Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : Knowledge


Oviya M; Jayanth Kumar V; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 460-472

The aim of this study is to determine the understanding regarding the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. The purpose of this study is to create awareness and determine the understanding of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called Survey Monkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students who are currently practicing in Chennai participated in the study. As an overall result, most of the participants are aware of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems. As a conclusion, awareness on the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students in Chennai is adequate but certain knowledge has to be brushed up among them for a higher level. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treat their patients with more consent and awareness.

Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Towards Endodontic Management Of Radix Cases

Anubhav Chakrabarty; Lt. Col. Sonali Sharma; Maj. Sourabh Sharma; Maj. Sumit Sharma; Maj SGP Sudhir Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1052-1058

Background: The main objective of root canal treatment is the thorough mechanical and chemical cleaning and shaping of the root canals. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices towards endodontic management of Radix cases amongst clinicians of varied experience including general dentists, specialists and Endodontists.
Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted on 267 participants of both genders. A well - formulated questionnaire of 13 questions was handed to all participants. They were divided into 4 groups. Group I were undergraduate students, group II were postgraduate students, group III were experienced Endodontists and group IV were other specialists.
Results: More than 15 years experience was seen in 29%, maximum RCTs done were 41-50 by 22%, no of Radix till date were >30 by 37%, Radix Ento molaris is more common by 80%, 1st molar is associated with Radix in 96%, 76% not maintaining data base, 55.8% feel that accurate diagnosis is management of Radix, 75% feel multiple RVG is pre- operative management, 19% feel CBCT is necessary. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: The initial diagnosis is of utmost importance, to facilitate the endodontic procedure and to avoid treatment failures. There is a need to improve knowledge and awareness in the management of Radix cases.

Knowledge about Covid-19: Sample From Iraqi People

Sahar Abdul-Hassan Al- Shatari; Hassan HadiBaker Al kazza

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 185-197

Good knowledge about Covid-19 transmission and nature prevents transmission of microorganisms and reduces the incidence of Covid-19 in the community. To assess knowledge of Iraqi people about covid-19&to find the source of information about covid-19. Method: Cross-sectional study was done from 1stJune-1stJuly 2020, by electronic version of questionnaire through Google-form. Any Iraqi adult can read Arabic and use the internet media (e-mails, telegram, viber, whatsapp, Facebook) or by hand to hand as hard-copy, and accepted to answer the questionnaire through friend, friend of friend, relatives, work colleagues with A Brief message.Analysed by SPSS ver. 23, frequencies and percentages calculated. The study revealed enrolling of 700 Iraqi people from difference part of Iraq and difference were participant in it, the main age of them 230(32.9%) aged 20-29 years old, females 416(59.4%), complete secondary school388(55.4%), near 60% of them working in non-medical field, and governmental employee 364(52.0%), and there-residency in Baghdad city 457(65%), followed by holly-Karbala 8%, and bible 4%, good knowledgein prevention of Covid-19 transmission, Strength the immunity against covid-19 infection and its complication, and the Overall knowledge appear as good 691(99%) the Internet is the major source of the information about the covid-19; 568(81.1%). Conclusion: most of participants had good knowledge in prevention and strength the immunity and vaccination of covid 19, and the main source of information is the internet then TV & radio.


Hala Mohamed Sanad; Gayathri Priya; Jameela Jassim Mukhaimer; Govindaraj V. Asokan; Safia Belal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 180-191

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem in many countries, including Bahrain. However, little data exists about the awareness and the level of knowledge of vitamin D among Arab Gulf populations. Method: A cross-sectional study design was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to an adult sample of 335 participants seeking information on their knowledge about vitamin D. Findings: 81.2% of the study participants had unsatisfactory total knowledge score of vitamin D. Level of education and the sources of information about vitamin D were the main significant factors that appear to influence the participants’ vitamin D awareness status. Most the participants recognized that exposure to sunlight encourages the production of vitamin D, however, only a small proportion of participants were aware of the sources of vitamin D in daily food intake and health consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: There is inadequate knowledge and awareness regarding vitamin D deficiency among adult Bahrain population. Health campaigns are urgently needed in order to improve the community’s knowledge about the benefits and sources of vitamin D


Surmakhon Ismoilova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2381-2386

In the article, we informed that extracurricular reading strengthens and enriches children's knowledge and skills acquired in the classroom and constantly stimulates children's interest in reading fiction, as well as one of the important aspects of extracurricular reading is that it improves students' independent work skills.

Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 Quarantine in South India: A online cross-sectional survey

Narrain shree S; Jagannathan K; Vinod N P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1530-1545

COVID-19 has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. originated from China and has rapidly crossed borders, infecting people throughout the whole world. The present study sought to determine knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) of South Indian population toward COVID-19 Quarantine.
Methods: An online cross sectional, semi-structured questionnaire was undertaken through google forms among South Indian population (SIPs). SIPs aged 18 years and above constituted the study population. Data was analyzed using SPSS Software
Results: Totally 280 responses were received. The responders had a moderate level of knowledge about the COVID-19 infection and adequate knowledge about its preventive aspects. The attitude towards COVID-19 showed peoples' willingness to follow government guidelines on quarantine and social distancing. 32% of Participants have felt stressed during quarantine and 32.4% of participant had sleep disturbance. Alarmingly 32% are not anxious and feel free to roam around in public places without protective measures like mask and gloves. In this study, panic about acquiring COVID-19 infection during purchase and travel were reported in 29.5% and 11% participants respectively. The perceived Physical healthcare need was seen in more than 69% of participants.
Conclusions: COVID-19 Quarantine knowledge is gained mainly through media channels, Newspaper, which have strengths and weaknesses. Although the government has taken major steps to educate the public and limit the spread of the disease, there is a need to intensify the alertness of people during this COVID-19 Quarantine.

Knowledge, Attitude, And Practice Of Medical Staff Toward Covid-19: Sample From Baghdad.

Sahar Abdul-Hassan Al- Shatari; Hassan Hadi Al kazzaz

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 117-129

Coronavirus disease pandemic 2019 (COVID-19) is the worst global event after the Second World War. No trustable drugsor vaccine had been discovered for COVID-19 since the start of the pandemic.The study pointed to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among employee in Baghdadhealthfacilities.A cross-section study online survey was conducted from 27th May -19th July 2020, by using of Google-form questionnaire through the emails and social media (Telegram,Viber, WhatsApp, Facebook) or by hand to hand as a hardcopy. Medical-staff in our study had access to the online-link of the questionnaire. The answers Downloaded from the electronic-form of Questionnaire (Google-form) to the computer as an excel file and important to SPSS ver. 23 to be analyzed,frequencies, and percentages calculated.One hundred and seven medical staff (doctors, dentists, and pharmacists) enrolled in this study. The highest percentage of participants was female 72(67.3%), aged 30-39 years 36(33.6%), married 69(64.5%), working in hospital 52(48.6%), family medicine Specialty 30(28.0%), senior 36(33.6). with much-information and good-practice 59(55.1%). A highpercentage of the participants had correct information inDroplets Mode of transmission 103(96.3), Old age as risk group 105(98.1%). The participant's attitude toward partial Quarantine; the highest percentage think it'sincorrect and must stop completely 44(41.1%). Tow-third of them wereworking in quarantine lounges 68(63.5%).Health workers in Iraq neededfurther updating education and training programs about COVID-19 disease. There is a shortage of personal protective equipment in health care facilities.

Dental practitioner’s Knowledge, attitude and infection control practices amid COVID-19 outbreak in India

Mishra Supriya

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1187-1205

Background: Ever since the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the recent spread of SARS-CoV-2 a global public health concern, efforts at every level are being done to contain the spread of the disease. Owing to its route of transmission, dental professionals are at a very high risk of getting infected and resulting in nosocomial infection. Hence, the dentists should have apt knowledge about the COVID-19 disease so that they can be sedulous enough in not only preventing the spread of the disease but also helping in early identification of the suspected patient for timely and optimum management.
Materials and methods: A cross-sectional online questionnaire based survey was done among 1925 private dental practitioners to assess their knowledge, attitude and infection control practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 flare-up. A descriptive analysis was carried out and chi-square test was done to compare the KAP with respect to different participant characteristics.
Results: With a response rate of 64.15%, the overall knowledge of the participants was sufficient (89.5%). However, the negative attitude regarding COVID-19 outbreak was reported in about 74.08% of responders. Majority of the dentists were aware of extended safety protocols owing to COVID-19 crisis but most of them were hesitant to follow it in a fully fledged manner. The female dentists, graduate dental practitioners with less clinical experience and dentists practicing in rural areas, in particular, lacked the confidence and perseverance to endure with the current impasse.
Conclusion: It is highly recommended that the competent authorities in India should come up with some visible policies and provide support to the dental practitioners, especially to a certain demographic group amid COVID crisis so that the dentists keep themselves up-to-date about this evolving disease and provide safe and effective dental care while containing the spread of the disease.

Neonatal Danger Signs: Knowledge Inmothers Of Children Aged Less Than 1 Year In Uae.

Raagapriya Madhan Kumar; Dr. Koushik. M; Dr.B. Charumathi; Dr.Timsi Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3451-3459

Introduction:The neonatal period comprising the first 4 weeks (28 days) of a child's life after birth is critical and dangerous events might occur. Structural, functional changes occur rapidly in this period. It is very important for mothers to be aware of the danger signs in neonates during this period. This study was done to find the prevalence of knowledge and awareness of danger signs among mothers of children aged less than 1 year.
Methods: A Community based cross-sectional study was carried out in United Arab Emirates from June 2020 to August 2020. Simple random sampling method was used and the sample size was calculated as 150. Mothers of children aged below 1 year were included in the study. A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used in this study for interview purposes. Informed oral consent in common languages- English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam was obtained.
Results: The prevalence of good knowledge of danger signs among mothers of children aged less than 1 year in this study was found out to be 28.6%. 91.2% of the mothers have reported having sought medical care when any of the mentioned Danger signs occurred whereas 8.7% of them had opted to treat at home.
Conclusion:In spite of extensive coverage of maternal and child health services, the knowledge and awareness of the danger signs in neonates are fairly low in the mothers. Therefore more awareness and health education campaigns need to be implemented.

Self-Reported Multicultural Competency among Moral Education and History Education Pre-service Teachers in an educational Institution in Malaysia

Grace Amanda Basianak Kumbong; Tan Bee Piang

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5983-5996

Moral Education and History Education are both part of a student's social and political socialisation in Malaysia. These two curriculum programmes aim to help each student behave in accordance with the social norms expected in Malaysia, including respecting and obeying the values of democracy and rule of law. However, teachers may have their own value judgments, so how to prepare teachers to deal with students' different value systems in a diverse classroom is a challenge for teacher programmes. Teachers with high multicultural competency feel confidence and comfortable when confronted with diverse student needs. This study aims to identify the status of multicultural competency among the Moral Education and History Education pre-service teacher in an educational institution in Malaysia. Multicultural competency among these teachers is identified based on a tripartite model comprised of three aspects: ‘Awareness’, ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Acting’. The data collection methods used in this study are from the quantitative approach. 90 respondents were asked to answer a questionnaire adapted from the ‘Munroe Multicultural Attitude Scale Questionnaire’ (MASQUE) and ‘Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey’ (TMAS). The results of this study present that the Moral Education and History Education pre-service teacher shows a higher level of multicultural awareness and knowledge; however, the results also note that these pre-service teachers acting on injustice or inequalities to be relatively low. This study suggests that the development of multicultural competency in teacher education programmes should more strongly emphasise the components of skill or demonstrating multicultural competence in future.

Reflective Approach In Organization Of Pedagogical Processes

F.O. Toxirova; Associate Professor M.R. Malikov; S.B. Abdullayeva; N.I. Ne’matov; A.A. Rustamov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 5780-5783

The article examines the issues of ensuring the activity of students in the pedagogical process on the basis of basic concepts, the formation of the subjects' interest in the studied concepts and the motivation of students to analytical activity in the process of a reflexive approach and the development of reflection in them.


Aminuddin Prahatama Putra; Edyson .; Ika Kusuma Wardani; Huldani .; Fauziah .; Julia Kasab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 1118-1125

Background: Terminal disease causes pain that is unbearable by the patient. Euthanasia is an act of someone ending his life in order to relieve the pain he is suffering. Euthanasia is still prohibited in Indonesia. Education on ethical and basic knowledge between junior high schools located on the banks of the Martapura river may have differences due to local traditions regarding euthanasia, therefore research is needed to see differences in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions about euthanasia among SMPN 1 Astambul and SMPN 1 Karang Intan students. Methods: The research design used analytic observational with cross sectional method. The sample consisted of 100 students, the data were analyzed using the chi-square test with a 95% degree of confidence. Result: The results showed that the level of students' knowledge about euthanasia was still lacking, the majority of attitudes and perceptions about euthanasia were negative. Conclusion: There were no significant differences in knowledge, attitudes, perception regarding euthanasia based on their origin school. There were a significant differences in knowledge and attitudes based on parental education and occupation.

Factors On Deciding TVET For First Choice Educational Journey Among Pre-Secondary School Student

Muhd Khaizer Omar; Md Abdur Rauf; Normala Ismail; Abdullah Mat Rashid; Hazwan Mohd Puad; Anis Zakaria

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 609-627

Less was known about predicting factors concerning students’ knowledge, interests, and motivation towards Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). The study aimed to determine the relationships among pre-secondary school students’ demographic factors, knowledge possession, interest and motivation related to TVET stream and to identify the relationship between informational methods and knowledge possession, interest and motivation of students towards TVET. A quantitative descriptive study used to determine the factors contributing to student’s knowledge, interests, and motivation, which play a critical role in 64 pre-secondary school students’ choice of TVET. A questionnaire was utilized to determine the participants’ perceptions of choosing the TVET field. Descriptive and inferential statistics, including one-way ANOVA analysis, were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that information delivery methods such as receiving information from teachers, parents, peers, internet platforms with motivation have a significant relationship for students to choose TVET. Thus, the promotion and strategy on empowering TVET is salient and developing a positive image on TVET will encourage myriad stakeholders on the importance of TVET for the nation. It is a high time to rebrand the image of vocational education as an element to train skilled human capital development.

The Influence of Interpersonal Communication Toward Knowledge and Attitude Prevention of Dengue Fever (DHF) in The Work Area of The Meo-Meo Public Health Center in Baubau City

Budi Utama; A. Zulkifli Abdullah; Hasnawati Amqam; Wahiduddin .; Lalu Muhammad Saleh; Rezki Elisafitri; Andi Nilawati Usman; Aisyah .; Ahmad Yani; Arsunan, A.A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1318-1325

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) risks causing death when the sufferer experiences shock due to bleeding. Until now, there is no specific drug to cure DHF. This study was aimed to determine the effect of interpersonal communication on improving the prevention of Dengue Fever (DHF). The type of research used is Quasi-experiment with nonrandomized pretest-posttest control group design. Samples were taken by simple random sampling of 78 respondents from a population of 1,791 households each of 39 respondents in the intervention group and 39 in the control group. Data collection uses questionnaires and interviews in the working area of the Baubau City Meo-Meo Community Health Center. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon and Man Whitney tests. The results showed the percentage of respondents characteristics in this study the most age groups were 28-38 years 39.74%, female sex 79.48%, married 92.31%, high school education 56.41%. The mean score increased knowledge (13.21 to 17.49), AND attitudes (33.38 to 38.92) about DHF before and after interpersonal communication. The mean score increased knowledge (12.69 to 16.49), and attitudes (33.33 to 37.46) about DHF before and after counseling. While the comparison of the intervention group was significant from the control group with (p <0.05) namely knowledge (p = 0,000), and attitude (p = 0.021) about DHF. Interpersonal communication is more influential than counseling and the need for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of interpersonal communication on an ongoing basis.

Knowledge , Attitude And Practice Of Infant Feeding Practices Among Medical Students

Dr. Harish Sudarsanan; Dr. Sanchana Arumugam; Dr Sri VipanchiKamepalli; Dr. J. Kumutha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3644-3654

Introduction and background: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least 6 months and thereafter until the child is 2 years of age. The success of introduction and sustenance of any health initiative depends upon the knowledge and attitudes towards those health practices. This study was undertaken to assess the baseline knowledge, attitudes and anticipated practices of MBBS students and help in framing policies towards inclusion of breast-feeding training in regular curriculum.
Methodology: A cross sectional survey was carried on at a private medical college on 137 medicos comprising of Final year MBBS and Interns. Using Google Forms, a survey questionnaire was prepared, comprising of 37 items assessing the knowledge, attitude and anticipatory practices towards breastfeeding and infant nutrition.
Results: The mean overall score of Final MBBS participants was 64.5% and that of Interns were 71.2% (P value = 0.002). In all 3 domains the Interns scored higher than Final MBBS participants and the differences were statistically significant. There were positive correlations between knowledge and attitude (r= 0.36, P value < 0.001), knowledge and practices (r= 0.53, P value < 0.001) and attitude and practices (r = 0.44, P value < 0.001).
Conclusion: This study highlights the knowledge, attitude and practice level of students among Final MBBS and Interns at our institute. The overall knowledge level was average. As tomorrows practitioners and policy makers it is mandatory to shape this group of young doctors in order to ensure that future of our nation that is current generation of childrenare in safe hands.


Ni Wy Rima Tiara Wahyudiana; Rosaline N.I Krimadi; Ida Bagus Pramana Putra Manuaba; Maslah Siregar; Retno Palupi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 666-674

Background. The oral cavity is an inseparable part of the human body. The oral cavity is composed of a structure that is a unitary function known as mastication, such as the teeth, tongue, while mucosa known as the stomatognathic system. One part of the oral cavity, namely the tongue, is an organ that has a central function for taste and taste of various types of food flavours and other substances that will enter the body through the oral cavity. However, sometimes the tongue is coated with a thin white layer containing bacteria, desquamated epithelial cells, leukocytes, blood metabolites, and various other components. Purpose: of this study was to determine the relationship between the level of knowledge and the habit of brushing the tongue in coated tongue patients who come to the Dental and Oral Hospital of Universitas Airlangga, Method. This study was descriptive analytic with the type of study was cross sectional. Results: were 28 patients with a good level of knowledge, 11 patients with a moderate level of knowledge, and 2 patients with a bad level of knowledge, and the results were 12 patients with a good level of habits, and 29 patients with a bad habit level. Conclusion. Good level of knowledge about tongue hygiene does not make a good habit also in keeping the tongue clean.

Factors Influencing The Use Of Postpartum Intrauterine Device (Iud)

Welem Tandilolok Sitohang; Umar Malinta; Sriwijaya .; A. Mardiah Tahir; Eddy Hartono; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1117-1122

Postpartum Intrauterine Device (IUD) is an effective, safe and comfortable contraceptive choice for women and made of T-shaped plastic and copper (Cooper T) which is inserted into the uterus postpartum/intraoperative. The results of the study showed that the highest percentage of respondents was at the age of spacing pregnancies (20-35 years), multiparas, those who were highly educated and those who did not work. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there was a significant influence between age, occupation, knowledge and support from the husband with postpartum IUD use, where p<0.05, while parity had no effect. Knowledge factor had a significant effect even though it was not influenced by the level of education or media exposure with a value of p=0.00. Multivariate analysis showed that knowledge was the dominant factor that affected the use of postpartum IUD as much as 43,012 times.
Conclusion: The postpartum IUD was most commonly used by mothers aged >35 years, working, sufficient knowledge of the IUD regardless of level of education and media exposure, and receiving support from the husband. Knowledge and support from the husband were the most influential factor on postpartum IUD use.

Assessing COVID-19 Related Knowledge And Perceptions Of Preventive Health Care Employees Working In Health Region Kalmunai-Sri Lanka

Shaikila Issadeen; Issadeen Aboobucker; RKAR Kariapper; Ikrima Rifath

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 418-426

According to Coronavirus disease Situation Report– 161 published by World Health Organization on 29 June 2020, globally 10 million cases and 500000 deaths and in Sri Lanka 2037 cases and 11deaths of COVID-19 had been reported . A poor understanding of the disease among Preventive Health care Employees might result in delayed treatment and rapid spread of the infection. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of Preventive health care Employees about COVID-19.A cross-sectional, study was conducted during June and July 2020, midst of COVID-19 outbreak in the country. A self-administered questionnaire with 25 survey item was used. A chi-square test was applied to investigate the level of association among variables, with significance set to P<.05. Out of 230 participants, 200 employees completed the survey and response rate was 86.95%.Among participants 71.5% (n=143) were female, 38.5% (n=77) were aged 40-49 years, and most of employees were Public Health Midwife (n=141, 370.5%) and least were Medical Officers of Health (n=11, 6%). Most participants (n=103, 51.3%) used Government web site to obtain information on COVID-19. A significant proportion of participants had poor knowledge on incubation period (n=41.20.5%) and more (n=187,93.5%)on complication of the disease. All the participants perceived very well about importance of taking travel history and category of waste related to patients (n=200,100%) and poorly (n=76,36%) perceived about the indication of personal protective equipment. Generally participant had moderate amount of knowledge (>57.62%) and positive perception (>69.01%) and Medical officers and Public Health Inspectors scored more than Public Health Midwife. As the global threat of COVID-19 continues to emerge, it was critical to improve the knowledge and perceptions of Preventive Health care Employees .Health ministry should provide a comprehensive and tailored educational and training programme, targeting all staff specially PHM , to promote preventive measures of COVID-19, to achieve equilibrium in terms of knowledge on COVID-19.

Deep Analysis of ITIL Framework for Improvement of Indian IT Services in Industries

Ras Bihari Dayal; Rahul Chandra Kushwaha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 2243-2249

This research article proposes a model of management based on the methodology that the Infrastructure Library of Information Technologies (ITIL) raises through the life cycle of the service. In the development of this investigation, areas, groups interdisciplinary and tools that satisfy the problem of complex relationship between business and technology. As part of the methodology of this study, a bibliographic inquiry was carried out and analyzed operational experiences of the object of study, which were related to the alternatives and disciplines that the ITIL methodology proposes. As a result of the investigation, a model of management that relates areas, groups, roles


M. Rakhmatov; M. N. Rasulova; O. I. Eshniyozov; S. M. Elmonov; A. Nuritdinov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 621-625

The article exposes the interdisciplinary integration of technology education and other interdisciplinary integration aimed at improving the quality of education currently through concrete examples of modern didactics of student learning.

The Description Of Pre-Clinical Students’ Knowledge And Attitudes About The Dangers Of Smoking Against Lung Cancer

Moskwadina Gultom; B.R.Hertaty Siahaan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4771-4782

This study discusses the description of pre-clinical students’ knowledge and attitudes about the dangers of smoking against lung cancer. It was done at Medical Faculty of Universitas Kristen Indonesia (UKI). It was a quantitative study with survey design. The respondents of this study were 83 students who were chosen using quota sampling. The instrument of this study were two sets of questionnaires with closed-ended questions. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that: a) of 83 respondents, 71 (85.5%) of respondents knew that smoking was harmful to health, the remaining 12 (14.5%) of respondents did not know that smoking was harmful to health. It can be concluded that most of the Pre-clinical Students Class 2016-2018 at the Medical Faculty of UKI have good knowledge about the dangers of smoking against lung cancer.

Knowledge And Practice Of Preventive Control Of Cervical Cancer In Housewives

Juvita D. Soto-Hilario .; Silvia A. Martel-y- Chang; Holger A. Aranciaga- Campos; Abner A. Fonseca- Livias

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3975-3984

Objective. To determine the relationship between knowledge and the practice of preventive control of cervical cancer. Methods. A correlational study was carried out with 120 housewives attending the CLAS Pillcomarca in Huánuco 2017. In the data collection a knowledge questionnaire and a practice questionnaire were used. For the inferential analysis of the results, the Chi Square Test of independence was used. Results. 50.0% (60 housewives) presented regular knowledge about cervical cancer and 90.8% (109 housewives) had preventive cervical cancer control practices. On the other hand, a significant relationship was found between the knowledge about cervical cancer and preventive control practices (p 0,000). And, the general knowledge of the disease and knowledge about the prevention of the disease relate to the preventive control practices of cervical cancer (p 0.000). Conclusions. There is a significant relationship between the knowledge about cervical cancer and the preventive control practices of cervical cancer of housewives attending the CLAS Pillcomarca - Huánuco.


Dr. Niha Naveed; Dr. Thailavathy; Dr. Kannan Sabapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1620-1625

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) is a global public-health emergency. Dental professionals are considered to be at high risk, as most dental treatment procedures can lead to the spread of infection due to the direct proximity with saliva, blood and generation of aerosols.
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices regarding COVID-19 among dental students in Chennai, India during these critical times.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered, structured, close-ended 15-point questionnaire was distributed among the undergraduate and postgraduate dental students in Chennai. A total of 198 participants completed the questionnaire. Convenience sampling method was used for data collection and the distribution of responses was presented as percentages. RESULTS: Among the 198 participants a total of 54 (27.2%) exhibited high level of knowledge while 67 (33.8%) demonstrated moderate knowledge and 77 (38.8%) demonstrated low level of knowledge. Mean knowledge score was 8.5, minimum and maximum scores were 4 and 15 respectively among the dental students.
CONCLUSION: Most the participants seemed to have inadequate knowledge about COVID19 and precautionary measures taken to prevent COVID19 from spreading. These show vulnerabilities in the knowledge of dental students to deal with the current scenario and thus, there is a need to improve the knowledge of dental students through health education and training programmes. After the condition is normalised, further research on the subject are also required.

Awareness And Practice Of Infection Control Protocol During Covid-19 Pandemic In Dental Clinics In Southern India- An Original Research

Dr. Abhishek Pandey; Dr. Smita Dutta; Dr. Rahul Maria; Dr Ambika K Nandini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6527-6539

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has forced dentists to prepare themselves by updating their knowledge and receive training to face the present and after effects of COVID-19. The present survey was thus conducted to assess the knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and preparedness of the dentists in India about COVID-19.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among registered dentists in south India. A self-administered, anonymous, questionnaire comprising of 25 close- ended questions was circulated to gather the relevant information. A total of 1120 dentists submitted a response, out of which 1000 complete responses were included in the statistical analysis. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used for inter-group statistical comparison.
Results: 80% of the dentists had a fair knowledge about the characteristics of COVID-19. 61% and 50% of the dentists had taken infection control training and special training for COVID-19, respectively. 52% of the dentists had the perception that COVID-19 is very dangerous. Only 42% of the dentists were willing to provide emergency services to patients. Most of the dentists had an opinion that there is a need to enhance personal protective measures.
Conclusion: In the present study, South Indian dentists have presented satisfactory knowledge with adequate awareness as the majority of them had a fair level of knowledge with significantly higher knowledge among female respondents and those with post-graduation studies. As we are going through an evolutionary phase where new advances are expected to evolve, dentists will definitely emerge successfully out from the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.

An insight among students of health sciences towards HIV/AIDS: A cross sectional study in coastal Karnataka

Ankitha Prem; Mahima Mishra; Suhan .; Smitha Nayak; Suman VB; Anupama N; Priyanka Arun Shirali; Rashmi Kaup Shiva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 26-37

The objective of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among Interns of a Dental and Medical College. The data is collected through structured questionnaire by cross sectional study method with the sample size of 246. The model is tested on a context of Interns of dental and medical students for the first time. The present study has used a reflective measurement model. Due to the model complexity, the use of Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling approach is found to be appropriate for the purpose of analysis of constructs and their corresponding data. The structural model has proved that the path coefficient value and empirical t values of exogenous latent variables on endogenous latent variable are above that threshold value in relationship between knowledge and trust as well as perception and trust except attitude and trust. The testing of hypothesis confirms the strong relationship between knowledge and trust as well as perception and trust. Based on the results of Importance Performance Matrix Analysis results corporate need focus on changing the perception of interns primarily. Hence,medical college must aim at increasing the performance of the target construct trust so their first priority should be to improve the performance aspects captured by the construct perception performance by improving its total effects as this construct has high chance to improve its total effect which in turn improves its performance.

Reflective Approach In Organization Of Pedagogical Processes

F.O. Toxirova; M.R. Malikov; S.B. Abdullayeva; N.I. Ne’matov; A.A. Rustamov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6646-6649

The article examines the issues of ensuring the activity of students in the pedagogical process on the basis of basic concepts, the formation of the subjects' interest in the studied concepts and the motivation of students to analytical activity in the process of a reflexive approach and the development of reflection in them

Oral Rehydration Therapy: Mothers Knowledge And Attitude

Mohammed khawwam Abdul Wahid; Sura Khutan Mohammed; Ahmed Abdul Abbas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4349-4357

Over the last several decades, there has been some decline in mortality rate in association with diarrhea and this has been attributed to the use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS), better supplemental feeding, improvement in hygiene and sanitation and mother education; however, the use of ORS is greatly affected by mothers knowledge and attitude toward using it in treating their children with diarrheal disease. This study was aimed to figuring out maternal knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to ORT use in diarrheal illness and the main maternal characteristics that can predict such attitude and practice.The current study was designed to be a cross sectional study enrolling 400 mothers of children aged between 2-59 m. with history of diarrheal disease. Those mothers were asked to fill a questionnaire form regarding residency, level of education, parity, occupation,did they use ORS for their children or not during diarrheal disease. Mothers who did not use the ORS were asked about the reasons for such behavior. Mothers who used the ORS were asked about their source of knowledge about ORS,the way of preparation of ORS,the type of ORS, the frequency of administration, the method of administration and their beliefs regarding the benefit of ORS. The results of current study revealed that out of 400 mothers including in this study 232 (58%) used ORS to treat there children during diarrheal disease.There was no significant association between use of ORS and residence, level of education, parity and occupation (P > 0.05). Mothers who used ORS had good knowledge about the advantages and the way of preparation and use of ORS and their main source of knowledge was primary health care centers. Mothers who did not use ORS admitted to have no idea about its advantages because no one has told them about these advantages. a significant proportion of mothers in our community lack necessary knowledge about the advantages of ORS in treating diarrheal disease in children and that there is urgent need to adopt health campaign to raise the awareness of women in our society regarding this common health issue.

Assessment Of Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Based Survey On The Incidence Of Pulp Stones In Maxillary Molars Among Endodontists And General Practitioners - A Questionnaire Based Survey

AarthiMuthukumar .; Dr. AdimulapuHima Sandeep

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2997-3015

AimThe aim is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice on the incidence of pulp stones in maxillary molars among endodontists and general practitioners.IntroductionPulp stones are discrete calcified masses found in the dental pulp tissue or embedded into dentin. Based on their radiographic features, they can be classified into true and false which are located more often in the coronal region of the tooth. True pulp stones are made up of dentine and lined by odontoblasts, whereas the false pulp stones are formed from degenerating cells of the pulp that get mineralized. Materials and MethodsThe sample size is 102 people and a random sampling method is used to minimise bias. Internal validity was a pre tested questionnaire and external experiment and cross verification with existing studies was performed. Data analysis was done in SPSS and Statistical test used is chi square test and dependent variables are demographic data such as gender and experience and independent variables are pulp stones incidence and knowledge.ResultsFrom this survey it was found that 70% were aware about the types of pulp stone, 62% were able to diagnose pulp stones radiographically and 60% encountered pulp stones rarely in maxillary molars.Conclusion
Within the limitations of the study , the prevailing knowledge in regard to the prevalence of pulp stones among endodontists was high when compared to the general practitioners. More awareness can be created among general practitioners about pulp stones. Furthermore, the existing Attitude and practice among respondents was high among endodontists and general practitioners when compared to knowledge.


Divyashri S; Jothi priya A; Vishnu priya V; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2197-2209

Segregation refers to basic separation of different categories of waste generated at some source and thereby reducing the risk as well as cost of handling and disposal. Segregation is the most crucial step in biomedical waste management. There are 4 major types of waste, they are general, infectious, hazardous and radioactive. To create awareness among the college students about the segregation and disposal of medical waste.This study involved the segregation of medical waste and disposal among the age group of 18 to 25 yrs. A set of 15 questionnaires were framed and sent through the online google form link. The questionnaire is based on the knowledge,attitude and information about the segregation and disposal of medical waste. Among 100 medical students 77% were aware about the segregation of the medical waste & 23% of the students were not aware about the segregation of the medical waste. To create awareness among the college students about the segregation of medical waste. From that we can protect our health and environment.


Sarvasri T; Dr. L. Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 723-736

Eating a variety of foods rich in nutrients from all the food groups promotes healthy teeth and gums. This means eating a balanced diet of fruits, vegetables, protein drinks, drinks high in calcium and whole grains for a healthy smile and a healthy body. The aim of the present study is to find out whether the dental students are aware about the various diets for detoxifications and maintenance of oral health. A cross-sectional survey based study was conducted among the dental students on the various diets for detoxification and maintenance of oral health. The questionnaire was distributed through the “Google forms” website to around 100 Dental students. 79% were aware of the various diets taken for detoxification and maintenance of oral health. 83% thought that there is a link between oral health and oral health conditions. This study concludes that the dental students were aware about the various diets for detoxification and maintenance of oral health


Shreejha M. V; Kavitha. S; Vishnu Priya. V; Gayathri. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 311-323

Introduction: There has been a global rise in the use of natural products and natural medicine among
people. Proper regulation of natural medicine and products ensure good quality to control standards,
enhance the consumers safety that facilitate their modern healthcare system, mainly because of their lack
of side effects.
Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge, awareness and attitude, towards natural
medicine and products among adults.
Materials and methods :A cross sectional study was conducted among the adults [101people]. The
questionnaire was circulated online through google forms and the collected data were analysed using SPSS
software. The Pearson Chi square test was done in association with the gender of the respondents.
Results: The survey results showed that 79.2% of the people have knowledge about natural medicine.
90.1% of the participants believe natural medicines are effective, 75% of the participants use natural
medicine products in their regular life, 61.4% said natural medicine is more effective than pills.
Conclusion: The present study showed that the awareness and knowledge on natural medicine among
adults is quite good.


KirthickKumaran. A.S; KeerthiSasanka. L; ArchanaSanthanam .; Kirankumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1635-1646

The aim of this study was to create awareness on fundamntals of fixed prosthodontics among dental students.It is the specialised area of dentistry involving the replacement. Missing teeth of the cast prosthesis is permanently cemented.Complete development of dental process leads to new complete virtual environment without any physical model situation.This study was a cross-sectional survey based study conducted among the dental students on the fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics. The questionnaire was distributed through the “Google forms” website to around 100 Dental students.In the present study about 56% of the population are aware of the prosthodontics and 44% of the population is not aware of the prosthodontics. Regarding the parts of fixed partial dentures 39% of the population are aware and 61% of the population are not aware of it. This concludes that the knowledge and awareness on the fixed prosthodontics is moderate among the dental students, in which among them the second year undergraduates had a higher knowledge on the fixed prosthodontics.

Knowledge About Esthetic Veneer Treatment For Enhancing Smile In Undergraduate Dental Students


European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3070-3096

Background: The most important feature in maintaining and improving a person’s esthetic appearance and self-esteem is only by an attractive smile. Smiling is the best method to influence people. The dynamic part of the face is the oral region, with tooth and gingival display during functional lip movement which is unique to an individual, people with ugly smiles develop a high risk of psychological problems. Esthetic dentistry was motivated by the growing accessibility of media and online information has been highly demanded by the patients and tooth color is also used for veneers. Aim: The main aim of this study is to assess the awareness about the esthetic veneer treatment for enhancing smiles in undergraduate dental students. Materials and method: A survey based questionnaire was done to assess the knowledge about the veneer treatment. A self designed 16 questions were framed and the responses were collected through google form app.Thedatas were statistically analysed by SPSS software. Results: Results were represented in the form of bar diagrams and 71% of the respondents are aware of veneer treatment. This study shows a high-level self-consciousness about the veneer treatment 76% of the students agreed that they can brush veneer, 63% were answered for porcelain veneer. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the undergraduate dental students are highly aware of the esthetic veneer treatment for enhancing smile.


Bipin .; Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha .; Kiran kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1605-1621

Forensic odontology deals with legal investigations in which it primarily involves the identification of the offender by comparing dental records to a bite mark left on the victim. It is especially used for the application of the principal of law and criminal investigation.Aim of the study is to evaluate knowledge and awareness on forensic dentistry. This special brand deals with the dental evidence obtained from the victim. As the field of forensic dentistry focuses on the methods of detection, collection and analysis of bite mark remains is very helpful in crime investigations to analyse the acquired evidence. In the past decades oral pathologists had major responsibilities in developing forensic science. A cross sectional study on undergraduates was carried out using a questionnaire with close ended questions. The survey had 15 questionnaires circulated in Google forms and 100 responses were obtained from the population, representation of data was in pie chart and bar graphs. Majority of the study population answered yes as they feel forensic odontology is very much essential to deal with crime investigation. 62.7% of the study population responded positively where they are able to differentiate the work of forensic anthropologists and a forensic odontologist first. The students' knowledge on forensic odontology and what it deals with, was significant with the year of study where final year students are more aware about forensic odontology. P value = 0.00(<0.05) which is statistically significant. This study concludes that most of the participants have knowledge and awareness on the role of forensic dentistry among dental undergraduates.


V.A Muralidharan; Sindhu Ramesh; Dr.Gheena. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 169-185

Endodontic infection is the infection of the root canal system and the microorganisms play a tremendous role in pulpal and periapical disease. The primary aim of endodontic treatment is to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal system. This can be achieved by a combination of local and systemic use of antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in dentistry especially in endodontics has become a practice towards inappropriate prescription and overdose leads to adverse side effects and bacterial resistance. An undergraduate student will have only limited knowledge in this regard. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and perception on usage of antibiotics among undergraduate students for endodontic therapy.This present study is a cross-sectional, descriptive questionnaire study conducted among dental undergraduate students in Chennai, India. The study was conducted from March to April 2020. A descriptive questionnaire study was conducted among 320 dental students in the city. A structured questionnaire was prepared focussing on antibiotics indication in dentistry particularly in endodontic treatment. Assessment of subjects awareness and attitude towards use of antibiotics for patients after endodontics procedures included in the questions relating to the knowledge of the basic antibiotics regime and its course. The subjects were requested to respond to each item in the specific format given. All the participants were allowed to choose one of the given three to four choices for each item in the questionnaire.A large population of students of 320 were familiar with this antibiotic resistance. Compared with the juniors, the senior students have a wider knowledge for prescribing antibiotics for various endodontic procedures.Most of the students prescribed Amoxicillin (30.82%)for any endodontic treatment for a duration of three days (26.42%) compared to other antibiotics.This study concludes that undergraduate dental students may prescribe antibiotics inappropriately and hence a proper and extensive guideline must be given to them to be followed . A thorough knowledge and awareness must be there on the antibiotic regime and its usage to all students before entering their clinics.