Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : diabetic retinopathy

Dry eye disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: association with diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy

Suchitra Panigrahi, Sandhyarani Pati, Bidisha Mahapatra, Deepak Dash, Swarnamayee Baskey, Ramakristna Sahu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 2480-2487

Aim- To study the prevalence of dry eye disease(DED) and its association with diabetic retinopathy (DR), diabetic neuropathy (DN) and other metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and methods- Dry eye disease was assessed in 102 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) score, tear break up time(TBUT) test and Schirmer’s test. All the subjects underwent indirect ophthalmoscopy, DN screening was done based on Revised NDS score, DR was graded according to Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy (ETDRS) criteria. The relation of DED with status of diabetic retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, dyslipidemia, metabolic control and duration of disease was also assessed. Results- The prevalence of dry eye disease was 37.2%.We observed a significant associationof dry eye disease with diabetic retinopathy (p=0.017) and diabetic neuropathy(p=0.019). Conclusion- As the prevalence of DED among diabetics is high and diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy are often found to be associated with DED, therefore, along with screening for DR and DN, assessment of dry eyes should be routinely included in patients with diabetes in ophthalmology clinics.

A prospective study on effect of controlled hba1c levels and normotension in the development of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetics

Dr. Chaithra CM, Dr. Kshama K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1410-1416

Aim: To determine the importance of HbA1C levels and normotension in predicting the development of diabetic retinopathy and the relationship between them.
Method: Prospective clinical study comprising of a group of 125 diabetics above 40 years visiting for routine eye checkup and clinically diagnosed diabetic retinopathy including both out-patient and in-patients at Department of Ophthalmology, KIMS, Bangalore. Men and women >40years with type 2 diabetes mellitus with HbA1C levels <7.5% and non-hypertensives (<140mmHg systolic and <90mmHg diastolic pressure) were included. Patient’s HbA1C levels and blood pressure were measured. The diabetic retinopathy status was classified according to the ETDRS system. Statistical analysis was done.
Results: At 3rd month follow up, the mean HbA1C levels was 7.25±0.22.At the end of 12th month, the mean HbA1C was 7.42±0.11At baseline, in group A 8.8% showed mild NPDR and 1.6% moderate NPDR. At the end of the study it was 8.8% mild NPDR, 1.6% moderate NPDR. No further progression was seen in a year span. All values showed statistical significance and absence of hypertension also goes in favour of mild diabetic retinopathy changes.
Conclusion: HbA1C levels and systemic hypertension are the two major modifiable risk factors in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy


Chandrashekhar K, Mohammad Nizamuddin H Attar , MD Juned, Sushma S Biradar, Mehak Budhiraja, Rajashekhar Dyaberi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5632-5645

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a major medical problem throughout the world. Diabetes
causes an array of long-term systemic complications that have considerable impact on the patient
as well as society, as the disease typically affects individuals in their most productive years.
Objective: To correlate Serum Prolactin levels in patients with Diabetic retinopathy.
METHODS: A total of 189 patients of diabetic retinopathy were enrolled in the study. Details of
their medical and personal history, viz. age at diagnosis of diabetes, duration of the diabetes,
nature and duration of treatment received, glycaemic control and compliance to the treatment were
obtained. The diabetic retinopathy status was classified according to the ETDRS classification
system. RESULTS: A mean HbA1C levels for each grade of DR: in Mild NPDR the HbA1c was
found to be 8.33%, Moderate NPDR was found to be 8.88%, severe NPDR the HbA1c was 9.92%
and for PDR the HbA1c was 11.01%. A mean Serum Prolactin levels for each grade of DR: in Mild
NPDR the serum prolactin levels was found to be 8.76ng/dl, Moderate NPDR 8.57ng/dl, for Severe
NPDR it was 7.28ng/dl, and it was 5.94ng/dl for PDR. A mean duration
of diabetes for each grade of DR: in mild NPDR the mean duration of diabetes was found to be
8.45yrs and in moderate NPDR it was 9.65yrs, whereas in severe NPDR group it was 11.75yrs
and for PDR group it was 12.58 years.
A significant correlation (p < 0.05) was also found between DR and the duration of diabetes as
increasing severity of NPDR and PDR were seen in patients who were diabetic for more than ten
years and statistically significant correlation was found between increasing severity of diabetic
retinopathy and the decreasing levels of serum prolactin.
CONCLUSION: A statistically significant correlation was found between increasing
severity of diabetic retinopathy and the decreasing levels of serum prolactin.

Relation of Mean Platelet Volume with Diabetic Retinopathy in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Patients

Sushma S Biradar,Krupashree G, ,Mohammed Nizamuddin Attar , Manjunath Hiremani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10039-10048

Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of micro vascular complications of Diabetes
mellitus and leading cause of blindness. Mean Platelet volume is a marker of average size and
activity of platelets. Larger platelets are younger and exhibit more activity and related to these
complications.Objective:to study the association between mean platelet volume and Type 2
Diabetes, and its correlation with diabetic retinopathy.Methods: In this study, 100 patients with
Type 2 diabetes and without retinopathy, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes and with diabetic
retinopathy and 50 healthy age and gender matched controls were chosen and evaluated
clinically and laboratory data including MPV, platelet count,HbA1C,Fasting and post prandial
blood glucose, lipid profile,creatinine levels were obtained and studied. All study was done by
SPSS software. Results: Mean MPV among subjects with DM with Retinopathy was 11.7 ± 1.3,
among subjects with DM without Retinopathy was 10.7 ± 0.9 and among normal controls was
8.8 ± 0.5. There was significant difference in MPV b/w 3 groups. In the study there was
significant positive correlation between MPV and duration of DM, FBS, PPBS and HbA1c i.e.
with increase in Duration of DM, FBS, PPBS and HbA1c there was increase in MPV and vice

Knowledge And Perception About Diabetic Retinopathy In Ischemic Heart Disease In Practicing Physicians -An Original Research

Dr Kirthi Raj, Dr. Vishal Bhalerao, Dr. Kanniyan Binub, Dr. Anil Managutti, Dr. Heena Dixit Tiwari, Dr. Rahul VC Tiwari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10913-10919

Aim: The purpose of the present research was to assess the knowledge as well as
perception amongst various practicing physicians about diabetic retinopathy in
ischemic heart disease patients.
Methodology: A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, perception
amongst 209 practicing physicians. A self-administered questionnaire about
demographic and professional data, knowledge regarding Diabetic retinopathy (DR),
and about attitudes and practices toward DR screening and management in
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients were distributed amongst participants.
Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted for the data obtained from the present
Results: A total of 141 physicians completed the questionnaire for a response rate of
67%. Nevertheless, only 36.9% taught their patients abouthow to detect complications
early in CVD patients. The overall mean knowledge score was 1.23±0.67 for males and
1.98±1.11for females p = 0.260.
European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
ISSN 2515-8260 Volume 9, Issue 3, Winter 2022
Conclusion: It is important for DR to be detected in a timely manner in CVD patients
by the physicians that will allow early treatment and prevention of visual loss.

Evaluation of the status of diabetic retinopathy after cataract surgery

Dr. Preeti Singh, Ankit Gupta

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 712-719

Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects about 400 million adults globally, a number that is predicted
to be doubled by 2035 according to the world health organization (WHO).When cataract
surgery is done on diabetic patient the status of retina and retrieval of vision depends on
severity of diabetic retinopathy and previous treatment received. In diabetic patients,
macular oedema after cataract surgery can be a frequent and complex problem, especially
in the patients with pre-existing diabetic retinopathy. The objective of present study is to
evaluate the status of diabetic retinopathy after cataract surgery. The hospital based
prospective, observational study was carried out. 50 diabetic patients underwent cataract
surgery between October 2017 to September 2018. All were studied postoperatively at 1
month and 3 months.
This study used OCT to evaluate macular oedema in patients which in turn helped to find
out the status of diabetic retinopathy. The present study does not show any progression in
diabetic retinopathy in the operated eyes over the short term follow up of 3 months. None
of the patients who were having no retinopathy pre-operatively developed retinopathy post