Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Iraq

Public knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the coronavirus disease pandemic: a cross-sectional study in the Kurdistan region, Iraq

Ibrahim A. Naqid; Basheer A. Abdi; Nashwan Ibrahim; Dildar H Musa; Zana Sidiq M. Saleem; Ahmed Mohammed Chafrash; Nawfal R. Hussein; Kurdistan A. Saeed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1148-1161

Background/Objectives: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging viral respiratory disease
that has currently reached apandemic status.This study aimed to assessCOVID-19 knowledge,
attitudes, and practices among the Kurdishpopulation in Iraq.
Methods: This cross-sectional studywas conducted fromJuly 15 to September 15, 2020 among the
Kurdish population in Iraq. A total of 885 subjects were interviewed. All subjects were aged 15–75
years. Knowledgescores, attitudes, and practices of subjects were analyzed according to demographic
Results:The study subjects were largely male,the average age was31.79 years,and 41.92% subjects
were from Erbil province. Approximately 85.31% subjectshad enhancedknowledge regarding disease
prevention and control. The lowest subscale scores were related toclinical manifestations of the
disease. Knowledge scores were significantly associated with age, place of current residence, and
level of education.A large number of participants believed COVID-19 would be controlled and the
fight against the pandemic would be won.Subjects’ attitudes toward success differedsignificantly by
demographic characteristics, except marital status. Approximately 40.03% subjects reported that they
had not visited a crowded place, and 60.22% of these subjects wore face masks when leaving home.

Prevalence Of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis In Al-Najaf / Iraq

Muna Hashim Ghezzai; Khalida Kadim Abbas; Emad Sad iq Ali AL-Hilli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 476-485

Cutaneous leishmaniasis, is a diseases transmitted by sand-flies, which infect both genders and all age groups; the study was conducted in Al-Najaf /Iraq, during the period (September 2018 - April 2019). Data collected from four Hospitals (Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital, Al-Hakeem Teaching Hospital, Al-Forat Teaching Hospital and Al-Sajad Teaching Hospital). Data included 321 patients of both genders aged (≤10- ≥51),from urban and rural areas and different occupations; infection was Clinically examined by a physician (skin specialist).The results recorded high rate of infection with cutaneous leishmaniasis during the period of the study, in January reaching to 26.7 % ,While it was less in April 7.7 %, with a statistical significance between months of the study, also results indicated that the highest infection was in age range (11-21 ) year old reach to 7.7 according to age groups. Also the results showed the high rate of infection in males reaching to 9.3 as compared in females, with statistical significance between age groups and gender. The results showed that the highest incidence was 33% on the patients’ hands, multiple lesions more than single lesion, with significant differences between number and location of lesions on the patient's body. In the present study, the results state that leishmaniasis is prevalent in rural (54.3%) more than in urban areas (45.7 %.), also the military is more susceptible to infect with leishmaniasis .As compared with other occupations with significant differences between rural and urban areas as well as different occupations.

Knowledge about Covid-19: Sample From Iraqi People

Sahar Abdul-Hassan Al- Shatari; Hassan HadiBaker Al kazza

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 185-197

Good knowledge about Covid-19 transmission and nature prevents transmission of microorganisms and reduces the incidence of Covid-19 in the community. To assess knowledge of Iraqi people about covid-19&to find the source of information about covid-19. Method: Cross-sectional study was done from 1stJune-1stJuly 2020, by electronic version of questionnaire through Google-form. Any Iraqi adult can read Arabic and use the internet media (e-mails, telegram, viber, whatsapp, Facebook) or by hand to hand as hard-copy, and accepted to answer the questionnaire through friend, friend of friend, relatives, work colleagues with A Brief message.Analysed by SPSS ver. 23, frequencies and percentages calculated. The study revealed enrolling of 700 Iraqi people from difference part of Iraq and difference were participant in it, the main age of them 230(32.9%) aged 20-29 years old, females 416(59.4%), complete secondary school388(55.4%), near 60% of them working in non-medical field, and governmental employee 364(52.0%), and there-residency in Baghdad city 457(65%), followed by holly-Karbala 8%, and bible 4%, good knowledgein prevention of Covid-19 transmission, Strength the immunity against covid-19 infection and its complication, and the Overall knowledge appear as good 691(99%) the Internet is the major source of the information about the covid-19; 568(81.1%). Conclusion: most of participants had good knowledge in prevention and strength the immunity and vaccination of covid 19, and the main source of information is the internet then TV & radio.


Nooralhudaa Saadon Khalaf; Hasan Ismail Sultan; Ammar Lateef Hussein

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 1275-1282

Background: World Health Organization declared the COVID 19 epidemic as a
public health emergency of international concern. COVID 19 pandemic strain
health systems worldwide.
Objective: to show the characteristics of COVID 19 infection in in Samara General
Hospital, Salahaddin Province, Iraq.
Patients and Methods: this study includes 150 symptomatic patients who attend
Samara General Hospital during the period from August to October 2020. COVID
19 infection was confirmed by PCR testing.
Results: The mean age of patients was 42.4±14.3 years. The disease commonly
affected male patients (66%). The most common symptom at the time of
presentation of patients with COVID19 infection in this study were fever (90%),
cough (86.7%), fatigue (81.3%), hyposmia (80%), sweating (78.7%), Hypogeusia
(76.7%), chills (65.3%), sputum (59.3%), headache (54.7%), anorexia (52%), and
dyspnea (39.3%). Moreover, there were significant differences among mild,
moderate and severe cases regarding oxygen saturation, ESR and alanine
aminotransferase level.
Conclusion: COVID 19 infection is higher among young adults’ patients.
Hyposmia and hypogeusia are important associated symptoms. The risk factors of
severe illness include age of patients over 40 years, hypoxemia, and elevated ESR
and ALT levels.

Evaluation of Career Goals among Iraqi Pharmacy Students

Fadia Thamir Ahmed; Abeer K. Jumaa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1456-1465

Objective: To evaluate pharmacy students' inspiration to study pharmacy, their perspective regarding future jobs and the factors affecting their decisions.
Methods: Fifth and fourth year pharmacy students were administered the study survey consisting of 4 parts. Descriptive statistics for categorical variables, Man-Whitney test for continuous variables and Chi-square test to check the difference between the two groups were made.
Results: Total of 380 students included in the study. About two thirds of each group expressed their consideration for the university level, their interest in healthcare and pharmacy when they select to join the pharmacy college. Approximately 90 % of both groups stated that they have a desire for working in hospital or community pharmacies after graduation. They also tagged salary, work schedule, benefits and environment as the factors with the greater impact on their decisions. Overall, a non significant difference between the groups was found.
Conclusion: The appropriate university selection and students' interest in pharmacy and healthcare were the major reasons for choosing pharmacy as a career. Community pharmacy and hospital pharmacy were the most common future jobs to be considered after graduation. Salary was the factor with the greater impact from the students' perspectives.


Dr . Ahmed Abdulameer Ibrahim M . B . Ch . B; Dr . Jawad K . al-Diwan MBChB, MSs, DCN , FIBMS , FFPH.; Dr . Riyadh Al-Rudainy , MB , FICMS / CM3

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 366-374

This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distinguish kinds and related factors
of Mental Disorders among elderly people attending Geriatric Clinic, Baghdad, Iraq.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study conducted and a systematic random sampling technique
was used to select 320 elderly people. We collected data on basic demographics and associated
risk factors using a questionnaire filled through self-reported questionnaire. Mental disorders
(MDs) were defined according to Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) with a cutoff score
of 20+. Accredited tools used by WHO were utilized to identify mental disorders kinds. Results:
The prevalence of MDs in the study sample was 24.4%. The prevalence of MDs types were:
Depression 16.6%, anxiety 12.8%, dementia 5.3%, substance abuse 2.5%, suicide thoughts
5.6%, and suicide attempts 2.5%. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the
determinant factors of elderly MDs revealed the following significant factors: Aging, smokers,
living depends on others, loneliness and social isolation, visual impairment, economic state
deterioration, neglect and mishandling, and chronic diseases are the determinant factors of
elderly MDs. Conclusions: Mental disorders are wide spread among elderly people and
enhanced elderly mental health care services should be provided

Molecular Detection of Mouse Mammary Tumor-like Virus (MMTV-Like) in Breast Carcinoma for Iraqi Female Patients

Hasan A. Mohammed; Müge Fırat; Mohammed E. Mansur

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 1533-1566

Background: The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like env gene have
previously been reported to be present in some human breast cancers, however, their
role in developing that cancers is still unclear.
Aim: This study aims to investigate the presence of MMTV-like env gene among
Iraqi women who have breast cancers.
Methods: The prevalence of MMTV-like env gene and beta-globulin gene in
formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast tissue specimens of 88 Iraqi women
with breast cancers was detected using conventional PCR and Real- Time techniques.
Eight benign breast tumors’ specimens were also used as controls. Fisher’s exact test
was used to analyse data.
Results: MMTV-like env gene were detected in 16 (18.8%) specimens of those with
breast malignancies, while they were not identified in benign breast tumors
specimens. However, no significant difference between two groups was noted.
Conclusion: MMTV-like env and beta-globin genes were detected in Iraqi women
with breast cancer, and further research is needed to study the role and association of
these env gene with cancer development.

Molecular And Diagnostic Study Of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Species By Nested-PCR Technique In Babylon Province/ Iraq

Iman K. Kadhim; Prof. Dr.Maher A. Al-Quraishi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1190-1198

The study included identification of Leishmania parasite from cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis, by examination of smears from patients and Nested-PCR technique ,Out of 215 cases suspected for cutaneous leishmaniasis included (61) pus and (178) tissue these pus sample were diagnosed by direct smear method to see the Amastgote phase .The cases included in this study belonged to some hospitals in the Babylon as Morjan Medical City Hospital (24) , Musayyib General Hospital(17), Thu Al-Kifl General Hospital (29) and Hashimyah General Hospital(145), during the period from (October 2019 to March 2020). According to stain results,(60.6%) from the (61) total pus sample cases were positive to giemsa stain and after that used the DNA extraction from total number (215) sample in Nested–PCR and the results appear in percent (82.7%) ,these percent divided in to (20.7%) to Leishmania. Tropica and (79.2%) to Leishmania. Major. The study aimed to detection of Leishmania species in Babylon province

Symptomatic COVID-19 Cases Admitted to Al Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital, Mid Euphrates Region of Iraq till May 2020

Hassan Raji Jallab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 121-124

Background: People all over the world were alarmed on February 2020 by the Wuhan
lock down, a Chinese big city, because of the discovery of a new coronavirus with a
major health threat. The virus was initially named 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),
but now is known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-
2).Until February 27th 2020, the virus has infected more than 82,294 and has caused
fatality in 2,804 cases.
Aim of the study: The current study was aiming at evaluating the clinical outcome of a
sample of symptomatic patients with COVID-19 admitted to Al-Diwaniyah teaching
hospital at Al-Diwaniyah Province in the mid-Euphrates region of Iraq.
Patients and methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Al-Diwaniyah
teaching hospital at Al-Diwaniyah Province in the mid-Euphrates region of Iraq during the
period extending from February the 2nd 2020 till May the 2nd 2020. The study included 11
patients, 6 males and 5 females with an age range of 19 to 60 years.
Results: The rage range was between 19 and 60 years. The study included 6 males and
5 females. All patients were from urban areas. The major manifestations reported in all
cases were fever, headache and upper respiratory tract symptoms followed by sudden
attack of shortness of breath with 5-7 days. Various occupations were reported such as
students, housewife, self employee, employee and retried. The outcome was cure in 5
cases. Five cases are still under clinical observation and supportive measures till now.
One case fatality was observed and he was a 60 years old male with bronchogenic
Conclusion: Symptomatic cases are low in number in our province and cure is the main
outcome however mortality is expected even with respiratory support at intensive care