Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Fungi


EXPLOITATION OF FUNGAL BIODIVERSITY AS POTENTIAL PIGMENT PRODUCERS A RIVEW ARTICLE

N.Gayathri, N.Rajeswari Devi, Dr.IJN.Padmavathi, Dr. Balaji Chandra Mouli, M.Srinivas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 315-323

The rapid development of life is leading the demand of colors in biotechnology in field of food, textile, medicine and cosmetics and healthcare products. There is ever growing demand of eco-friendly/non-toxic dyes as coloring agents of food to overcome health hazards.  The risks of synthetic colors compel the industries to adapt natural pigments. The search for new sources of natural pigments has increased, day to day because of the toxic effects caused by synthetic dyes. Recently fungal species are being treated as the natural pigment producers with enormous biotechnological applications. Almost all the genus of fungi synthesize various pigments such melanin, phenazines,flavins,carotenoids, violacein, indioankaflavins. So far these pigments are isolated,screened, and characterized for many biotechnological purposes in food, textiles, medicine, cosmetics health care products. However sequencing of pigment producing genes and generation of new varieties of pigments by rDNA technology may lead to revolutionary success in pigment production market in food, textile, medicine, cosmetics and health care products by a natural means. Study on pigment producing fungi using cloning technology may pave a path for ecofriendly generation of varieties of colors which further can be explored in many biological applications.

Molecular Identification of Fungal Strains Using 16s rRNA Sequencing and A Comparative Assessment of their Efficiency on Reduction of Biological Oxygen Demand in Textile Industry Effluent

Chaithra C, Hina Kousar, Dhanushree D M, Akshatha K U, Veena H R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 7, Pages 6890-6897

Textile industry effluents contain considerable volumes of dyes, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), organic and inorganic chemicals, all of which, if not managed appropriately, can cause threats to the environment.. Many treatment technologies are already in use, but due to their drawbacks standard biological treatment methods are acceptable. The objective of the present study was to isolate and conduct molecular identification of fungal strains and assess the reduction in biological oxygen demand (BOD). Using the pour plate technique, two microbial strains were extracted from textile industry contaminated soil and textile industry effluent. Based on their molecular analyses, the isolates were identified as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus aculeatus, and they were deposited at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) under accession numbers (MZ544387) and (MZ569631), respectively. They were tested to see if they could reduce high amounts of biological oxygen demand (BOD) from textile industry wastewater. According to the findings, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus aculeatus have a good ability to reduce BOD levels from textile industry effluents, with percentages ranging from 82.64% to 95.10% and 84.93% to 96.77%, respectively. The isolated fungi have been shown to be promising candidates and can used in reduction of BOD concentration in textile industry effluent

A REVIEW ON BIODEGRADATION OF PLASTICS

Mrs.S. Gini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 3449-3463

In modern era, the use of plastic product in different sector of industry is increasing day by day.Plastic waste management and recycling became a serious global issue as it affects living beings from all the ecosystems.Their disperse disposal in land andwater arouses threats for human, wildlife and aqua life. Researches have been carried out on plastic degradation to find solutionto overcome these environmental hazards. Biodegradation emerges as one of the promising solution to manage theplastic waste which could not be recycled. In biodegradation processmicroorganism and their enzymes are applied to degrade the syntheticand bio-based plastics. This review gives the current progresson biodegradation of various plastic polymers by microorganisms andenzymes to determine the extent of degradation.

STUDY of MICROBIAL AIR CONTAMINATION IN BIOLOGICAL LABORATORIES/ COLLEGE of SCIENCE

Dunia K. Salim

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 123-129

Objective: A study on indoor air play important roles in human health by polluted indoor labrotory and causes some diseases such as infections skin, eyes, respiratory system , allergy and biotoxicity. Air is made up of enormous of microorganisms mainly bacteria. Their estimation is important as an indication of cleanliness of any particular environment. The presence both bacteria and fungi in indoor air is problem of health protection due to a long time period that workers and students stay indoors. Determination of level microbial pollution indoors is necessary to assess the health hazard for indoor air quality control. This study provides information on microbial contamination level of indoor air of biological labrotary was estimated. Material and Methods: Collected air samples from seven bio-laboratories and low, up corridors locations during April-June 2019. Air samples were taken three months : in the in the afternoon. Results: The higher of percentage of isolated airborne bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis, it was 58.57% and 26.84% for all biological laboratories respectively at study location, while the lowest percentage were Klebsiella sp. and Protus sp., it was 11.98% and 4.29% for all biological laboratories, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded from the current study that is advisable that estimate to check microorganisms loads in Laboratories and prevent their increase and spread

Antibacterial Finishing and Dyeing Affinity Enhancement of cellulose-based fabrics via pre-treatment by chitosan nanoparticles treatment

Fatma A. Mohamed; Maysa M. Reda

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2378-2392

Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared as green antibacterial finishing material and enhance antimicrobial activity of cellulose-based fabrics such as cotton and viscose. Two new bifunctional dye Bis (monochlorotriazine) (MCT) and hetero bifunctional (SES/MCT) reactive dyes have been prepared in previous work. Dimedone moiety (5,5-Dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione) and applied in cellulose-based fabrics with various chitosan nanoparticles concentrations imparting them antimicrobial activity. In this work the effect of chitosan nanoparticles on dye ability of cellulose-based fabrics were studied from evaluation of the colour strength expressed in K/S values of the dyed fabrics at different concentration of chitosan nanoparticles and the two synthesized used dyes. Results showed that chitosan nanoparticles treated cellulose-based fabrics have higher affinity towards dyeing than untreated cellulose-based fabrics. Also, the antimicrobial properties of the treated fabrics were higher than that of untreated fabrics and give higher exhaustion without using any salts and alkalinity. So, chitosan nanoparticles exhibit cellulose based fabrics high antimicrobial and having dyeing affinity than untreated one. Also, treated dyed fabrics showed very good to excellent fastness properties.

Isolation and Identification of fungi from post-harvest stored onion varieties and their control measures with organic formulations

Vinay Kumar; Neeraj .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 2664-2675

The research work entitled “Studies on preventive measures to reduce the postharvest losses in onion (Allium cepa L.)” was carried out at NIFTEM, Sonepat, Haryana, India during Rabi seasons of 2014-15 and 2015-16. The research work was carried out with objectives of studying the effect of application of organic formulations (applied as pre-harvest foliar spray viz., Neem based formulation (Besara) at the rate of 20ml/L; Panchgavya at the rate of 100ml/L; Trichoderma viride (Bio Shield) at the rate of 50g/L) on growth period of selected onion varieties (Pusa Madhavi, Pusa Riddhi, Pusa Red, NHRDF Red and Agri found Light Red) grown during Rabi season in Haryana region. The formulations were applied as four pre-harvest foliar sprays starting from 30 days after transplanting and repeated at an interval of 15 days. The main aim of this experiment was to isolate and identify the pathogenic fungi causing spoilage of stored onion bulbs under cold and ambient conditions. Additionally, the efficacy of organic formulations against the isolated pathogenic fungi was studied under both the onion storage conditions. Fungal isolates responsible for disease and rotting as identified under cold storage condition were Penicillum purpurogenum, Penicillum griseofalvum, Penicillum citrinum and as Aspergillus niger under ambient storge contion. Under in-vitro condition, Neem based formulation (Besaara) was most effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The efficacy of organic formulations in restricting the fungal growth was higher with higher concentration (i.e. at 20%).