Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : incidence

To study the incidence of palpable abdominal mass in Gynaecological patients

Dr. Raj K.Kanwal Dr. Hemant Kansal Dr. Anshu Gupta Singh Dr. Ritu Sharda Dr. Preeti Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 9438-9442

Background & Method: The aim of this study is to study the incidence of palpable abdominal mass in Gynaecological patients. All the patient coming with palpable abdominal and pelvic adnexal mass in the gynecologic OPD were included in the study irrespective of age, parity, symptomatology, marital status, etc.
Result: The incidence of malignant tumor was 16.66%. The maximum age group being > 40 years.  The incidence of abdominal mass associated with pregnancy was 5.76%.
Conclusion: As patients usually come from low socioeconomic status in our hospital, majority of them were illiterate. Patients usually present late when they have symptoms or have any complication. Hence proper screening of the patient is important. Ultrasound is effective in detecting the abdominal mass, size and type of abdominal mass, so that early diagnosis can be done and treatment can be given as soon as possible. With proper selection, the size of an ovarian cyst does not necessarily constitute a contraindication for laparascopic surgery

A study of incidence and significance of arrhythmias in early and pre discharged phase of acute myocardial infarction

Suhas Mule, Dany John, Abhijeet Shelke

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 4683-4687

Background: To study and evaluate the incidence and significance of acute myocardial infarction in early and pre discharged phase.
Materials & methods: A total of 100 patients were enrolled. The age of patients was between 45 to 70 years. They were divided into groups as Group 1: early discharged (24-72hr) and group 2: non early discharged patients (Pre-discharge phase). Complete history was taken. Collection of data was done & analysed by using student-t test. Result was analysed using SPSS software.
Results: A total of 100 patients were enrolled. Out of which, 60 were discharged early. The early discharged patients had better hospital outcomes compared to the other group as they showed less prevalence of post myocardial infarction pulmonary edema [1.7% (P = 0.005)] and higher LVEF 40.62 (P < 0.001).Among group 1 patients, arrythmias were seen in 28 patients while among group 2 patients, arrythmias were seen in 15 patients.
Conclusion: Early and safe discharge in selective patients with AMI is considered better.


Dr. Rambabu Pailla, Dr. Chouta Teja Priya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 3180-3190

Background and Objectives:  To evaluate the prevalence of bile duct as well as other biliary system injuries resulting after cholecystectomy in our hospital, along with the factors that contribute to the injuries and the way they are treated.
Methods: All patients between 2019 and 2021 who had an iatrogenic biliary tract injury underwent a prospective analysis. Gender, age, the presence of abnormal anatomy (extra-hepatic bile duct and vascular anatomy), the presence of gall stone pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis or cholangitis, the time between cholecystectomy and recognition of biliary tract injury, the time from injury to definite management, the type of injury, and the mode of management, such as endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, are all relevant factors for injuries sustained
Results: Injury to the bile duct occurred 2.52% of the time. Patients undergoing cholecystectomy for cholecystitis lasting longer than 72 hours tended to suffer from the majority of bile duct damage. The likelihood of bile duct injury was enhanced by elements including acute cholecystitis, cholangitis, and choledocholithiasis. Most of the injuries were discovered right after surgery. The most frequent site of injury was the common hepatic duct. The majority of BDI cases were treated with a final repair, which was aided by radiological treatments like ERCP and stenting.
Conclusion: Because of the steep learning curve of laparoscopic surgery, bile duct injury rates have been found to be higher in our institution during cholecystectomy. The best chance of recovery is provided by early detection, repair, and a multidisciplinary strategy

A study to evaluate the incidence of thyroid malignancy among cases of thyroid swelling presenting at a tertiary care center in Delhi

Dr. Animesh Vatsa, Dr. Smita Pathak, Dr. Bindya Kour Bali, Dr. Vitesh Popli

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2900-2905

Globally the most common indication for thyroid operation is a solitary nodule with the possibility of malignancy. Thyroid nodules are common in clinical practice. This study was carried out to estimate the incidence of benign and malignant thyroid lesions among the thyroid swellings after histopathological examinations following thyroidectomy.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional follow-up study was done among patients undergoing thyroidectomy between July 2017 to June 2019 by the Department of General Surgery, Institute Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt. The patients were selected consequently as and when they presented during the study period with thyroid swelling considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 50 patients were selected for the study. The selected patients were examined clinically. Among routine investigation, their reports of FNAC and histopathogical examination after excision were collected and used for analysis in the current study.
Results: FNAC findings of 50 cases showed that 39 were benign and rest 11 cases were malignant lesions, hence approximately benign and malignant ratio came to 3.55:1. Among the benign lesions, the most common lesion is multinodular or colloid goiter. Out of 11 malignant cases of FNAC finding, majority were papillary carcinoma. On histopathological examination of the excised mass, out of 11 cases that showed malignancy on FNAC, 7 cases (14%) were found to be malignant.
Conclusion: To conclude, it is not unusual to have a diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in a clinically benign thyroid swelling. Incidence of such malignancies is significant. Hence, the patients being treated conservatively for benign thyroid diseases should be followed-up regularly. Patients who opt out of surgery should be put on diligent screening of the swelling and any suspicious change in the swelling has to be tackled aggressively.

A Effect of Nebulized Magnesium Sulphate on the Incidence of Postoperative Sore throat

Dr. Neha, Dr. Nidhi kumari, Dr.Taqui Fakhri, Dr. Divya Jyoti

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 2577-2583

Background: Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a well-recognized complication that remains unresolved in patients undergoing endotracheal intubation for general anesthesia. The wide variation in these figures is presumably due to different skills and techniques among anesthetists and to differences between patients in the definition of sore throat. Objective: The main aim is to study the attenuating effect of Magnesium sulphate nebulization on the incidence of postoperative sore throat. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, comparative and observational study conducted in the Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive care unit, NC Medical College and Hospital over 1 year. 90 cases divided into two equal groups. Patients included in the study were of either gender belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status 1 or 2 undergoing elective surgery of approximately 2 h or more duration requiring tracheal intubation. Patients in Group N were nebulized with 3 ml of normal saline and the patients in Group M were nebulized with 3 ml of 225 mg isotonic nebulized magnesium sulfate for 15 min. The incidence of POST at rest and on swallowing at 0, 2, 4, 12, and 24 h in the postoperative period was evaluated. Results: There was no significant difference in POST at rest, at 0th, 2nd, and 4th h between normal saline and MgSO4. The significant difference was seen at 24th h, where MgSO4 lessened POST. There is no significant difference in POST on swallowing at 0th and 2nd h between normal saline and MgSO4. The significant difference was seen at 4th h, where MgSO4 lessened POST. Conclusion: POST is common in patients undergoing GA with a tracheal tube for routine surgical cases for up to 24 hr. We conclude that the use of magnesium sulphate in the form of nebulization as a pre-medication agent significantly reduces the incidence of POST compared to normal saline and it was found to be safe, simple, and effective in preventing the occurrence of postoperative sore throat.


Elizabeth Caroline P, Siril P, Jayalatha N, Krishna Chaitanya, Vishal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 4, Pages 1233-1240

Background:Hitherto, incidence burden of childhood cancer in India has been derived from GLOBOCAN data. Recent analyses have challenged whether this accurately measures the true incidence of childhood cancer. Objective: To use observed data rather than simulation to estimate the number of children (0-14 years), as well as number of children and adolescents (0-19 years), in India who develop cancer every year at the national and state/union territory (UT) level.
Materials and Methods: Age-specific (five-year groups), sex-specific, and state/UT specific population data from India Census 2011 was used. Global average incidence rates from the International Incidence of Childhood Cancer 3 (IICC3) report were used. Incidence rates per million person years for the 0-14 years and 0-19 years age groups were age-adjusted using the world standard population to provide age-standardized incidence rates, using the age-specific incidence rates for individual age groups (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years).
Results: The national number of children (0-14 years) and, children and adolescents (0-19 years) that may develop cancer every year based on 2011 census are 52,366 and 76,805 persons respectively. Cancer type specific incidence is provided for each state/UT for these age ranges. This national incidence is approximately double of the GLOBOCAN 2018 estimates of incidence of children diagnosed and registered with cancer and the differential is greater in girls.
Conclusion: Our analysis proposes new estimates of incident childhood cancer cases in India for children and adolescents. Future regional, national and international research on childhood cancer epidemiology and healthcare accessibility would help further refine these estimates.

Evaluation of the incidence of asymptomatic calf deep vein thrombosis in high risk post-operative patients on DVT prophylaxis

Dr. Sreekaraswamy R, Dr. HC Chaluvanarayana, Dr. Kiran Raj H, Dr. Varun Byrappa

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 1660-1664

Purpose: To identify the presence of occult (DVT) in post op patients on DVT prophylaxis and to avoid unnecessary screening, we reviewed our experience with routine duplex screening for DVT in high risk post-operative patients on DVT prophylaxis.
Methods: Over a 2 year period, all patients who were admitted with an anticipated length of stay greater than 36 hours were studied to determine the prevalence of risk factors for asymptomatic proximal DVT. Risk factors, demographics, and operative data were collected and analyzed with multilinear regression, t tests and χ2 analysis.
Results: There was a 7.3% prevalence of major DVT in the 100 patients studied. APACHE II scores (14.5 ± 6.24 vs 10.3 ± 3.15; p < 0.0001) and emergent procedures (45.5% vs 23.2%; p > 0.0344) were associated with DVT by multifactorial analysis. Age was significant by univariate analysis. An algorithm based on the presence of any one of the three risk factors identified (APACHE II score 12 or more; emergent procedures; or age 60 or greater) could be used to limit screening by 30% while achieving a 95.5% sensitivity for identification of proximal DVT.
Conclusion: Absence of all three risk factors indicates a very low risk for DVT (3%). Screening of post op patients is indicated because of a high prevalence of asymptomatic disease. Patients who have proximal DVT require active therapy and not prophylaxis. Costs and resources may be contained by using the above risk factors as a filter for duplex screening.

Risk factors of Acute Kidney Injury and outcome of children affected with AKI

Rekha Arer ,Jitendra L Chukkanakal ,Jayaraj Patil ,Venkatesh G .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 3096-3104

Background: The etiology of AKI in children varies in developed and developing countries. in the former, AKI follows major surgeries, complications associated with malignancies, and the use of nephrotoxic drugs. Objectives: to identify the risk factors of AKI and to see the outcome of children affected with AKI.
Material & Methods: This Prospective, observational study was conducted among 250 children aged between 1 month-12 years, admitted in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Government General Hospital; Siddhartha Medical College; Vijayawada Results: The minimum age at enrollment was one month to 12 years of age. The comparison between the two groups based on gender was not significant (P=0.1873). None of the patients in the non-AKI group required dialysis, but in the AKI group, of the 44cases, nine case needed dialysis. The number of dialysis is highly significant, with P

Clinical profile and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in central Indian population

Dr. Vipin Thakur, Dr. Rashmi Randa, Dr. Shweta Sharma, Dr. Madhuri Tejwani, Dr. Amit Agarwal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3505-3514

Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a potentially blinding disorder of the neonates seen mostly in preterm neonates.
Objective: To study the incidence, risk factors, clinical profile and immediate outcome of neonates with ROP after screening.
Method: A prospective observational study was carried out among 336 neonates at Gandhi Medical College, Bhopal from January 2018 to June 2019. After recording detailed history of mother and neonate, eye examination and screening were performed.  Prevalence, epidemiology, clinical profile, risk factors and outcomes of ROP were assessed.
Results: The incidence of ROP in the present study was 19.94%, 31.3% babies developed stage 1 ROP, 26.8% developed stage 2 ROP, 23.3% had stage 3 ROP, 13.4% had stage 4 ROP and 5.97% had stage 5 ROP. Of the 67 babies who developed ROP 35.82% babies had spontaneous regression of ROP and developed mature retina whereas 64.18% babies required treatment of ROP.
Conclusion: Our study concludes that low birth weight, gestational age, oxygen administration, duration of oxygen exposure, mechanical ventilation, respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant use, sepsis, blood transfusion, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and apnoea are the risk factors which play a significant role in development of ROP.

Prevalence and risk factors associate with cholangiocarcinoma: A clinical study in tertiary care teaching hospital

Dr. Vipin Kumar, Dr R.P. Singh, Dr. Dillip Kumar Mohanty

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 592-599

Background: Cholangiocarcinoma, including intra-and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma,
is a rare but highly lethal cancer. Despite effort in finding the risk factors of
cholangiocarcinoma, the causes of most cholangiocarcinoma remain unknown.There are
considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of
cholangiocarcinoma. Although it comprises only 10-15% of hepatobiliary neoplasms, its
incidence is increasing. There are several established risk factors for CC and few are
modifiable which will help in reducing the incidence.
Aims and Objectives: To study the Prevalence and risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma at
GMC Budaun.
Material and Methods: All types of cholangiocarcinoma cases above age of 40 years
admitted to Department of Surgery, GMC Budaun U.P., were studied for risk factors over a
period of two years.
Results: An incidence of cholangiocarcinoma was 0.032% in present study. Peak incidence
of cholangiocarcinoma was 4th to 6th decade of life with mean age of 61.92 years. out of
26 patients 13 patients (50%) were smoker and in those 13 patients 12 (92%) were smoking
for more than 10 years and 13 patients (100%) were smoking more than 10 cigarettes or
bidi per day. 18 patients were using chulha (69%) for cooking meals with coal as a primary
Conclusion: In conclusion, we found associations with PSC, smoking and alcohol
consumption; however, further studies are needed to establish the risk factors in our
country Long term exposure to pesticides in patients, who are chronic smoker and exposed
to smoke from chulha are at higher risk of developing CCA than others in this socioeconomic

Incidence of C-Shaped Root Canals in Mandibular Second Molars in North Indian Population: An in-vivo study

Rajan Dhawan; Kartik Sharma; Surya Dahiya; Navneet Kukreja; Varun Khanna; Kirti Makan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2029-2039

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and configuration of C-shaped root canals in mandibular second molars in North Indian population using clinical and radiographic method and to compare the relative efficacies of these two methods. Methods and Material: 500 patients with mandibular second molar teeth scheduled for root canal treatment over a period of 1.5 years were examined during 2018-2019. C-shaped root
canals were determined by clinical examination using modified Melton's criteria and by radiographic method using Fan’s criteria.
Results: Incidence of C-shaped root canals was found to be 6.80% using clinical method and 5.20% using radiographic method. Females had greater (9.4%) predilection than males (4.69%) clinically. There were only 19 teeth in which presence of C-shaped root canal were confirmed both clinically and radiographically

Oral squamous cell carcinoma: review of incidence and risk factors

Muhammad Azeem Yaqoob; Wan Muhamad Amir W Ahmad; Nor Azlida Alenng; Sami Aljahmi; Sayed Farooq Jalal; Ashfaq Ur Rahim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7967-7978

Globally, oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer and it is associated with a mortality
rate up to 50%. Oral cancer usually encompasses tumours derived from the lips, anterior
two-thirds of the tongue, buccal mucosa, hard palate, the floor of mouth, upper and lower
alveolar ridges, retromolar trigone, and sublingual area. An approximate age-standardized
to world population (ASR (W) for oral cavity and lip cancer according to the World Health
Organization (WHO) the topmost is South East Asia with incidence of 6.4 per 100000,
followed by Europe and East Mediterranean (4.6 cases per 100000), America (4.1 per
100000), Africa (2.7 per 100000), and Western Pacific area (2.0 per 100000).Oral
squamous cell carcinoma has multifactorial pathogenesis which includes smoking, alcohol
consumption, and HPV and others. Oral cancer has multifactorial etiology, mainly
smoking, tobacco, alcohol consumption, betel quid chewing and high-risk human
papillomavirus (HPV). Worldwide, the prevalence of HPV infection is 3% in oral cavity
cancer and has a significant role in the management of oral squamous cell carcinoma
(OSCC) as HPV-related oral cancers have shown better prognosis.
The risks of oral cancer in many developing countries had increased mainly by the habits
of using betel quid chewing, tobacco and alcohol consumption.Human papillomavirus is a
major concern and a public burden in a clinical setting all over the world. The sites
frequently involved in HPV related cancers are tonsils and base of the tongue.


Dr. Rakesh Kumar; Dr. Purva Kulkarni; Dr. Jayendra Purohit; Dr. Abin Ann Abraham; Dr. Vipindas A P; Dr. Sameera Qureshi Mohd Rehman

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 7144-7149

 Aim: The purpose of our research was to study various patterns as well as incidence of mandibular population amongst Indian population. Methodology: The medical records of 1842 patients with mandibular fractures treated
over a 3 years period were identified and analyzed supported age, sex, mechanism of trauma, seasonal variation, drug/alcohol abuse, number and anatomic location Results: 464 Patients who were in age range of 7 to 89 years participated in the study. The highest incidence (37.5%) of mandibular fractures was in the age group of 21–30 years. Most prominent cause for mandibular fracture was due to road traffic accidents which accounted for 68.8 % of all cases followed by free falls as well as assault cases. It was observed that parasymphyseal fracture was the most common site affected in mandible and the least affected was the angle of mandible. Mandibular angle
fractures were found mostly to be related to assault victims. Conclusion: The mechanism of injury correlates significantly with the anatomic location of fracture and knowledge of those associations should guide the surgeons for appropriate and timely management.


Oviya. V. J; Srirengalakshmi .; Deepa Gurunathan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2095-2103

Multidisciplinary management is essential when the canine fails to erupt on time. This requires combined surgical and orthodontic intervention. Good periodontal status is necessary for the positive outcome of treatment. Hence the objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of gingival recession in disimpacted canines. A retrospective study was conducted. Data collection was done through reviewing 86000 patients who had visited a hospital in Chennai from June(2019) to March(2020). A total of 6 patients who had undergone disimpaction of canine were evaluated. Data such as age, gender, site of impaction, presence of gingival recession were noted. The data was analysed statistically through IBM SPSS software. The study group belonged to the age group ranging 13-21. Disimpaction was performed higher among males(66.6%) compared to females. Among the samples, about 57.14% of canines were palatally impacted. No gingival recession was seen in the study sample. The incidence of gingival recession in the disimpacted canines was not statistically significant and did not reach clinical significance due to very less sample size.

Assessment Of Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Based Survey On The Incidence Of Pulp Stones In Maxillary Molars Among Endodontists And General Practitioners - A Questionnaire Based Survey

AarthiMuthukumar .; Dr. AdimulapuHima Sandeep

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2997-3015

AimThe aim is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice on the incidence of pulp stones in maxillary molars among endodontists and general practitioners.IntroductionPulp stones are discrete calcified masses found in the dental pulp tissue or embedded into dentin. Based on their radiographic features, they can be classified into true and false which are located more often in the coronal region of the tooth. True pulp stones are made up of dentine and lined by odontoblasts, whereas the false pulp stones are formed from degenerating cells of the pulp that get mineralized. Materials and MethodsThe sample size is 102 people and a random sampling method is used to minimise bias. Internal validity was a pre tested questionnaire and external experiment and cross verification with existing studies was performed. Data analysis was done in SPSS and Statistical test used is chi square test and dependent variables are demographic data such as gender and experience and independent variables are pulp stones incidence and knowledge.ResultsFrom this survey it was found that 70% were aware about the types of pulp stone, 62% were able to diagnose pulp stones radiographically and 60% encountered pulp stones rarely in maxillary molars.Conclusion
Within the limitations of the study , the prevailing knowledge in regard to the prevalence of pulp stones among endodontists was high when compared to the general practitioners. More awareness can be created among general practitioners about pulp stones. Furthermore, the existing Attitude and practice among respondents was high among endodontists and general practitioners when compared to knowledge.