Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : blood

“Seroprevalence of Transfusion-Transmitted Infections in Donors”

Devendra singh , Navneet Kumar , Vikas Tiwari .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 32-40

Transfusion-transmitted infections threaten the safety of patients who require a blood transfusion, which in turn imposes serious challenges for the availability of safe blood products that are still affordable in healthcare systems with limited resources.
Aim of the study
The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections in blood donors at TMU Blood Bank and access the level of safety.
A laboratory-based descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2022 to Dec 2022. A qualitative study was carried out to access serological analysis of replacement and voluntary donors at TMU Blood Bank. The total number of donors screened during this period was 776. The donors were requested to fill out a detailed questionnaire and were screened for HIV, HBV, HCV, and Syphilis with a rapid immune-chromatographic kit. The results were expressed in tables and figures.
Out of 776 donors, 676(98.7%) were replacement and only 10(1.29%) were voluntary donors. Male donors were predominant constituting 676(87.12%) and only 100 (12.88%) female donors. The seroprevalence of TTIs in the present study was 1.42%. Syphilis (0.77%) was the most prevalent TTI followed by HBV (0.51%). A low prevalence of HCV (0.13%) was found and HIV was not detected in any donors in the present study. The highest prevalence of TTIs was observed in the young age group of 18-25 years followed by 26-40 years.

To Study The Seroprevalence Of Transfusion Transmitted Infections Amongst Blood Donor

Dr. Reena Agarwal, Dr. Sonu Jain, Dr. Surbhi Solanki .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2023, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 5117-5122

Aim: To study the seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infections amongst blood donors.
Materials and Method: This particular research was a hospital-based cross-sectional investigation. There were a total of one thousand donors involved in the research project, including both voluntary and replacement donors. Donors who agreed to have their blood drawn were chosen for the procedure in accordance with the blood bank's regular operating procedure. A thorough history and examination of the patient were performed. Participants comprised only healthy replacement and voluntary donors who had passed the health screening. In accordance with established procedures, this serum was analysed for the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV, Syphilis, and Malaria.
Result: Replacement donors accounted for 910 (91%) of the total blood donors, while voluntary donors made up the remaining 9% of the total. Out of a total of 1000 blood units that were examined, there were 50 that tested positive for a transfusion-transmitted infection (TTI), which resulted in a prevalence rate of 5%. There were a total of 50 seropositive units, 45 of which came from replacement donors (4.94%), while the remaining 5 units (5.56%) came from volunteer donors. The seroprevalence for HIV, HBV, and HCV were respectively 0.20%, 1.50%, and 2.20%, while the seroprevalence for syphilis was 1.10%.
Conclusion: Following the implementation of required testing of blood units, a discernible trend towards a declining incidence of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) has been seen. Despite this, it is possible that the danger may not be eradicated since the donors may still be in the window period and have the ability to spread the virus.

Microbial strain pattern in blood and urine and their sensitivity to drugs with patients on mechanical ventilation

Dr. Jagdish Lal Wadhwani, Dr. Anil Sejwar, Dr. Aman Pandey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9732-9738

Patients admitted to intensive care units have been found to experience HAIs at a rate 5-10 times higher than patients treated to normal wards. The present study was conducted to find microbial strain pattern in blood and urine and their sensitivity to drugs with patients on mechanical ventilation.
Materials & Methods: 100 patients between the age of 18 to 65 years on mechanical ventilation of both genders in the department of Medicine, Gandhi Medical College and associated Hamidia Hospital, Bhopal were recruited. Parameters such as TLCs, neutrophil counts and lymphocyte counts were recorded. Micro-organism in Blood and urine was calculated. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern was also recorded.
Results: Majority of the patients in our study was male (72%) as compared to female (28%). The mean age of the study participants was 50.60+19.22 years. The mean TLCs, Neutrophil counts and Lymphocyte counts were 9411+3522, 63.79+4.6 and 33.11+4.86 respectively. The most common microorganism isolated from blood was MRSA (5%), acinetobacter (4%), citro (2%) and pseudomonas (1%). In terms of antibiotic sensitivity of blood sample samples, majority of the patients had bacteriological profile resistant to ciprofloxacin (80%), penicillin (80%), teicoplanin (80%), vancomycin (80%), Amikacin (80%)cefozitin (70%), cotrimoxazole (60%), Clindamycin (50%), doxycyclin (50%), Linezolid (50%), Amoxiclav (50%) and piptaz (50%). The most common microorganisms isolated from urine were E coli (6%), enterococcus (4%), MRSA (2%) klebsiella sp. (2%), citro (2%) and acinetobacter (1%). Majority of the bacterial isolates from urine sample were resistant to ampicillin (58.8%), cefotaxime (58.8%), ceftriaxone (52.9%), ciprofloxacin (52.9%), ceftazidime (52.9%), cefepime (47.1%) and penicillin (35.3%), Linezolid (35.3%), gentamicin (35.3%) and cotrimoxazole (35.3%), Clindamycin (35.3%), ciprofloxacin (35.3%), azithromycin (35.3%) and cefozitin (35.3%).
Conclusion: The most common microorganisms isolated from urine were E coli. Majority of the bacterial isolates from urine sample were resistant to ampicillin.


Dr Pallavi Priya,Dr. Deepika Khurana,Dr. Gauri bhatia

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 676-685

The rapid spread of the COVID-19virus and related pneumonia has posed a major challenge for
healthcare systems worldwide. The infection was discovered in the city of Wuhan, Central of
China and swept across the world.Theincubation period of the viruscan range from 1–14 days,
and the virus spread can happen in the absence of clinical symptoms as well.The most frequently
reported symptoms are fever, cough, dyspnea, and myalgia or fatigue. Modes for transmission of
virus include direct transmission through coughing,sneezing, and inhalation of droplets and
contact transmission through contact with nasal, oral, and ocular mucosa. Droplet and aerosol
transmission of the virus are the most common causes of COVID-19 infection in dental clinics
and hospitals.COVID-19 virus has lately been detected in saliva of infected patients, thus posing
an alert to health professionals to be customarily vigilant in protecting against the infectious
disease spread. Because of the presence of virus in saliva, it may be helpful as a non-invasive
tool in the rapid detection of the virus.During this pandemic dissemination of COVID-19, dental
treatment must be confined to the procedures that cannot be deferred. All the precautions must be
taken in terms of triaging, personal protective equipment, hand hygiene, pre-procedural
mouthrinse, use of rubber dam, disinfection of the surfaces. Dental professionals are at the
highest risk of COVID-19 infection; hence, dental practicehas to be reorganized in order to
ensure higher safety standards for both dentists and patients.

Performance Of The Interferon Gamma Release Assays In Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients In An Urban Metropolis

Ms.Anusha Murali , Dr. Anand Thirupathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2915-2923

Interferon Gamma Release Assays (IGRAs) were developed for the indirect or immunologic diagnosis of tuberculosis infection; however, they have also been used to assist in difficult to diagnose cases of tuberculosis disease in adults, and to a lesser extent, in children, especially in those under 5 years old. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)-positive rates and false-positive rates among the five age groups examined. Both rates were significantly different among age groups (all p-values <0.001). p-values were obtained by chi-square tests for trend. Interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA)-positive rates among the four anatomic types of uveitis and between patients with and without retinal vasculitis. The IGRA-positive rates were significantly different among the four anatomic groups (p = 0.001). Patients with retinal vasculitis had higher positive IGRA rate (p < 0.001) than those without retinal vasculitis. p-values were obtained using chi-square tests.

A Soul of No Importance and Her Resurgence: Stephen King’s Outrageous Carrie White

S. Sivaranjani; E. Sugantha Ezhil Mary

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1229-1232

This paper deals with analysis of the eponymous character of Carrie, one of the best characters crafted by Stephen King. Despite the success of the novel, Carrie received and still received negative remarks for the portrayal of the lead in a misogynistic manner and usage of genderbiased language. Whereas King magnifies only the position of a young girl; the deft handling of supernatural elements (telekinesis) in Carrie gives wings to her liberation thus keeping an end to her powerlessness despite possessing such an unearthly enormous power

Correction OfEnergy Deficiency Condition In Calves With Prenatal Hypotrophy

Sergey Shabunin; Dmitry Savrasov; Yury Vatnikov; Eugeny Kulikov; Irina Bondareva; Elena Notina; Irina Bykova; Arfenia Karamyan; Olesya Petrukhina; Galina Frolova; Inna Pronina

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1878-1889

The body of calves has high lability, the formation of its resistance and adaptive abilities are most expedient in the early stages of ontogenesis, but if the feeding, care, and maintenance conditions do not meet the requirements of the organism, animals are forced to adapt to these conditions, primarily due to increased energy costs. At the same time, the processes of all links of the metabolism are disturbed and the resistance to diseases decreases. The article presents the classification of antenatal hypotrophy of calves based on the criteria for assessing the state of clinical and zootechnical status and changes in the morphological and biochemical parameters of the blood of sick animals. A method for correcting the energy status of newborn calves with prenatal hypotrophy using carnitine chloride is described. Antenatal malnutrition is the pathology of the fetus, manifested by a violation of its development and arising as a pathophysiological reaction to an inadequate supply of the fetus with oxygen, nutritional and biologically active substances, or in violation of their digestibility. A comparative study of the effectiveness of the correction of metabolic disorders in calves with postnatal hypotrophy with a 10% solution of the transmitochondrial fatty acid transporter carnitine chloride at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day was carried out. The material for the study was the Holstein-Friesian calves from birth to 14 days. All calves were similar in age, body weight and were in the same conditions of housing, feeding, and care. Calves with signs of prenatal malnutrition were divided into 2 groups: experimental and control 6 animals each. The use of a 10% solution of carnitine chloride in hypotrophic calves restores the level of glucose, the main source of energy in the body, and inorganic phosphorus used for various phosphorylation processes to form adenosine triphosphate (ATP), stabilizes anabolic, transport, and catabolic processes, which together alleviate the condition of the newborn's body young with malnutrition. The recommended therapeutic approach leads to the stabilization of the energy-deficient state by optimizing the hemorrhological composition of the blood, the glucose content of the basic energy source in the body, and inorganic phosphorus used for various phosphorylation processes, reducing stress in the anaerobic metabolism system and forming reserve macroergic substrates. The implemented therapeutic measures allow, in the body of calves-hypotrophic, to restore nutritional status.

Drug Resistance Patterns Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis From Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients In An Urban Metropolis

Ms.Anusha Murali , Dr. Anand Thirupathi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 6064-6074

Tuberculosis is a matter of concern for all countries. Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the major global health threats leading to morbidity and mortality. One in three persons across the world representing 2–3 billion individuals are known to be infected with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M. Tuberculosis) of which 5–15% are likely to develop active TB disease during their lifetime.Information of the pattern of drug resistant among the tuberculosis is crucial in developing countries. Therefore, this study aims to assess the drug resistance pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and associated factors among the patients. This study selected 934 culture-positive sputum samples referred to the National Reference Laboratory of the Research Institute for Pulmonology in Thanjavur from January 2015 to January 2018 were analysed; 40% of these samples were obtained from Tb Sanatorium, Sengipattipatients (hospitalized in `Sengipatti) and 60% from other regions (hospitalized in Minsk and other regions) equal to patient’s population in the regions.All 934 cases were subjected to a drug-resistance test. The anti-microbial drug susceptibility tests (DST) were performed using the WHO standard conventional proportional method. The Preferable First Line Drugs were INH 1mcg/ml, RIF40 mcg/ml, Ethambutol (EMB) 2 mcg/ml, and Streptomycin (SM) 10 mcg/ml on slants with the H37Rv strain of MTB as the positive control. Furthermore, MDR isolates were tested for resistance to fluoroquinolones and three injectable drugs (Amikacin 8 mcg/ml, Kanamycin 30 mcg/ml, and Capreomycin 8mcg/ml) for detection of XDR isolates.