,000 population. The number of surgeries performed
annually due to echinococcosis ranges from 1,000 to 1,500. The article
provides an analysis of the prevalence of echinococcosis among humans and
animals, the long-term (1994-2019) dynamics of echinococcosis among the
population of the Republic of Uzbekistan, routes of transmission, infectious
factors, epidemiological and epizootiological features.


T. Santhosh; Jayanth kumar Vadivel; Sankari malaiappan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1547-1554

Oral Lichen Planus(OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease which has potential to transform into a malignancy mainly into squamous cell carcinoma. This study was done to evaluate the prevalence of erosive OLP among all OLP cases in a particular ethinic group of people. Materials and method :Data retrieved was from 86000 case sheets from saveetha dental college. The case sheets showed 94 patients with OLP. Most of the patients were in the age group of 50-60 years with a female predominance. 48 patients were erosive OLP variant. A chi square analysis showed erosive OLP had a tendency to occur more in the buccal mucosa(p<0.05). A chi square analysis to compare gender was not significant(p>0.05) This study shows that there is more prevalence of erosive OLP with a female predominance and affecting the buccal mucoa.

Knowledge, Awareness And Risk Factors Of Childhood Obesity Among Adolescent Population In Chennai - A Survey Based Analysis

Jagadheeswari Ramamoorthy; Karthik Ganesh Mohanraj; Geo Mani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3156-3174

IntroductionChildhood obesity is termed as excess body fat accumulation which negatively affects a child's health or well-being. As methods to work out body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is usually supported by BMI. A Body mass Index of 30 or more is considered as obesity. Children are considered to be obese if they are above the normal weight for their height in relation to their age. The problem is global and is steadily affecting many low and middle income countries. The rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects it's being recognized as a significant public health concern. AimThe aim of this study is to assess the Knowledge, awareness and risk factors of childhood obesity among the adolescent population.
Materials and MethodThis is a survey based study and was conducted on an online forum, Survey Planet with a sample of 100 participants .Adolescents of age group between 10-21 participated in the study. A questionnaire with 10 questions was circulated among the Chennai population. The responses were collected. The data was summarised as the number and percentage and analysed using SPSS.Chi square test was done and a P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
ResultsIn this survey, we observed that 29% of them consider their current weight to be harmful for their health. 40% of them check their weight regularly. Half of the population were aware that chronic stress can lead to weight gain. Only 41% of the participants have the habit of exercising regularly. 67% of the participants were aware of the complications of obesity. Among all the respondents 28% of them had a family history of obesity.
ConclusionWithin the limits of this survey, we can conclude that awareness on childhood obesity is present among the adolescent population. Females were more aware of Childhood obesity than males. However regular exercise and healthy diet is essential to maintain a healthy weight and prevent obesity.


Obuli Ganesh Kishore. S; Jothi Priya. A,; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2248-2254

There is a rapid surge in research in response to the outbreak of COVID-19 which has taken the lives of many people.A detailed structured review of the corona virus could bring about any development in the field of research concerning the discovery of vaccines it treatment methods for COVID-19.Another virus called the Hanta virus that had originated in China was another pandemic which was controlled in the initial stages itself. Different articles and research journals were selected, analysed and computed for better understanding. The collection and analysis of data was done in the year 2020. A review of the epidemiology,clinical features,diagnosis,symptoms and treatment of corona virus and Hantavirus could help in advancements in its field of research. Also the comparison of economical impacts in the world during the pandemic virus attack can also be helpful to be economically prepared to face the crisis and reduce the chaos. But certain limitations that come across in this review had to be rectified for a proper result.But this review can be used for any quick reference regarding these deadly viruses.

Epidemiological study of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant woman and their neonates; report of thirteen confirmed COVID-19 pregnant women

Alireza Kamali; Behnam Mahmodiyeh; Amir Almasi-Hashiani; Morteza Mousavi Hasanzadeh; Maryam Shokrpour

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 4455-4461

Background: In new pandemic, the probable effects of COVID-19 pneumonia on pregnant woman and their infant is one of new critical challenge for health care. Here we presented clinical symptoms, laboratory findings and outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant woman. Methods: In a case series study, from 15 Feb to 15 June 2020, all women with RT-PCR COVID-19 who referred to two hospitals (Taleghani and Qods Hospital) affiliated to Arak University of Medical Sciences were selected. The epidemiological and demographic variables, laboratory test and outcomes obtained from patient’s medical records. Results: In this case series, we presented thirteen confirmed COVID-19 pregnant women. Their mean age was 34.6 (S.D.: 5.9) years and the mean gestational age was 32.4 (S.D.: 7.3) weeks. Most of patient didn’t show any maternal complication and intrauterine vertical transmission. The large number of pregnant women had normal HRCT and also in terms of laboratory most of the patients had normal laboratory tests. Amniotic fluids, cord blood, the throat swab of neonate in our pregnant woman with delivery were tested for COVID-19 and all of them were negative. Conclusion: The COVID-19 mothers and their infant didn’t have higher risk for morbidity and mortality and this virus didn’t associate with intrauterine vertical transmission.