Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Vitamin D


An observational study to assess the serum Vitamin D levels and Kellgren-Lawrence grading in patients of primary osteoarthritis

Dr. Sangeeta Khyalia, Dr. Ravinder Kumar Lamoria, Dr. Rahul Dhaka, Dr. Pramod Singh Chahar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 608-614

Aim: To assess the serum Vitamin D levels and Kellgren-Lawrence grading in patients of
Primary Osteoarthritis.
Materials and Methods: The present observational study was carried out on the patients
coming to the OPD of the Department of Orthopedics, SMS Medical College and Hospital,
Jaipur. All patients complaining of Osteoarthritis of the knee joint and willing to participate
in the study were interviewed for age, sex, history of inflammatory arthritis or any rheumatic
disease, complain of celiac disease & malabsorption syndrome or any history of intake of any
drug that might affect serum Vit D levels. After the successful running of Quality Controls
the clear serum obtained from patient’s serum was analyzed on Advia Centaur XP (for
Vitamin D & PTH) & fully automated chemistry analyzer Beckman Coulter AU 680 (for
routine biochemical parameters). Based on the serum biochemistry results, patients with
deranged RFT & LFT were excluded from the study & the Serum Vitamin D, PTH, Calcium
and Phosphorus levels of the patients with normal RFT & LFT were documented.
Results: In our study maximum number of patients (109, 41.44%) fell in the age group 51-60
years with age ranging from 37-70 years. Mean age is 55.37 ± 8.04 years. Male female ratio
was 0.81:1. Mean serum Vitamin D level is 18.27±8.34 ng/ml with range from 4.2-44.34
ng/ml. Maximum no. of patients were in the Vitamin D deficient group (148, 56.27%), 96
(36.5%) patients were Vitamin D insufficient while only 19 (7.23%) patients had Vitamin D
levels above normal range. Maximum number of cases were of grade 3 (90, 34.22%).
followed by grade 2 (82, 31.18%). Minimum no. of cases are of grade 0 (7, 2.66%) followed
by grade 1 (22, 8.36%). The mean Kellgren- Lawrence grading for the cases is 2.68 ± 1.01.
Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in Osteoarthritis patients. But
this prevalence needs to be compared with the prevalence in general population by including
age & sex-matched healthy controls. The present study could be further taken in this
direction.

Analysis of the Association Between Serum Vitamin D Concentration and Mortality in Severe Septic Patients at a Tertiary Care Centre

Ashok Parmar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 10996-11000

Background: Pathophysiologically, vitamin D deficiency has been related to inflammation
and immune dysfunction, which may be the potential reason for the increased susceptibility
of the individual to severe infection or sepsis. The present study was conducted to analyze the
association between serum vitamin D concentration and mortality in severe septic patients.
Materials and Methods: Whole blood collected was placed into the tubes containing
ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as an anticoagulant. After completion of samples, the
concentration of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 was measured by enzyme-linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA). SPSS version 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was
used for data analysis. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: In the present study a total of 250 patients were included in which 110(44%) were
females and 140(56%) were males. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in critically ill
subjects with sepsis was 100% (250/250). 32% patients with non-severe sepsis,16% with
severe sepsis, and 48% with septic shock. Patients suffering from severe septic had lower
levels of vitamin D compared to those with septic shock and non-severe sepsis. 12.5%
patients with severe sepsis who had vit D3 deficiency died and 50% patients with septic
shock who had vit D3 deficiency died.
Conclusion: 12.5% patients with severe sepsis who had vit D3 deficiency died and 50%
patients with septic shock who had vit D3 deficiency died.

A Hospital Based Comparative Study to Evaluate the Association of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections with Serum Vitamin-D Levels in Children Between 2 Months to 5 Years of Age

Priyanka Singh, Abender Singh Maanju, Monisha Sahai

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 5789-5796

Background: Vitamin D has long been known to play a role in the skeletal system and
calcium homeostasis; the deficiency of which causes rickets and osteoporosis. There is
growing evidence that vitamin D also contributes positively to pulmonary health.
Vitamin D deficiency is a common and important nutritional deficiency in children in
India. Clinical and subclinical vitamin D deficiency in children has been reported to be
a significant risk factor for severe acute respiratory tract infection. The aim of this
study to compare the evaluation of the association of acute respiratory tract infections
with serum vitamin-D levels in children between 2 months to 5 years of age.

A study to assess the level of Vitamin D status and its association with the severity of the pneumonia

Syed Shah Sarmast, Rajendra Shinde, Priyanka More, SK Satpathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 822-827

Background: The effects of Vitamin D on bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis have
already been well recognized. Emerging evidence has implicated Vitamin D as a critical
regulator of immunity, playing a role in both the innate and cell-mediated immune systems.
Emerging evidence has implicated Vitamin D as a critical regulator of immunity, playing a
role in both the innate and cell-mediated immune systems. Vitamin D deficiency has been
found to be associated with several immune-mediated diseases, susceptibility to infection and
cancer. Further elucidation of the role of Vitamin D in lung development and immune system
function may hold profound implications for the prevention and treatment of asthma.
Objective: To study the Vitamin D Status of children having severe pneumonia and to know
if there is any relation between Vitamin D levels and severe pneumonia.
Methodology: The present prospective study was conducted by the department of Pediatrics
at SCBMCH & SVVPGIP, Cuttack from October 2013 to October 2015 among the children
with the age group of 1 to 5 years of age who were admitted in the department with
complains of Pneumonia. A total of 80 children who were having severe and very severe
pneumonia diagnosed based on WHO ARI (acute respiratory tract infection) criteria admitted
to the SCBMCH & SVVPGIP (General, Pay ward & PICU) in the age group of 1 to 5 years.
Results: In this study, we found that 50% of the children among cases had vitamin D levels
in the deficiency range while 41.3% and in the insufficiency group while we had 8.8% of the
children in the sufficiency group as compared to the healthy controls 20(71.4%) among 28
belongs to sufficient age group, 5(17.9%) to insufficient group and 3(10.7%) to the deficient
group. One significant finding in this study was that out of the 27 children in the sufficiency
group none of them were there in the very severe pneumonia group which suggests as the
Vitamin D levels Increases the severity of the condition decreases.
Conclusion: In this study, we found that Vitamin D levels were related to severity of the
disease as there were no children in the sufficiency group having very severe pneumonia.
Hence we can say as the levels of Vitamin D falls the severity of pneumonia Increases.

Correlation Analysis of Serum Magnesium and Vitamin D Level in Vitamin D Deficient Patients and Vit D Sufficient Patients

Ajinkya Murudkar, Sumeet Chadha, Jagjeet Singh Bahia, Arvinder Kaur, Sahil Chhabra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 1377-1382

Introduction: In the body, nutrients normally work together in a coordinated fashion.
The availability of certain nutrients influences the uptake of another nutrient in the
intestine. Magnesium and vitamin D are two critical nutrients that are required for
diverse organ physiologic activities.
Objectives: The present study was conducted to analyze the relationship between serum
magnesium and vitamin D and to compare the levels of serum magnesium in vitamin D
deficient patients and vit D sufficient patients.
Methods: Present study was a prospective, observational, cohort, single centric,
hospital-based study conducted over the duration of one year. Total 100 patients were
recruited in the study and relationship between Serum magnesium and vitamin D was
assessed. According to the levels of vitamin D the patients were sub-grouped into three
categories: Normal: Vitamin D >= 30ng/ml (10 patients), Insufficient: Vitamin D >= 20
and <=30 ng/ml (12 patients), and Deficient: Vitamin D <= 20ng/ml (78 patients).
Results: Vitamin D in normal group was 54.68 ± 8.965, in insufficient group was 25.79 ±
2.842 and in deficient group was 7.704 ± 3.909. The difference between three group was
significant. Magnesium in normal group was 1.572 ± 0.1098, in insufficient group was
1.603 ± 0.1014 and in deficient group was 1.625 ± 0.1092. The difference between three
group was not significant. Correlation analysis of Vitamin D and magnesium revealed a
negative correlation in normal group (r= -0.3561), and a positive correlation in
insufficient group (r=0.1277) and deficient group (r=0.01423).
Conclusion: Based on serum magnesium levels, the research can assess the need for
mediational cost and unfavourable side effects associated with multitherapy with
vitamin D and magnesium, as per current clinical practise.

Vitamin D status and its association with disease activity in early rheumatoid arthritis in rural population of central India

Granth Kumar, Vidya Sagar Ram,Pankaj Kumar, Amit Varshney

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 648-652

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease
characterized by joint swelling, joint tenderness, and destruction of synovial joints,
leading to severe disability and premature mortality. Early rheumatoid arthritis is
defines as “RA with duration of disease/symptoms of disease < 6 month.”
Aim:To study serum vitamin D level in newly onset rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Methodology: It is a Case-control study, all patients fulfilling revised American College
ofRheumatology criteria/EULAR criteria(2010) for Rheumatoid Arthritis being
attended to in therheumatology clinic, Tools like Oral questionnaire, History &
Clinicalexamination,laboratory equipments will be used.Sample size is 45 cases and 45
controls, complying with inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Result: The study suggested that, mean value of Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI)
of RA was 12.24±8.05 in cases and 2.89±0.83 in control, DAS28 Score was 4.24 ± 1.07 in
cases and 3.00 ± 0.37 in control, it showed statistically significant association between
serum Vitamin D3 level with CDAI and DAS28 Score in rheumatoid arthritis patients.
Conclusion: The study results suggest that the inverse relationship between serum
Vitamin D levels and RA disease activity.

Correlation of vitamin D and Parathyroid hormone with insulin resistance in PCOS women

Govind Kahar, Akanksha Shrivastava,Rupali Sharma, Sonal Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 422-427

Aim: To investigate the relation of vitamin D concentration and parathyroid hormone with insulin resistance in PCOS women.
Methods: In the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar Medical College & Hospital, Rohini, Delhi, a one-year observational study was conducted. The levels of 25, hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, as well as the levels of fasting sugar and insulin in the blood, were tested.
Results: There was a 91.0 percent prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<20 ng/ml) in the study, whereas 67.9 percent of participants had an elevated parathyroid hormone level.
According to the study, vitamin D insufficiency (r=-0.64, p=0.01) had a significant negative connection with the HOMA-IR. Increased PTH levels were shown to have a positive correlation with HOMA-IR.
Conclusion: Women with PCOS who have high parathyroid hormone levels or vitamin D insufficiency have a higher incidence of glucose intolerance.
If vitamin D insufficiency and insulin resistance are strongly linked, it may be possible to treat insulin resistance by raising vitamin D levels.

Serum levels of vitamin d and lipid profile in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A comparative study

Faizan-i- Asrar Nazki, Syyeda Anees,Haamid Bashir, Mohsin Wazir, Sara Mohammad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 686-694

Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent
endocrine illnesses in women of reproductive age. It affects around 5-10% of the world's
population. Irregular menstrual cycles, prolonged anovulation and hyperandrogenism
are all symptoms of the disease. Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, gestational
diabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease may develop over
time.
Aim:To compare the lipid profile and vitamin D levels in women with and without
PCOS in relation to obesity and to determine the Luteinizing hormone[LH], Follicle
Stimulating Hormone[FSH], prolactin[prl] levels in women with PCOS in relation to
obesity
Method: A total of 152 subjects were taken for the study.76 PCOS patients were
identified ultrasonographically and clinically from November 2015 to July 2017, and 76
normal menstruatingwomen served as controls in the study conducted at Deccan
Medical College and Princess EsraHospital, Hyderabad. All the subjects were
categorized as obese or lean based on their BMI.
Results: In comparison to obese participants without PCOS, PCOS obese subjects had
higher TG and TC levels and lower HDL levels, according to the study. When
compared to lean subjects without PCOS, PCOS lean subjects had higher TG, TC, and
LDL values. The HDL levels of PCOS lean patients were observed to be lower than
those of lean subjects without PCOS. Vitamin D levels were also shown to be
considerably lower in PCOS patients (both obese and non-obese) than in healthy
controls.

Correlation of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone with insulin resistance in PCOS women.

Dr. Govind Kahar, Dr. Akanksha Srivastava,Dr. Rupali Sharma, Sonal Prasad

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 731-735

Aim: To investigate the relation of vitamin D concentration and parathyroid hormone with
insulin resistance in PCOS women.
Methods: In the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Dr. Baba Saheb Ambedkar
medical college & hospital Rohini Delhi, a one-year observational study was conducted. The
levels of 25, hydroxyvitamin D and PTH, as well as the levels of fasting sugar and insulin in
the blood, were tested.
Results: There was a 91.0 percent prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (

Evaluation of role of Vitamin D in grip strength in postmenopausal women withdistal radius fracture

Dr. Naveena Jyothi H

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2022, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 846-852

Background: In the skin, under influence of ultraviolet radiation, 7-dehydrocholesterol is
photoconverted to provitamin D3, which is converted to Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). In the
serum, bound to a Vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), Vitamin D3 is transported to the liver,
where it is hydroxylated to 25(OH)D3. In the kidneys, 25(OH)D3 is further metabolized to
1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)D3], the biologically active form of Vitamin
D.Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) is known to contribute to muscular function.
Material and Methods: In this comparative study, Two groups were formed, First group as a
case in which vitamin D was supplemented and second group as control in which Vitamin D
was not supplemented, both the group had 25 number of post- menopausal women who had
Vitamin D level between sufficient range (30-100ng/ml) and were treated with same mode of
treatment (closed reduction and Percutaneous K-wire fixation) for Distal end radius fracture.
Grip strength recovery (in %) was compared in both the group after a period of 6 months.
Results: Final grip strength recovery of all patients came out to be 67%, out of which, in
supplemented group it came out to be 73% while in non-supplemented group came out to be
60% with p value of statistically significance proving major difference in grip strength
recovery in % at 6 months in both the groups.
Conclusion:We concluded with our series that vitamin D supplementation significantly helps
in improving the grip strength recovery in Post-menopausal women after a Distal End Radius
fracture.

Assessment of effectiveness of vitamin D supplements in the patients suffering from Alzheimer disease

Arghadip Das,Himani Jitendra kumar Suthar,Levis Abin Joy,Vinodh Boopalraj

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 878-881

Background: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common form of
dementia. The present study was conducted to assess effectiveness of vitamin D
supplements in the patients suffering from Alzheimer disease.
Materials & Methods:60 patients of Alzheimer disease of both genders were divided
into 3 groups of 20 each. Group I were prescribed memantine alone, group II were
prescribed vitamin D alone and group III were prescribed memantine plus vitamin D
for 6 months. Cognitive change with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) was
assessed.
Results: Group I had 20 males and 10 females, group II had 12 males and 18 females
and group III had 16 males and 14 females. The mean MMSE score before treatment in
group I was 16.8 and after treatment was 16.4, in group II before treatment was 18.3
and after treatment was 17.5, in group III before treatment was 13.4 and after
treatment was 17.2. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Patients who took memantine plus vitamin D had a statistically and
clinically relevant gain in cognition as compared to memantine and vitamin D alone.

The association between neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, vitamin (D) deficiency and development of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients

Dr. Mohamed Omar Abdel Aziz; Prof. Dr. Amr Mahmoud Abdel Wahab; Prof. Dr. Rawhya R Elshereef; Dr. Hend Mohammed MonessAly; Dr. ReemMamdouh Abdel Salam Ali; Dr. Wael M Abdel- Ghany; Dr. Mahmoud Ragab Mohamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1979-1991

Background/Aims:Some studies had suggested that neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) levels grow with
the increase of nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Recently, several studies found that vitamin (D)
deficiency can cause the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complication including neuropathy.The
aim of our study is to evaluate the association betweenNLR, vitamin (D) deficiency and development of
peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients.
Methods: In cross sectional study we selected a total of 60 T2DM patients.All patients underwent nerve
conduction study (NCS). Then we divided them according to the results into two groups, 45 patients with
DPN and 15 patients without DPN as a control group.DPN group wassubdivided according to NCS
results into three groups,11 patients with mononeuropathy,4 patients with mononeuropathy multiplex
and30 patients with polyneuropathy. We evaluated the effect of DPN in these patients as regarded NCS
results on HbA1c levels, NLR and vitamin (D) levels.

NEED OF VITAMIN D BEYOND BONE: A CONSISE REVIEW.

Roshan Kumar Jha; Deepika Kanyal; Dr. Archana Dhok; Lata Kanyal Butola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1096-1109

Vitamin D is also known as calciferol because of its role in calcium metabolism and antirachitic factor because it prevents rickets. It is a modified steroid, synthesised in the skin under the influence of sunlight and is necessary for metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Its RDA is 400 IU or 10 mg, it binds to the receptor of target cells and regulate through gene expression. Vitamin D undergoes hydroxylation in the liver to form 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D]. The two main forms are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). The main source of vitamin D in humans is in the form of vitamin D3, which is derived from synthesis in the skin via exposure of 7- dehydrocholesterol, concentrated in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum, to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. Vitamin D2 is obtained from the diet, and is derived from ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, found in fungi. Both metabolites are transported in the blood bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). These inactive vitamin D metabolites must undergo a two-step hydroxylation process to become biologically active. Initially, vitamin D2 and D3 undergo hydroxylation in the maternal liver, via the action of vitamin D 25-hydroxylase enzyme (CYP27A1), to form the inactive steroid precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). 25[OH]D is the major circulating and stored form of vitamin D. In this present review we have focused on need of vitamin D beyond bone.

Assessment of prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among chronic liver diseases patients and its correlation with severity of liver diseases: An observational study

SPSingh, NitinSoni, SouravBansal, HarjeevanSingh Kalra

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 2284-2288

Background: Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are prevalent in almost half the
healthy population of developed countries. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of
Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) is not fully understood.Hence; the present study was
conducted with the aim of assessing the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among chronic
liver diseases patients and its correlation with severity of liver diseases.Materials &
methods: A total of 50 patients with presence of chronic liver diseases were included.
Complete demographic and clinical details of all the patients were obtained. A Performa
was made and spectrum of clinical profile of all the patients was recorded. Blood samples
were obtained and serum vitamin D levels were obtained using auto-analyzer. Grading of
the patients was done using Child-Pugh Score grading. All the results were recorded and
analyzed by SPSS software.Results: Vitamin D deficiency was seen in 84 percent of the
patients. Vitamin D levels among patients with Grade A, Grade B and Grade C of Child-
Pugh score grade was found to be 32.36 ng/mL, 22.12 ng/mL and 16.48 ng/mL
respectively. Significant results were obtained while correlating Vitamin D levels with
Child-Pugh grade.Conclusion: Patients with chronic liver diseases have significantly
altered Vitamin D metabolism. Hence; Vitamin D deficiency directly correlates with
severity of disease.

KNOWLEDGE and AWARENESS of VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG the GENERAL ADULT POPULATION in BAHRAIN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Hala Mohamed Sanad; Gayathri Priya; Jameela Jassim Mukhaimer; Govindaraj V. Asokan; Safia Belal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 180-191

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem in many countries, including Bahrain. However, little data exists about the awareness and the level of knowledge of vitamin D among Arab Gulf populations. Method: A cross-sectional study design was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to an adult sample of 335 participants seeking information on their knowledge about vitamin D. Findings: 81.2% of the study participants had unsatisfactory total knowledge score of vitamin D. Level of education and the sources of information about vitamin D were the main significant factors that appear to influence the participants’ vitamin D awareness status. Most the participants recognized that exposure to sunlight encourages the production of vitamin D, however, only a small proportion of participants were aware of the sources of vitamin D in daily food intake and health consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: There is inadequate knowledge and awareness regarding vitamin D deficiency among adult Bahrain population. Health campaigns are urgently needed in order to improve the community’s knowledge about the benefits and sources of vitamin D

Profile of Vitamin D and Interleukin-8 in COPD Exacerbation

Riswan Idris; Muhammad Ilyas; Erwin Arief; Syakib Bakri; A Makbul Aman; Haerani Ra-syid; Hasyim Kasim; Andi Fachruddin Benyamin; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1484-1494

Background: To determine the profile of vitamin D and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in COPD exacerbation.
Method: This research is an analytical study with a cross-sectional approach conducted at the Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar from March-June 2020. Serum levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) and IL-8 were measured using the ELISA method in 65 exacerbated COPD patients based on clinical examination, chest radiograph, & spirome-try. The exacerbation criteria were based on Anthonisen and divided into two groups ac-cording to the exacerbation frequency in the past year (frequent exacerbations was often ≥ 3 times/year, infrequent exacerbation < 3 times/year) and related to gender, age, nutrition-al status, smoking status based on the Brinkman index, and obstruction degree according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2019.
Results: This study consisted of 65 exacerbated COPD subjects (62 men, 95.4%), with age of ≥ 60 years 73.8%, frequent exacerbations of ≥ 3 times/year, 69.3%, vitamin D deficiency status of 76.9 %, and it was found to be significantly lower (15.1 ng/ml) at the frequent ex-acerbations of ≥ 3 times/year (P <0.01). The means of IL-8 levels were 187.48 +68.30 ng/L and found to be significantly higher (206.7 ng/L) in the frequent exacerbations ≥ 3 times/year (P <0.01). In all subgroups according to gender, age, nutritional status, smok-ing status, and obstruction degree, there was a tendency for the lowest vitamin D and higher IL-8 in the frequent exacerbations of ≥3times/year. Conclusion: Vitamin D levels were found to be the lowest and IL-8 was higher in COPD patients with frequent exacerbations of ≥ 3 times/year, compared to those with the infre-quent exacerbations of < 3 times/year.

ASSESSMENT THE KNOWLEDGE REGARDING VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG FEMALE ADULT ATTENDING THE PRIMARY HEALTH CLINIC AT MAKKAH , SAUDI ARABIA SAUDI ARABIAN IN 2019: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Sammar Ali M Jalal, Mohammed Ahmed Omar Almahmudi, Amal abdulkader habhab, Mohammad Hassan Saqeer Alhothali, Nader Mohammad Alharbi, Ahlam Saleem Almagnoni Wajdi Bashah Khider Alnadwi, Nada Mohammed Saaed Alharbi, Rami Husein Saad Almasri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 139-149

Background
      Vitamin D is one of the major vitamin and very essential for maintenance of normal growth and development of strong bones. It is often referred to as the "sunshine vitamin" because it can be synthesized in the body from the ultraviolet rays provided by the sun. Vitamin D is known to have essential roles in the human body. However, the case of vitamin deficiency is reported to increase in many adult worldwide, especially in Saudi Arabia. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with numerous chronic diseases including cancer, heart disease and diabetes type 1 and 2. It is currently estimated that one billion people suffer from vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Sunlight is the main and natural source of vitamin D and most foods contain very little amount of it. The main action of vitamin D is to help calcium and phosphorus in our diet to be absorbed from the gut.
 Aim of the study: The study’s aim was to assess the knowledge regarding vitamin D deficiency ​among female adult attending the primary health clinic at Makkah at Saudi Arabia
Methodology: Across sectional descriptive study was conducted among female adult attending to clinic in PHC at Makkah, Saudi Arabia city, during the October to December, 2019. Our total participants were (150).  Results: Major findings of the study were (38%) adult women were in the group of age between 25 to 35 years. The majority of the women (84.67%) “married” status. The majority of the women were (49.33) secondary level of education, regarding chronic disease, most of the mothers in the study were found to have no chronic disease were (62.00%). The income level of (56.0%) of the respondents ranged average, the majority of the women were (42.0%) Sources of knowledge doctor.
 Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among the various age groups in our country due to various factors. So, Awareness programmes have to be conducted to make the general public including the females aware of the vitamin D, its deficiency, causative factors and the preventive measures. So this study was done this study was conducted assessment the knowledge towards vitamin D deficiency, sun exposure, supplementation in a sample of adult female attending the primary health clinic at Makkah, Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian.