Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : type 2 diabetes mellitus


A study of TMT in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dr. Rajashree Ampar Nataraj, Dr. Prathibha Vasu, Dr. Parashuram, Dr. BR Shivakumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3058-3062

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is more common in diabetics and is the leading cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes and is often asymptomatic because of silent myocardial ischemia. It has been recognized for several decades that diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. About three-quarters of the cardiovascular deaths from diabetes result from coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease is multifactorial in etiology and has several important risk factors, out of which diabetes is one of the important modifiable risk factor. The patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus without clinical evidence of coronary artery disease attending diabetic clinic, cardiology and medicine OPD, at medical college and hospital were enrolled in the present study. In the present study out of 102 patients, TMT was positive in 32 (31.37%) and negative in 70 (68.63%) patients. TMT was positive in 13/61 (21.31%), 9/27 (33.33%), 7/10 (70%) and 3/4 (75%) patients with duration of diabetes >5, 6 to 10, 1 1 to 15 and 16 to 20 years respectively.

A Study to evaluate the relationship between glycemic control and occurrence of altered thyroid function in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dr. Monika MP, Dr. Prajwal Kumar US

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 425-431

Thyroid hormones affect glucose metabolism through several mechanisms. Hyperthyroidism has been recognized to promote hyperglycemia. During hyperthyroidism, the half-life of insulin is reduced most likely secondary to an increased rate of degradation and an enhanced release of biologically inactive insulin precursors. Randomly selected 100 patients, both male and female with type 2 diabetes mellitus above age of 40 years including newly diagnosed diabetics attending hospital were included in this study. Out of 12 patients 4 patients (33.3%) had systemic hypertension and 1 patient (8.33%) had ischemic heart disease, compared with normal thyroid profile group it is of no statistical significance with P value of 0.896. Comparing mean HbA1C of patients with abnormal thyroid profile with that of patients with normal thyroid profile it has no statistical significance with P value of 0.7944

The clinical profile of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients above age of 40 years

Dr. Monika MP, Dr. Prajwal Kumar US

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 419-424

Diabetes mellitus found to be leading cause of mortality and morbidity in worldwide in the future and it is a predisposing factor for cardiovascular disease. End stage renal disease, adult blindness, lower extremity amputation (non-traumatic) are the leading causes in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common health problems facing mankind and is a major public health problem. Randomly selected 100 patients, both male and female with type 2 diabetes mellitus above age of 40 years including newly diagnosed diabetics attending hospital were included in this study. Among the study group of 100 patients 46% patients had hypertension and 10% had ischemic heart disease. Among the study group of 100 patients 48% had positive family history and 52% had negative family history. Among the study group 100 patients 5% had HbA1C less than 6, 56% had between 6-7.5 and 39% had HbA1C above 7.

Effect of anti-diabetic drugs on central macular thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dr. Sneha Pal, Dr. Priyanka Malik

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 6, Pages 643-647

Aim: To compare central macular thickness (CMT) of diabetic patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy and healthy subjects.
Material & Methods: This is a prospective study, carried out on 92 patients. The patients were divided in to two groups: study group included 50 patients and control group comprised of 42 patients.
Results: The mean HbA1c level was 8.68 ± 2.39% in the study group and 5.10 ± 0.76% in the control group. The mean level of HbA1c was statistically higher in the study group than in the control group (Table 1, P = 0.001). Fasting plasma glucose level was statistically higher in the study group than in the control group (P= 0.001).
Conclusion: Central macular thickness was not significantly thicker in patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical retinopathy than in healthy subjects

A study of Metabolic Profiles in Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Vijaitha SM, Dr. Aparna Varma Bhongir, Sapna Vyakarnam

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 5, Pages 153-159

Background: The most common kind of diabetes in the world is type 2 diabetes mellitus. Most instances in western nations include obesity. The situation can be different in several regions of India. A significant frequency of lean type 2 diabetes mellitus has been noted in studies with a body mass index under 19 kg/m2. To connect biochemical markers with anthropometric measurements and to assess the metabolic state of lean vs. overweight/obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.Materials and Methods: Body mass index (BMI) was used to classify 100 T2DM patients into lean and overweight/obese groups; 50 healthy controls with similar ages and sexes were chosen. BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist:hip ratio (W:H) anthropometric measurements were taken. Fasting blood samples were analysed for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), nonesterified free fatty acids, serum total cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, and triglycerides (NEFA). The Friedewald algorithm was used to compute low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and TG:HDL was evaluated to assess insulin resistance (IR).Results: Compared to lean T2DM and controls, overweight/obese individuals had substantially greater anthropometric parameters of total (BMI 33.22 ±5.9 , 20.35±2.22 vs 21.49±3.88 ) and visceral adiposity (WC 93.42 ±6.4, 76.45±4.14 vs 75.2 ±4.1 and W:H 0.98 ±0.14 , 0.8 ±0.22 vs 0.78±0.32 ). In comparison to controls, T2DM patients had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and NEFA while having lower levels of HDL. However, the values in the overweight/obese group were substantially higher than those in the lean group. Triglycerides: HDL levels were substantially higher in obese individuals compared to lean patients (4.42 ± 1.6 vs 7.88 ± 3.22 ), indicating that obese diabetics had much worse insulin sensitivity than non-obese diabetics. BMI, WC, W:H, TG, LDL, NEFA, and TG:HDL showed positive correlations whereas HDL in the obese group showed negative correlations. Lean people with normal BMI, WC had abnormal lipids, and IR.
Conclusion: T2DM in obese and lean people has dyslipidemia and IR. Poor metabolic profile is not connected with lean T2DM patients' total and visceral obesity.

STUDY OF CLINICO-SOCIAL & PROFILE OF YOUNG OBESE INDIVIDUALS AT A TERTIARY HOSPITAL

Mohsin Mohammed Bava, Roshan M , Nithasha N H

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 2024-2030

Background: Obesity can alter lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. There is an epidemic rise in obesity in the country. Dyslipidemia (DLP), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) has been recognized as a common complication of obesity. Present study was aimed to study clinico-social profile of young obese individuals at a tertiary hospital.
Material and Methods: Present study was single-center, descriptive, observational study, conducted in young individuals (18-40 years age group), with BMI ≥25kg/m2. Results: Among 150 young obese individuals, common age group was between 36 -40 years of age (53.3 %) and the mean age was 34.43 ± 3.76 years. Majority were male (62 %) as compared to female (38 %). Majority cases were in the BMI group of 25-30 kg/m2 (74%) as compared to > 30 kg/m2 (26%). High risk factors such as alcohol consumption (38 %), smoking (43.3 %) & family history of obesity (25.3 %) were also noted. The most common associated comorbidity was dyslipidemia found in 12.7% of cases followed by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in 8.7% and then impaired fasting glucose in 8% of cases. 69.3% of cases had no history of comorbidities It was found that impaired fasting glucose was seen in 53.3% of cases where as only 11.3% were having type 2 diabetes mellitus.  In this study, it was found that dyslipidemia was seen among 82% of the cases. High TC, LDL and TC/HDL-C ratio was found in 3.3%, 22% and 62.7% of subjects, respectively. Percentage of hypertriglyceridemia was 36.7% among the cases. Low HDL was found in 33.3% of subjects.
Conclusion: Young obese individuals are prone for altered fasting blood sugar (impaired fasting glucose &/and type 2 diabetes mellitus) & dyslipidemia (hypertriglyceridemia and high TC/HDL-C).

Haematological parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus, controlled and uncontrolled

Akhouri Sukrit Prakash

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10078-10084

Aims: To compare HbA1c levels with inflammatory markers that include a neutrophilto-
lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyteto-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) in controlled and
uncontrolled diabetics.
Materials and methods: Two hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients were
separated into two groups of managed (HbA1c 7%) diabetics. HbA1c (glycated
haemoglobin) levels, leukocyte count (WBC), haemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red
blood cell distribution width (RDW), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were all
measured using recent laboratory data. The laboratory results were used to determine
the NLR and MLR.
Results:Controlled diabetics had a mean age of 58.30 years, while uncontrolled diabetics
had a mean age of 55.62 years. The mean NLR in diabetics with and without diabetes
was 2.61 and 4.88, respectively. The distinction was discovered to be statistically
significant (p < 0.05). The mean MLR in diabetics with and without diabetes was 0.2
and 0.24, respectively, however the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05).
The data showed a modest positive connection between HbA1c levels and the
haematological indices, but it was statistically insignificant.
Conclusion: The study found a substantial difference in NLR between diabetics who
were well-controlled and those who were not. Although only a slight positive connection
was detected between glycated Hb levels and the haematological indices, the results
revealed a substantial difference in NLR between the two groups. This demonstrates
that these ratios have the potential to be used as inflammatory indicators in T2DM.

Clinical profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at a tertiary care hospital

Dr. Nishchit KN, Dr. Akshatha K, Dr. Kalavathi GP

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 209-213

Macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus include cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular
accidents and peripheral vascular disease. Macrovascular disease is a significant cause of mortality in
diabetic patients. Diabetic individuals have a multitude of risk factors for atherogenesis and the odds of
developing coronary artery disease and ischemic strokes are 2 to 4 times and 2 to 3 times more,
respectively, than non-diabetic individuals. This is a prospective observational comparative study in
which 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the age group of 35-65 years were included and
results are compared with 60 Normal Individuals. The study design was approved by the Ethical
Committee of the institution. In NN group, 12(85.7%) patients were on OHA, 02(14.3%) patients on
insulin. In NH group, 19(82.6%) patients were on OHA, 04(17.4%) patient was on insulin. In HH
group, 16(69.6%) patients were on OHA, 7(30.4%) patients were on insulin. The distribution of BMI
among all the three groups was equal. P value was 0.215 which shows that the groups were similar to
each other in the distribution of BMI.

A study on fasting and postprandial lipid profile in patients in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dr. Nishchit KN, Dr. Akshatha K, Dr. Darshan M

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 214-219

The triglyceride levels in serum generally remain elevated for about 3 to 6 hours after a meal. This
postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (more than 2.72 mmol/l or 201 mg/dl) is exacerbated by the next
routine meal and thus the lipemic milieu persists throughout the day. Therefore, measuring and
documenting postprandial dyslipidemia in diabetic patients is vital in addition to measuring the fasting
lipid levels. Blood samples were drawn before and 4 hours after the standardized test meal. The
HbA1c, fasting and postprandial lipid profile levels and glucose levels were estimated. Fasting and
postprandial triglycerides, total Cholesterol, HDL, VLDL were measured by standard laboratory
technique. The mean serum HDL cholesterol in the NN group was 40.57 ± 5.23.The mean serum HDL
cholesterol in the NH group was 35.43 ± 6.33.The mean serum HDL cholesterol in the HH group was
32.87 ± 6.30. The mean serum fasting triglyceride in the NN group was 107.29 ± 20.69.The mean
serum fasting triglyceride in the NH group was 132.57 ± 7.52.The mean serum fasting triglyceride in
the HH group was 230.13 ± 48.96.

Study of cardiac co-morbidities in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with help of 2D echocardiography

Pratik D Modi, Nanda Jagrit, Usha H Patel, Tejas Shah, Jay Mehta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 833-839

Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the leading cause of multisystem involvement
resulting in significant comorbidities. Various cardiac disorders such as dilated
cardiomyopathy, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and myocardial infarction have been
frequently associated with diabetes mellitus. Present study was aimed to study cardiac comorbidities
in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with help of 2D
echocardiography.
Material and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in patients, 18-70
years, of either gender, newly diagnosed Diabetes mellitus type 2 based on Fasting blood
sugar/ Post prandial blood sugar/HbA1c, willing to participate in the study.
Results: Out of 175 patients, 74 patients belonged to age group 51-60, which is the most
commonly affected age group. Out of 175 patients, 109 (62%) patients were male and 66
(38%) patients were females. Most of the patients had HbA1c` in the range of 7-10%, 139
patients (79%), whereas the least number of patients were in the 6.5-7% group, 5 patients
(3%) Most of the patients had normal cardiac diastolic function, whereas only 15 (8%)
patients restrictive filling (grade 3 diastolic dysfunction). Grade 2 and 3 diastolic dysfunction
was more common in a higher age range i.e. 51-60 and >60 years whereas it was absent in
less than 40 year. Diastolic dysfunction was more common in patients having proteinuria
>200 mg/dl, higher serum cholesterol levels, hba1c levels > 10% and in patents having E/e’
ratio higher than 14. 47 patients were systolic dysfunction <50% with hba1c less than 10%,
whereas only 3 patients had EF <50% with hba1c >10%.
Conclusion: Cardiac diastolic dysfunction is observed in patients of diabetes mellitus 2 more
frequently as compared to systolic dysfunction.

A study on estimation of fasting serum magnesium levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dr. Chandana R Gowda, Dr. Parashuram, Dr. Pratibha Vasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1967-1971

Magnesium deficiency is proposed as a factor in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Hypomagnesemia can be both a cause and a consequence of diabetic complications. The aim of our study was to know the relationship between magnesium levels and diabetes, association with level of control of diabetes and magnesium levels in relation to complications of diabetes. A cross sectional study done with 150 patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in outpatient and inpatient departments in Medicine, to estimate the levels of fasting serum magnesium levels in Type 2 Diabetics. To correlate the magnesium levels with the Diabetic Complications. Among the microvascular complications, retinopathy was found in 35.6% of cases, nephropathy in 20% of cases and neuropathy in 11% Hypomagnesemia was found in 78.1% of retinopathy, 55.6% of nephropathy and 30% of neuropathy cases. Among the macrovascular complications, IHD was found in 22.2%, CVA was found in 6.7% and PVD in 4.4%. Hypomagnesemia was found in 60% of cases of IHD, 50% of cases of CVA and PVD. Serum magnesium levels were low in type 2 diabetics when associated with complications. Hypomagnesemia was associated with diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and Ischemic Heart Disease.

SERUM TOTAL SIALIC ACID AND HS –CRP (HIGH SENSITIVE C-REACTIVE PROTEIN) AS MARKERS OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY

B Sheshu Kumar, Mohammed Rafi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 11557-11573

Background:Diabetes mellitus has become a global pandemic and is estimated that it will be the leading cause of death as a non communicable disease by 2030.Diabetic nephropathy is a major long-term complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). Type 2 DM is frequently associated with an underlying low grade inflammatory mechanism , but less information is available on the relationship explaining the low-grade inflammation process and development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The aim of this study is to determine the serum level of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) ,an acute phase reactant and Serum Total Sialic acid levels, a marker of excessive glycation in unregulated glycemic control in Diabetes mellitus patients leading to the complication of diabetic nephropathy .And to compare with the normal subjects and also to study the association between serum hsCRP levels and Serum Total Sialic acid levels.
Materials and Methods: 50 patients with Type 2 DM with nephropathy (DN) and 50 patients of Type 2 DM without nephropathy (DM) along with 50 unrelated age and sex- matched healthy controls were included in the study. Plasma fasting and postprandial glucose levels, renal profile (serum creatinine, BUN), and lipid profile, HbA1c and Urinary Microalbumin levels were analysed. Serum TSA test levels and hs-CRP level were evaluated using thiobarbituric acid assay and immunoturbidimetric kit methods respectively.
Results: We observed a higher concentration of Serum Total Sialic acid levels (83.2 ± 6.8 mg/dl) and hs-CRP (3.22 ± 1.48 mg/L) in diabetic nephropathy than the diabetes mellitus group (74.1 ± 6.2 mg/dl and 2.2 ± 1.40 mg/L, respectively). Both Serum Total Sialic acid levels and hs-CRP levels were found significantly correlated with plasma fasting and postprandial blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, and urine microalbumin levels in both DM and DN groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that both TSA and hs-CRP was independently associated with diabetic nephropathy.
Conclusion: High serum TSA and hs-CRP levels suggests the underlying inflammatory mechanism in the development of microangiopathic complications of T2DM like diabetic nephropathy.

Obesity with cardiopulmonary wellbeing and oxidative stress in asymptomatic individuals with/without family background of T2DM

Bonala Sharat Babu,Dr. Shreya Nigoskar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1212-1218

Introduction: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus have emerged as new drivers of CVD risk
as a result of our contemporary overconsumption of processed and energy-dense food
products with low nutritional value, paired with our sedentary lifestyle. Increased oxidative
stress is a well-known contributor to the onset and progression of diabetes,
as well as its consequences.
Material and Methods: This is a prospective and observational study conducted at
Department of Biochemistry. Students and apparently healthy cases in the age of 18-30 years
who accompanied DM patients in were included for the study (n = 50). Individuals who are
taking any medications for a health issue that prevents them from conducting sub-maximal
exercise, as well as those who engage in regular physical activity, yoga, or other biofeedback,
were excluded from the research. For the control group (n = 50), age and gender matched
seemingly healthy adults with no family history of diabetes were recruited.
Results: The cardiovascular parameters of controls and cases individuals are shown and
Heart rate (p <0.001), blood pressure (SBP p< 0.001, DBP p <0.001, MAP p <0.001)and rate
pressure product (p 0.001) all showed statistically significant differences, but PP (< 0.135)
did not. The body fat distribution, cardio respiratory fitness as determined by the Cooper 12-
minute run test, and blood glucose readings of controls and patients. Body fat percentage
(p<0.001), visceral fat (p<0.001), Cooper 12-minute run test (p<0.001), and FBS (p<0.001)
were all significantly different. The differences in oxidative stress parameters across groups.
Between controls and cases participants, there was a significant difference in TAOS
(p<0.000) and MDA (p<0.000).
Conclusion: In our study, we found that both groups had similar age, height, and waist-hip
ratio (WHR), but FDRDM had a considerably higher body mass index (BMI). Fasting
percentage body fat and blood glucose levels were significantly higher, and the 12-minute
walk distance was much shorter in FDRDM. Visceral fat levels were marginally elevated, but
not statistically significant alteration during the early stages of illness significant differences
in oxidative markers were observed among the subjects.

Inflammatory markers and lipid profile based on age in asymptomatic individuals with or without family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Dr. Shreya Nigoskar, Bonala Sharat Babu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 1219-1224

Introduction: Although there was a weak positive link between inflammatory indicators and
serum lipid levels, assessing both of these parameters combined may aid in the early
detection and treatment of people who are at high risk for metabolic disorders like type 2
diabetes mellitus and other cardio vascular diseases.
Materials and Methods: This experiment was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry
research lab in India. The sample size was determined to be N=100 based on a 0.56
connection between visceral fat composition and oxidative stress and inflammation. The
study included students and apparently healthy cases between the ages of 18 and 30 who
followed DM patients in (n = 50). Individuals taking any medications for a health condition
that precludes them from performing sub-maximal exercise, as well as those who participate
in regular physical activity, yoga, or other biofeedback, were excluded from the study. Age
and gender matched ostensibly healthy persons with no family history of diabetes were
recruited for the control group (n = 50).
Results: Significant difference was noted in the inflammatory markers & the lipid profile
parameters except for the HDL. In individual with type 2 diabetes, worsening dyslipidemia
and inflammation over time raises concerns about the early onset of atherosclerosis. In the
absence of glycemic control, insulin treatment is of poor effect. Efforts to improve glycemic
control are required.
Conclusion:Lipid profile of an individual is associated to obesity, inflammation, vascular
function, and diabetes. Appropriate lifestyle adjustments may be performed to lower the
inflammatory markers and metabolic disorders. A greater understanding of the causes of
inflammatory markers and lipid profile aid in the development of specialized therapeutic
approaches for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

ASSESSING THE CORRELATION BETWEEN LEVELS OF GLYCOSYLATED HB AND SERUM ALBUMIN IN SUBJECTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

Dr. Bharat Kumar Parmer,Dr. Roshan Mandloi, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dubey

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 401-406

Background: Diabetes mellitus has a high prevalence globally with rising incidence in the
world. Despite the identification of diabetes mellitus and associated complications for a long
time, the measures to reduce mortality and morbidity in subjects with diabetes mellitus are
focused only for a few decades.
Objective: The present study was conducted to assess the correlation between levels of
glycosylated Hb and serum albumin in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Method: The present institution-based observational study included subjects with a
confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2 where levels of glycosylated hemoglobin
(HbA1c) and serum albumin were assessed and correlated.
Result: It was seen that in subjects with glycosylated hemoglobin of <7%, mean serum
albumin level was 3.87±0.88 mg/dl, in subjects with glycosylated hemoglobin of 7-9%, mean
serum albumin level was 2.95±0.53 mg/dl, and in subjects with hemoglobin of >9%, it was
seen that mean serum albumin was 2.46±0.69 mg/dl. A negative correlation was noted where
lesser HbA1C% was related to higher mean values of serum albumin.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that subjects having higher values of glycosylated
hemoglobin have lower serum albumin levels compared to subjects where lower glycosylated
hemoglobin levels in subjects were associated with near-normal or normal serum albumin
levels.

THE EFFECT OF OBESITY AND ITS ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS ON PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES WHO ATTEND IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER IN MAKKAH AL-MOKARRAMAH 2021

Dalia Awad Eid Aljohani, Abdullah Ali Atoodi, Salem Mansour Algorashi, Abdullah Eidhah Mohammed Almalki, Ola Jameel Filfilan, Afnan Adnan Abdullah Bukhari, Meyaser Adnan Sembawah, Juman Maid Albajaly, Saeed Safran Husseen Al-Malki, Nisreen Mater Khader Allehyani, Ateeq Ali Naffaa Albeshri , Fahad Salem Alsolami

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3006-3022

Background:
     Overweight and obesity constitute a global pandemic with devastating consequences that affect >2 billion people. Obesity plays a central role in morbidity and mortality of diseases of multiple organs and systems, and it is a major contributor to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes. There is now sufficient level of evidence for the association between overweight and type 2 diabetes, among which are the most common type 2 diabetes worldwide.  Obesity results from a combination of personal and societal factors, but is often viewed as a character flaw rather than a medical condition. This leads to stigma and discrimination towards obese individuals and decreases the likelihood of effective intervention. Conditions related to obesity are increasingly common, such as metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), all of which indicate high risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and excessive alcohol intake also account for the burden of type 2 diabetes by promoting obesity. The risk of specific type 2 diabetes is also directly influenced, regardless of the magnitude of adiposity, by physical inactivity, consumption of red meat, processed meat and ultra-processed foods, dairy products, alcohol, whole grain cereals, nuts, vegetables, and fruits. The study aimed: To assess the effect of obesity and its associated risk factors on patients with type 2 diabetes who attend in primary health care center in Makkah al-Mokarramah 2021. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity who registered in the chronic disease clinic attended diabetes centre in Makkah at Saudi Arabia in 2021. Our total participants were (300).Results: the total number of participants was 300 were males and female. The participants were classified into 3 age groups, most of them were (54.3%)in the <30 years fallowed by 39-50 years were(29.3%),  regarding gender of  participated male were (70.3%), follow by female were(29.7 %), type of treatment do you use for diabetes, results show a significant relation between BMI and what type of treatment do you use for diabetes, also complications from diabetes, results show a significant relation between BMI and complications from diabetes, Physical activities or exercise, results show a significant relation between BMI and Physical activities or exercise. Eating a portion of fruit, results a significant relation between BMI and Eating a portion of fruit, eating a portion of vegetables, results show a significant relation between BMI and Eating a portion of vegetables Conclusion: Obesity is a highly prevalent comorbidity in type 2 diabetic patients.  Some modifiable risk factors were identified. Multidisciplinary effort is warranted to reduce obesity among type 2 diabetic patients.  appears to be a better indicator of diabetic risk than BMI. The combination of a low-calorie diet, increased physical activity, and behavioral therapy as the first-line intervention for weight loss should be stressed for the effective management of T2diabetic patients.

Serum melatonin levels alter in type 2 diabetes mellitus individuals along with IL-2, IL-15 and TNF-α

Lingidi Jhansi Lakshmi, Savita Rathore, Muhamed Faizal, Faiz Noor Khan Yusufi, Doddigarla Zephy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 2452-2462

Background & Aims: According to our knowledge, there is a lack of sample study in this specific region of our country, regarding the relationship of melatonin with anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, the novelty of this present study, we have taken the opportunity to determine the relationship of melatonin with anti- (IL-2) and pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α) cytokines in 2DM subjects. Methods: After obtaining the approval from the institutional ethical committee, the present study was commenced. The study was conducted in Department of Biochemistry, Malwanchal University, Indore, India. Total two hundred and thirty individuals are recruited in to this present study after the approval from Institutional ethical committee. Age & sex matched one hundred and fifteen human non-2DM individuals were taken into healthy control group. One hundred and fifteen subjects, on treatment for 2DM were included in second group. Results: Statistical significant differences were observed in serum melatonin levels and post-prandial blood glucose when compared between 2DM subjects and healthy controls. We also observed statistical significances in the serum values of IL-2, IL-15, IL-1β, and TNF-α when compared between 2DM subjects and healthy controls. The study observed steady upward positive correlation between melatonin and IL-2 levels in healthy controls. On the contrary the study observed a negative association between serum melatonin and IL-15 levels and also between melatonin and TNF-α in 2DM subjects. Conclusion: The authors conclude from the study that alterations in the study parameters in 2DM group are due to altered balance between anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines production. This altered balance is due to low production of melatonin in 2DM subjects than healthy controls.

Advanced Intermittent Hypobaric/Hyperbaric Method Enhanced and Cured Type 2 Insulin- Independent Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Clinical Trial

Sahar Ahmed Abdalbary; Alaa Balbaa; Khaled A. Zed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2551-2561

Background:
Advanced intermittent hypoxia-normoxia KZ-001 (manufactured in Japan under the
Japanese Wellness Science and Technology) is a combination of a fine-tuned
hypobaric (hypoxia) and hyperbaric (hyperoxia) chamber. It is a new Japanese method
that uses both aerospace and high-terrestrial altitude research or training to stimulate
the effects of high altitude on the human body, especially hypoxia and hyperoxia.
Objectives:
This study aimed to test two hypotheses in response to advanced intermittent hypoxianormoxia
KZ-001 stratification based on its mechanism of action and to answer the
following clinical question: Do patients’ glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels decrease
when undergoing advanced intermittent hypoxia-normoxia KZ-001 treatment?

THE ASSESMENT OF THE PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED RISK FACTORS OF OBESTIY AMONG TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS ATTENDING IN THE PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTER IN MAKKAH AL-MUKARRAMAH 2019

Majiedabdulmoghth A. Al Harby, KhaledEssam Sheikh, Ali Mansour Ali Ashgar, AmeenahMuallaSaad Alharbi, MajedAbdulghafour Mohammed Turkistani, Nasser Awn Abdullah Albarakati Naif Abdul RahmanKhader Al-Ghamdi, Yasser Bin Hassan Muhammad Sindi, Hassan Sfar Alzahrani, Muidh Mohammed Althagaf

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 294-304

Background:
      Diabetes mellitus and obesity are key risk factors for long-term complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have shown that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and obesity is high in the KSA. However, none of these studies has focused on the investigation of diabetes mellitus and obesity in Makkah patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are known to contribute directly or indirectly to the development of long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity is a serious public health concern all over the world. In KSA obesity is on rise and if proper intervention and preventive strategies were not adopted of obesity will prove fatal. Obesity among type 2 diabetic patients has proven to have adverse effects in management and control of diabetes and a considerable proportion of type 2 diabetic patients have been reported to be obese in different settings, which increase the risk of complications among them.
Aim of the study: To assesment of the prevalence and associated risk factors of obestiy among type II diabetic patients in the primary health care center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah 2019.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at AL-Eskan PHC, among type II diabetic patients and obesity attending in the AL-Eskan PHC Makkah among a random sample of type 2 diabetic and obesity patients registered in the chronic disease clinic. Our total sample size will be 200 patients
. Results:  the majority of our participants were have increase BMI (obese) were constitutes (59.0 %), while normal BMI participants were constitute (40.0 %). the majority of our study are male’s gender in our study was (59.0%). the majority nationality Saudi was (87.0%)
Conclusion: Physical activity probably contains a larger role in promoting health in weighty populations than antecedently thought and should confer substantial reductions in sickness burden. Future analysis might examine prospectively whether or not increase in physical activity in unhealthy weighty adults will cause a healthier standing.