Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : vitamin D


Roshan Kumar Jha; Deepika Kanyal; Dr. Archana Dhok; Lata Kanyal Butola

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1096-1109

Vitamin D is also known as calciferol because of its role in calcium metabolism and antirachitic factor because it prevents rickets. It is a modified steroid, synthesised in the skin under the influence of sunlight and is necessary for metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Its RDA is 400 IU or 10 mg, it binds to the receptor of target cells and regulate through gene expression. Vitamin D undergoes hydroxylation in the liver to form 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D]. The two main forms are vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). The main source of vitamin D in humans is in the form of vitamin D3, which is derived from synthesis in the skin via exposure of 7- dehydrocholesterol, concentrated in the stratum basale and stratum spinosum, to ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. Vitamin D2 is obtained from the diet, and is derived from ultraviolet irradiation of ergosterol, found in fungi. Both metabolites are transported in the blood bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP). These inactive vitamin D metabolites must undergo a two-step hydroxylation process to become biologically active. Initially, vitamin D2 and D3 undergo hydroxylation in the maternal liver, via the action of vitamin D 25-hydroxylase enzyme (CYP27A1), to form the inactive steroid precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D). 25[OH]D is the major circulating and stored form of vitamin D. In this present review we have focused on need of vitamin D beyond bone.

The association between neutrophil lymphocyte ratio, vitamin (D) deficiency and development of peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients

Dr. Mohamed Omar Abdel Aziz; Prof. Dr. Amr Mahmoud Abdel Wahab; Prof. Dr. Rawhya R Elshereef; Dr. Hend Mohammed MonessAly; Dr. ReemMamdouh Abdel Salam Ali; Dr. Wael M Abdel- Ghany; Dr. Mahmoud Ragab Mohamed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1979-1991

Background/Aims:Some studies had suggested that neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) levels grow with
the increase of nerve conduction velocity (NCV). Recently, several studies found that vitamin (D)
deficiency can cause the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complication including neuropathy.The
aim of our study is to evaluate the association betweenNLR, vitamin (D) deficiency and development of
peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients.
Methods: In cross sectional study we selected a total of 60 T2DM patients.All patients underwent nerve
conduction study (NCS). Then we divided them according to the results into two groups, 45 patients with
DPN and 15 patients without DPN as a control group.DPN group wassubdivided according to NCS
results into three groups,11 patients with mononeuropathy,4 patients with mononeuropathy multiplex
and30 patients with polyneuropathy. We evaluated the effect of DPN in these patients as regarded NCS
results on HbA1c levels, NLR and vitamin (D) levels.


Hala Mohamed Sanad; Gayathri Priya; Jameela Jassim Mukhaimer; Govindaraj V. Asokan; Safia Belal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 180-191

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem in many countries, including Bahrain. However, little data exists about the awareness and the level of knowledge of vitamin D among Arab Gulf populations. Method: A cross-sectional study design was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to an adult sample of 335 participants seeking information on their knowledge about vitamin D. Findings: 81.2% of the study participants had unsatisfactory total knowledge score of vitamin D. Level of education and the sources of information about vitamin D were the main significant factors that appear to influence the participants’ vitamin D awareness status. Most the participants recognized that exposure to sunlight encourages the production of vitamin D, however, only a small proportion of participants were aware of the sources of vitamin D in daily food intake and health consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: There is inadequate knowledge and awareness regarding vitamin D deficiency among adult Bahrain population. Health campaigns are urgently needed in order to improve the community’s knowledge about the benefits and sources of vitamin D

Profile of Vitamin D and Interleukin-8 in COPD Exacerbation

Riswan Idris; Muhammad Ilyas; Erwin Arief; Syakib Bakri; A Makbul Aman; Haerani Ra-syid; Hasyim Kasim; Andi Fachruddin Benyamin; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1484-1494

Background: To determine the profile of vitamin D and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in COPD exacerbation.
Method: This research is an analytical study with a cross-sectional approach conducted at the Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital Makassar from March-June 2020. Serum levels of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) and IL-8 were measured using the ELISA method in 65 exacerbated COPD patients based on clinical examination, chest radiograph, & spirome-try. The exacerbation criteria were based on Anthonisen and divided into two groups ac-cording to the exacerbation frequency in the past year (frequent exacerbations was often ≥ 3 times/year, infrequent exacerbation < 3 times/year) and related to gender, age, nutrition-al status, smoking status based on the Brinkman index, and obstruction degree according to the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2019.
Results: This study consisted of 65 exacerbated COPD subjects (62 men, 95.4%), with age of ≥ 60 years 73.8%, frequent exacerbations of ≥ 3 times/year, 69.3%, vitamin D deficiency status of 76.9 %, and it was found to be significantly lower (15.1 ng/ml) at the frequent ex-acerbations of ≥ 3 times/year (P <0.01). The means of IL-8 levels were 187.48 +68.30 ng/L and found to be significantly higher (206.7 ng/L) in the frequent exacerbations ≥ 3 times/year (P <0.01). In all subgroups according to gender, age, nutritional status, smok-ing status, and obstruction degree, there was a tendency for the lowest vitamin D and higher IL-8 in the frequent exacerbations of ≥3times/year. Conclusion: Vitamin D levels were found to be the lowest and IL-8 was higher in COPD patients with frequent exacerbations of ≥ 3 times/year, compared to those with the infre-quent exacerbations of < 3 times/year.