Online ISSN: 2515-8260

Keywords : knowledge


Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents regarding child health in field practice area of rural health training centre of govt. Medical college, aurangabad, maharashtra, india

Mahendrakumar M. Salve; Bharat B. Chavan; Razvi N.A.; Mohan K. Doibale

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 959-963

Background: Father and mother as they are regarded as the primary care providers. Father has important role in
child health such as companion, care provider, protector moral guide, teacher, bread earner. Ultimately, the
family will be responsible for shaping a child and developing their values, skills, socialization, and security.
However, there is emerging evidence on the positive outcomes for child nutrition and development of expanding
father’s involvement beyond their traditional roles. Thus, this study explored the knowledge, attitude, and
practices of father’s and mother’s involvement in child care.
Methods: A cross-sectional, community based study was carried out among 400 under five children in field
practice area of rural health training center of Dept. of Community Medicine of Govt. Medical College,
Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India during the period of Jan. 2017 to Dec. 2018. Data was entered in MS Excel
2007 worksheet and analyzed using open Epi version 3.01.
Results: Majority 133(66.50%) of father in urban area think that the father role is important in child health care.
47(23.50%) of father of under five children residing in rural area think that the child health care is the
responsibility of mother only. However 40(20%) of father in rural area think that the father role is also important
in child health care. Father primarily see themselves as providers, not caretakers, a perception widely held by the
larger community as well.
Conclusion: Quite significant proportion of fathers had knowledge about child health and practices of taking
care of child was found but proportionately higher percentage of knowledge and practices were found in
females.

Evaluation of Public awareness, Knowledge and Approval of Oral Implant Treatment in South Indian Population: A cross sectional study

Nayana Prabhu; Saumya Kapoor; Sushma Yadav

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 833-840

Background - Presently, dental implants are favourable treatment alternatives for
completely or partially edentulous patients. Research has reported substantial improvement
in attitude of patients toward dental implants, however in developing nations with poorer
access to dental care, acceptance of this treatment alternative isn’t yet completely known.
Objective: A survey from a representative sample of Indian population was made to assess
the level of public awareness, sources of information, need for information and
expectations from dental implants in semi urban southern part of India.
Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 377 adult patients was
conducted via systematic multi-choice questionnaire at a tertiary care medical university in
southern part of India. The data collected was interpreted using SPSS version 20. A pvalue
of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY AMONGST ALLIED HEALTHCARE STUDENTS REGARDING CANCER VACCINE KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE

Mittal KK, Mendiratta P, Mishra A, Bala N

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 3824-3831

Background:Cancer is a public health problem globally with an annual incidence of 19.3
million cases in 2020. This rising cancerincidence makes cancer prevention and treatment
apriority. Allied Healthcare workers are the most important and thelargest section of the
paramedical workforce.It had been reported that allied healthcareprofessionals are not
adequatelyeducated or aware about cancer risk factors, risk assessment, cancer vaccines and
cancer prevention.
Aim:This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted with the aimof assessing
thelevel of knowledge, awarenessand attitude of allied healthcare students in our institution
aboutcancer prevention, cancer vaccines, HPV vaccines and attitude towards willingness to
get vaccinated.
Results:Out of 151 students 90% knew about Cancer Vaccines. Only 10% knew about the
therapeutic and preventives types of cancer vaccines. Only 2/3rd had the knowledge that HPV
causes cancer, cancer can be prevented by use of vaccine and were willing to take cancer
vaccine. Only 40% were aware about HPV vaccine and its names. Majority (95%) of them
were willing to take cancer vaccine if government provides free of cost.
Conclusion:There was limited knowledge of cancer prevention and specific cancer vaccines.
Awareness and Educational activities must be strengthened to increase the lacunae in
knowledge and improve the attitude of allied healthcare students about cancer vaccine.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS REGARDING ‘ETHICS IN DENTISTRY’-A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY.

Monisha. K.; Dr. Abhilasha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 2729-2736

Ethics comes from the Greek word meaning ‘ethos’ originally meaning character or conduct.
It is typically used interchangeably with the word moral which is derived from the Latin word
‘mores’, which means customs or habits. Together these two terms refer to conduct, character,
and motivations involved in moral acts. Ethics is defined as a branch of philosophy concerned
with the study of those concepts that are used to evaluate human activities, in particular the
concept of goodness and obligation. It is a generic term referring to the moral code of conduct
in a civil society and the rules, customs and beliefs of that society.Dentistry, being one of the
healing professions, has an obligation to society that its members will stick on to high ethical
standards of conductThe purpose of dental ethics is to heighten ethical and professional
responsibility, promote ethical conduct and professionalism in the field of dentistry.It also
advances the dialogue on ethical issues, and stimulate further reflection on common ethical
problems in dental practice. This study assesses the knowledge among dental students
(undergraduates) in dental ethics.

The Impact of COVID-19 in the Procedure of Religious-Worship and Social Life, In Islamic View

Muhammad Fuad Zain; Hasanudin .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 272-278

This article discusses the effects of a coronavirus pandemic in social life. Coronavirus is a global problem that has yet to be resolved until now, it has changed behavior in life, especially in the procedure of religious-worship and social life. The author find that the differences in understanding and attitude related to COVID-19 was caused by knowledge and mental readiness. So the case of COVID-19 corpse will not occur if they have understood and readiness even though it is clear that the coronavirus has changed the way of worship and social life.

The influence of the HIV/AIDS program on the knowledge and attitudes of the labourer in the building construction project of the Faculty of Engineering, University of Hasanuddin, Indonesia

Andi Alim; Dedi Maulana; Arlin Adam; Moh. Husni Thamrin

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 999-1010

This study attempts to analyze the differences of knowledge and attitudes of construction labours of Engineering Faculty Unhas, Gowa with methods of communicating information and education as well as the screening. In response to the prevention of HIV/AIDS at work. This study using the method was an experiment quasi pre and post-test design with the application of two group pre and post. With different treatment given a few and observed every treatment. This study found that there is the influence of intervention with the IEC media methods before and after interventions affecting knowledge and attitude labourers of HIV/AIDS, and some the influence of intervention with the method the screening before and after interventions affecting knowledge and attitudes labourers about HIV/AIDS. Based on our research findings, there need to be continuous interventions to increase knowledge, much efforts to prevent sexually transmitted infection and HIV/AIDS and check periodically of HIV/AIDS.

Knowledge of mothers towards their children below 5 years of age for oral rehydration in Al Rusafa health directorate- Baghdad 2019

Hassan Hadi Al Kazzaz M.B.Ch.B, PH.D, F.I.C.M.S (F.M)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1579-1585

Basic minimal information about the care of children in diarrhea and ORS use is important for early recovery. To plan an anti-diarrheal program, it’s important to know the knowledge, beliefs, practices of diarrhea understanding, and management including ORS; in the community [1]. the study to check out the Knowledge of mothers towards their children below 5 years of age for oral rehydration when attending primary health care centers in Baghdad. This study is a descriptive study with analytic purposes, where 166 mothers were interviewed when attending 5 primary health care centers in the al-Rusafa side of Baghdad city. They were divided into G1(116) cases where mothers of children presenting with cut gastroenteritis, while the remaining 50 children in G2 presented with cut disease other than gastroenteritis. The period of research and data collection was between April 2019 and August 2019 A questionnaire was developed by the researcher, fulfilled by the interviewer. Regarding the mother's ages of both groups, their ages were ranging between (15-65) years. 85%, 90% of both groups were from (15-20) years old respectively. Educational level revealed that most cases have not gone beyond secondary school (G198%, G2 100%). For the employment status (79.4) employed for G1 and (70%) for G2. The crowding index <1 forG1 = 17.2%, G2 = 6%. Regarding the mother’s knowledge of ORT, only ORS used in dehydration, vomiting, and diarrhea, the correct way in preparation of ORS, -and knowledge about signs of dehydration were significant. The previous practice by G1 and G2 was 38% and 82% respectively. Attitude and practice of Gl and G2 during the attack of diarrhea shows significant only in using over -the- counter medications. The high independence score of both groups of mothers Gl, G2 shows 8.6% and 14% respectfully. Most of the mothers in our study had moderate knowledge about oral rehydration salts and technique while the percentage that using ORS was few. Intensive media advertisement about the importance of ORS is required. A leading campaign by the -ministry of health among mothers of under-five children to stimulate them to use ORS for their children as long as diarrhea to lower child morbidity and mortality.

The Knowledge of Radiation Hazard between Health and Medical Technology Students at Al-Zahra University in Karbala-Iraq

Hassan Hadi Al Kazzaz M.B.Ch.B, PH.D, F.I.C.M.S (F.M)

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1452-1461

Study of the health and medical technology student ’s knowledge and attitudes will
open the ways to solve the deficit in their information regarding radiation hazards. The aim
is to assess the knowledge of Al-Zahra university students toward radiation hazard.This study
is a cross-sectional observational analytical study of the amount of knowledge and altitude
towards radiation hazards and protection of the Health and Medical Technology students’ of
Al-Zahra University in Karbala, Iraq. This cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was
conducted on 129 out of 132 undergraduate students from The Health and Medical
Technology College, whose curriculum included General Radiology, after completing 90 days
in the Department of Radiological Techniques at Al-Zahra University for Women. Among 132
students, 129 students participated in this Google Classroom questionnaire, giving an overall
response rate of (97.7%). Their overall knowledge was good and showed a higher KAP value
in relation to hazardous protection that (Is x ray is harmful) with a percentage of (66.6%),
while their knowledge was poor concerning the safety guidelines. The lack of knowledge about
ALARA or ALADA principles needs to be considered by updating first year student ’s
curriculum as well as creating training courses to improve their knowledge.

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices about Biomedical Waste Management among Nursing Professionals in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Bhubaneswar,Odisha.

Kulumina Dash; Minati Das; N.K. Satapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 1127-1142

Biomedical waste (BMW) management is an issue of major concern of all healthcare providers and healthcare establishments as the waste produced during the course of healthcare activities carries potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Biomedical waste management has recently emerged as an issue of present concern not only to hospitals, nursing home authorities but also to the environment. The bio-medical wastes generated from health care units depend upon a number of factors such as waste management methods, type of health care units, occupancy of healthcare units, specialization of healthcare units, ratio of reusable items in use, availability of infrastructure and resources etc. The proper management of biomedical waste has become a worldwide humanitarian topic today. Many studies across the country have shown that there are still deficiencies in the Knowledge, attitude and practices of the health care professionals in the organizations. Hence, A cross sectional study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding biomedical waste management among nursing professionals in a tertiary care hospital Bhubaneswar, Odisha. With due consideration to nursing personnel’s availability, accessibility, feasibility, and resources, we decided to include (n=100) of them in our study. The number of nursing personnel was selected by simple random sampling in their respective department/specialty. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, practices and attitude of the nursing personnel regarding biomedical waste management. Overall, the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards biomedical waste management among the nursing professionals were satisfactory. Complete hepatitis B vaccine coverage among nurses (100%) in our study is attributed to hospital policy of free immunization to high risk groups. Such policy decisions do have a positive impact on work efficiency of nurses by creating a sense of being protected.

Knowledge, Attitude And Practices Towards Endodontic Management Of Radix Cases

Anubhav Chakrabarty; Lt. Col. Sonali Sharma; Maj. Sourabh Sharma; Maj. Sumit Sharma; Maj SGP Sudhir Kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 1052-1058

Background: The main objective of root canal treatment is the thorough mechanical and chemical cleaning and shaping of the root canals. The present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices towards endodontic management of Radix cases amongst clinicians of varied experience including general dentists, specialists and Endodontists.
Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted on 267 participants of both genders. A well - formulated questionnaire of 13 questions was handed to all participants. They were divided into 4 groups. Group I were undergraduate students, group II were postgraduate students, group III were experienced Endodontists and group IV were other specialists.
Results: More than 15 years experience was seen in 29%, maximum RCTs done were 41-50 by 22%, no of Radix till date were >30 by 37%, Radix Ento molaris is more common by 80%, 1st molar is associated with Radix in 96%, 76% not maintaining data base, 55.8% feel that accurate diagnosis is management of Radix, 75% feel multiple RVG is pre- operative management, 19% feel CBCT is necessary. The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: The initial diagnosis is of utmost importance, to facilitate the endodontic procedure and to avoid treatment failures. There is a need to improve knowledge and awareness in the management of Radix cases.

Public knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the coronavirus disease pandemic: a cross-sectional study in the Kurdistan region, Iraq

Ibrahim A. Naqid; Basheer A. Abdi; Nashwan Ibrahim; Dildar H Musa; Zana Sidiq M. Saleem; Ahmed Mohammed Chafrash; Nawfal R. Hussein; Kurdistan A. Saeed

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 1148-1161

Background/Objectives: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging viral respiratory disease
that has currently reached apandemic status.This study aimed to assessCOVID-19 knowledge,
attitudes, and practices among the Kurdishpopulation in Iraq.
Methods: This cross-sectional studywas conducted fromJuly 15 to September 15, 2020 among the
Kurdish population in Iraq. A total of 885 subjects were interviewed. All subjects were aged 15–75
years. Knowledgescores, attitudes, and practices of subjects were analyzed according to demographic
characteristics.
Results:The study subjects were largely male,the average age was31.79 years,and 41.92% subjects
were from Erbil province. Approximately 85.31% subjectshad enhancedknowledge regarding disease
prevention and control. The lowest subscale scores were related toclinical manifestations of the
disease. Knowledge scores were significantly associated with age, place of current residence, and
level of education.A large number of participants believed COVID-19 would be controlled and the
fight against the pandemic would be won.Subjects’ attitudes toward success differedsignificantly by
demographic characteristics, except marital status. Approximately 40.03% subjects reported that they
had not visited a crowded place, and 60.22% of these subjects wore face masks when leaving home.

AWARENESS AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS ABOUT THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MALOCCLUSION AND TMJ PROBLEMS

Oviya M; Jayanth Kumar V; Dhanraj Ganapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 460-472

The aim of this study is to determine the understanding regarding the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. The purpose of this study is to create awareness and determine the understanding of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students. This study was conducted based on a questionnaire which consists of 10 questions through a web-linked application called Survey Monkey. A convenient sample size of 100 consecutive dental students who are currently practicing in Chennai participated in the study. As an overall result, most of the participants are aware of the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems. As a conclusion, awareness on the relationship between malocclusion and TMJ problems among dental students in Chennai is adequate but certain knowledge has to be brushed up among them for a higher level. Furthermore, they need to be trained on these grounds to help them treat their patients with more consent and awareness.

A STUDY TO COMPARE THE LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEIVED BARRIERS RELATED TO INTRAUTERINE DEVICES (IUDs) USAGE AMONG WOMEN AGED 20-40 YEARS RESIDING AT SELECTED URBAN AND RURAL AREAS OF MANGALORE

Mrs. Navya; Lt .col, Professor Suma K.S; Prashanth Kumar K

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2021, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 2270-2282

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: Population in India was not growing rapidly till the early twenties of the last century. It was nearly static, with a relatively safe and acceptable rate of annual growth, since both birth and death rates were relatively high .With advances in technology and expansion of health services death rate started declining in the following decades. Meanwhile the birth rate continued to persist at the same level .This caused a severe demographic gap between the birth and death rate, and resulted in growth of population at an alarming rate. OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and perceived barrier regarding IUCD. METHOD AND MATERIAL: A quantitative research approach with non experimental comparative descriptive study was adopted in this study. The non-probabality, purposive sampling technique was used to select the subject for the study. Data collected from 100 subjects were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics.

KNOWLEDGE and AWARENESS of VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG the GENERAL ADULT POPULATION in BAHRAIN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Hala Mohamed Sanad; Gayathri Priya; Jameela Jassim Mukhaimer; Govindaraj V. Asokan; Safia Belal

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 180-191

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem in many countries, including Bahrain. However, little data exists about the awareness and the level of knowledge of vitamin D among Arab Gulf populations. Method: A cross-sectional study design was employed. A self-administered questionnaire was administered to an adult sample of 335 participants seeking information on their knowledge about vitamin D. Findings: 81.2% of the study participants had unsatisfactory total knowledge score of vitamin D. Level of education and the sources of information about vitamin D were the main significant factors that appear to influence the participants’ vitamin D awareness status. Most the participants recognized that exposure to sunlight encourages the production of vitamin D, however, only a small proportion of participants were aware of the sources of vitamin D in daily food intake and health consequences of vitamin D deficiency. Conclusion: There is inadequate knowledge and awareness regarding vitamin D deficiency among adult Bahrain population. Health campaigns are urgently needed in order to improve the community’s knowledge about the benefits and sources of vitamin D

Fever in Children: How Knowledge, Attitude and Belief among Healthcare Community can Affect Assessment.

Riyadi Adrizain; Cory Primaturia; Raisa Mentari Moeis; Djatnika Setiabudi; Alex Chairulfatah

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 2361-2369

Background: The study was aimed to assess the knowledge of healthcare provider and the correlation of the healthcare providers’ educational degree toward fever management in children.
Method: This study was conducted among healthcare-community using a questionnaire as the primary data. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed by using percentage and the correlation of their degree toward fever was analyzed by the chi-square test with statistically significant p values of < 0.05.
Result: Questions 1-17 about basic science were answered correctly by more than 80%, except those regarding non-shivering thermogenesis in neonates showing that the residents and medical students group got better results than the specialists and medical doctors (61%; 68.8%; vs 84.7%; 83.3, respectively Chi-square, p = 0.039 (p < 0.05)). While questions 18-25 about fever management in children, around half of the subjects answered correctly following the recommendations.
Conclusion: The subjects’ educational degree influenced their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the fever management in children

Psychosocial impact of COVID-19 Quarantine in South India: A online cross-sectional survey

Narrain shree S; Jagannathan K; Vinod N P

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1530-1545

Background:
COVID-19 has been recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. originated from China and has rapidly crossed borders, infecting people throughout the whole world. The present study sought to determine knowledge, attitude and behavior (KAB) of South Indian population toward COVID-19 Quarantine.
Methods: An online cross sectional, semi-structured questionnaire was undertaken through google forms among South Indian population (SIPs). SIPs aged 18 years and above constituted the study population. Data was analyzed using SPSS Software
Results: Totally 280 responses were received. The responders had a moderate level of knowledge about the COVID-19 infection and adequate knowledge about its preventive aspects. The attitude towards COVID-19 showed peoples' willingness to follow government guidelines on quarantine and social distancing. 32% of Participants have felt stressed during quarantine and 32.4% of participant had sleep disturbance. Alarmingly 32% are not anxious and feel free to roam around in public places without protective measures like mask and gloves. In this study, panic about acquiring COVID-19 infection during purchase and travel were reported in 29.5% and 11% participants respectively. The perceived Physical healthcare need was seen in more than 69% of participants.
Conclusions: COVID-19 Quarantine knowledge is gained mainly through media channels, Newspaper, which have strengths and weaknesses. Although the government has taken major steps to educate the public and limit the spread of the disease, there is a need to intensify the alertness of people during this COVID-19 Quarantine.

ASSESSMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF MALARIA FEVER CAUSES, SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS AT THE PRIMARY HEALTHCARE IN MAKKAH CITY AT SAUDI ARABIA

Abdullah Ahmad Alzahrani, Abid Ahmad Masi AlMalki, Marwan Lafy Aljabri, Mamdouh Lafi Aljabri, Yehya Ahmed Almalki, Hassan Owysh Alsolami, Mohammad Lafy Aljabri, Suliman khairat Al Ansari

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 3979-3991

     Overcoming the scourge of malaria infection is possible when healthcare workers have good levels of understanding and attitudes towards the disease, which will influence their treatment practices. Saudi Arabia and Yemen are the only two countries in the Arabian Peninsula that are yet to achieve malaria elimination. This study assessed Knowledge of Malaria fever causes and symptoms among health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah City at Saudi Arabia. Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in the world. More than 80% of the total populations are at risk of malaria in the 22 countries in Asia and the Pacific. South Asia alone is home to an estimated 1.4 billion people at risk of contracting malaria.
 Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the knowledge about Malaria fever causes, signs and symptoms among health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah City at Saudi Arabia.
Methods: Across sectional descriptive study conducted among including health care workers at the primary healthcare in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city, during the October to December, 2020, the Sample size of medical practitioners. Our total participants were (350).
Results: shows the
Total knowledge of the malaria fever results show the majority of participant had weak information were(62.6%) while average of the Knowledge about participants  signs of the malaria fever were(33.4%) the data ranged from(1-24) by mean ±SD(11.094±4.503) and a statistical significant relation While Chi-square X2 180.109  and P=value 0.001and  that is a significant positive correlation between Knowledge about causes and signs were r= 0.70) and p-value =0.001
 Conclusion: Malaria remains a public health problem in most governorates of KSA region. Health professionals have suboptimal knowledge and practice levels regarding causes, signs, symptoms, standard precautions of infection control, while most of them have positive attitude. The identification and monitoring of malaria transmission hotspots and predictors would enable control efforts to be intensified and focused on specific areas and therefore expedite the elimination of residual malaria from the whole region
 Therefore, it is recommended to enforce their training

Self-Medication Among Nurses In A Tertiary Health Facility In Enugu State, South East Nigeria

Hope O. Nwoga; Miriam O. Ajuba; Gabriel C. Ume

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 1410-1425

Background: Self-medication (SM) is a global practice that is prevalent in all age groups and in all races. Although it has been successfully integrated into many healthcare systems throughout the world, it still presents with the problems of wrong diagnosis, inappropriate choice of treatment, drug abuse, delayed health seeking behaviour, double medication and harmful interactions, inappropriate storage and administration of expired medicines, medication wastage and in extreme cases death.
Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study conducted at ESUTH Parklane, Enugu Nigeria. A structured pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from the consenting nurses. Data was analysed using SPSS version 25 and variables were presented in frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviation with the aid of tables. Bivariate analysis was done using chi-square test. The level of significance was set at p value ≤ 0.05.
Results: Most of the nurses were within the 30-39 years age group 95(44.4%). Majority were females 199(93.0%) and married 169(79.0%). Almost all of them were Christians 213(99.5%) and Igbo ethnic group 212(99.0%).
All the nurses have heard about SM but only 181(86.4%) have good knowledge of it. Majority of them have practiced SM in the past one year 185(86.4%). Among those that practiced SM, majority practiced rarely 157(73.4%). The commonest symptom for which SM was practiced was headache 194(90.7%) followed by fever 170(79.4%) and pain 163(76.2%). The commonly used drugs for SM were analgesics/anti-pyretic 194(90.7%) and anti-malarias 187(87.4%). Sources of drugs were majorly from pharmacy shops 195(91.1%). Their major reasons for SM were emergency illness 171(79.9%), mild illness 162(75.9%) and prior knowledge about the illness and its treatment 150(70.1%).Conclusion: There was good knowledge of SM among the studied nurses but their practice was poor as majority practiced SM in the past one year.

ORGANIZATION OF EXTRACURRICULAR CLASSES IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

Surmakhon Ismoilova

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 9, Pages 2381-2386

In the article, we informed that extracurricular reading strengthens and enriches children's knowledge and skills acquired in the classroom and constantly stimulates children's interest in reading fiction, as well as one of the important aspects of extracurricular reading is that it improves students' independent work skills.

Assessment of knowledge and attitude among pediatric dentists regarding spread and control of infection before and after COVID-19 crisis.

Dr. Rajesh Ijalkar; Dr. Ritesh Kalaskar; Dr. Shruti Balasubramanian; Dr. Ashita Kalaskar; Dr. Priyanka Bhaje; Dr. Priyanka Sharma

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 11, Pages 8368-8378

Background: In this time of COVID-19 crisis, need of hour to appropriately perform dental
procedures to reduce the spread of this deadly disease, it is importance to assess the knowledge
and attitude of pediatric dentists regarding spread and control of infection before and after
COVID-19 crisis.
Methods and Materials: Questionnaire-based survey composed of 6 questions that assess the
knowledge of pediatric dentists regarding COVID-19 infection and 10 questions each designed
to gather information about their clinical practice before and after COVID-19 crisis which
shows attitude of pediatric dentists. Online survey link was circulated through social media
and an e-mail to pediatric dentists from different locations in India and the responses were
collected. 346 pediatric dentists willingly responded in the study.

Knowledge about Covid-19: Sample From Iraqi People

Sahar Abdul-Hassan Al- Shatari; Hassan HadiBaker Al kazza

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 10, Pages 185-197

Good knowledge about Covid-19 transmission and nature prevents transmission of microorganisms and reduces the incidence of Covid-19 in the community. To assess knowledge of Iraqi people about covid-19&to find the source of information about covid-19. Method: Cross-sectional study was done from 1stJune-1stJuly 2020, by electronic version of questionnaire through Google-form. Any Iraqi adult can read Arabic and use the internet media (e-mails, telegram, viber, whatsapp, Facebook) or by hand to hand as hard-copy, and accepted to answer the questionnaire through friend, friend of friend, relatives, work colleagues with A Brief message.Analysed by SPSS ver. 23, frequencies and percentages calculated. The study revealed enrolling of 700 Iraqi people from difference part of Iraq and difference were participant in it, the main age of them 230(32.9%) aged 20-29 years old, females 416(59.4%), complete secondary school388(55.4%), near 60% of them working in non-medical field, and governmental employee 364(52.0%), and there-residency in Baghdad city 457(65%), followed by holly-Karbala 8%, and bible 4%, good knowledgein prevention of Covid-19 transmission, Strength the immunity against covid-19 infection and its complication, and the Overall knowledge appear as good 691(99%) the Internet is the major source of the information about the covid-19; 568(81.1%). Conclusion: most of participants had good knowledge in prevention and strength the immunity and vaccination of covid 19, and the main source of information is the internet then TV & radio.

The Influence of Interpersonal Communication Toward Knowledge and Attitude Prevention of Dengue Fever (DHF) in The Work Area of The Meo-Meo Public Health Center in Baubau City

Budi Utama; A. Zulkifli Abdullah; Hasnawati Amqam; Wahiduddin .; Lalu Muhammad Saleh; Rezki Elisafitri; Andi Nilawati Usman; Aisyah .; Ahmad Yani; Arsunan, A.A.

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 1318-1325

Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) risks causing death when the sufferer experiences shock due to bleeding. Until now, there is no specific drug to cure DHF. This study was aimed to determine the effect of interpersonal communication on improving the prevention of Dengue Fever (DHF). The type of research used is Quasi-experiment with nonrandomized pretest-posttest control group design. Samples were taken by simple random sampling of 78 respondents from a population of 1,791 households each of 39 respondents in the intervention group and 39 in the control group. Data collection uses questionnaires and interviews in the working area of the Baubau City Meo-Meo Community Health Center. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon and Man Whitney tests. The results showed the percentage of respondents characteristics in this study the most age groups were 28-38 years 39.74%, female sex 79.48%, married 92.31%, high school education 56.41%. The mean score increased knowledge (13.21 to 17.49), AND attitudes (33.38 to 38.92) about DHF before and after interpersonal communication. The mean score increased knowledge (12.69 to 16.49), and attitudes (33.33 to 37.46) about DHF before and after counseling. While the comparison of the intervention group was significant from the control group with (p <0.05) namely knowledge (p = 0,000), and attitude (p = 0.021) about DHF. Interpersonal communication is more influential than counseling and the need for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of interpersonal communication on an ongoing basis.

AWARENESS OF COVID-19 AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS IN CHENNAI, INDIA- A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED STUDY

Dr. Niha Naveed; Dr. Thailavathy; Dr. Kannan Sabapathy

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 1620-1625

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19) is a global public-health emergency. Dental professionals are considered to be at high risk, as most dental treatment procedures can lead to the spread of infection due to the direct proximity with saliva, blood and generation of aerosols.
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, awareness and hygiene practices regarding COVID-19 among dental students in Chennai, India during these critical times.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered, structured, close-ended 15-point questionnaire was distributed among the undergraduate and postgraduate dental students in Chennai. A total of 198 participants completed the questionnaire. Convenience sampling method was used for data collection and the distribution of responses was presented as percentages. RESULTS: Among the 198 participants a total of 54 (27.2%) exhibited high level of knowledge while 67 (33.8%) demonstrated moderate knowledge and 77 (38.8%) demonstrated low level of knowledge. Mean knowledge score was 8.5, minimum and maximum scores were 4 and 15 respectively among the dental students.
CONCLUSION: Most the participants seemed to have inadequate knowledge about COVID19 and precautionary measures taken to prevent COVID19 from spreading. These show vulnerabilities in the knowledge of dental students to deal with the current scenario and thus, there is a need to improve the knowledge of dental students through health education and training programmes. After the condition is normalised, further research on the subject are also required.

The Description Of Pre-Clinical Students’ Knowledge And Attitudes About The Dangers Of Smoking Against Lung Cancer

Moskwadina Gultom; B.R.Hertaty Siahaan

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4771-4782

This study discusses the description of pre-clinical students’ knowledge and attitudes about the dangers of smoking against lung cancer. It was done at Medical Faculty of Universitas Kristen Indonesia (UKI). It was a quantitative study with survey design. The respondents of this study were 83 students who were chosen using quota sampling. The instrument of this study were two sets of questionnaires with closed-ended questions. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that: a) of 83 respondents, 71 (85.5%) of respondents knew that smoking was harmful to health, the remaining 12 (14.5%) of respondents did not know that smoking was harmful to health. It can be concluded that most of the Pre-clinical Students Class 2016-2018 at the Medical Faculty of UKI have good knowledge about the dangers of smoking against lung cancer.

Neonatal Danger Signs: Knowledge Inmothers Of Children Aged Less Than 1 Year In Uae.

Raagapriya Madhan Kumar; Dr. Koushik. M; Dr.B. Charumathi; Dr.Timsi Jain

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3451-3459

Introduction:The neonatal period comprising the first 4 weeks (28 days) of a child's life after birth is critical and dangerous events might occur. Structural, functional changes occur rapidly in this period. It is very important for mothers to be aware of the danger signs in neonates during this period. This study was done to find the prevalence of knowledge and awareness of danger signs among mothers of children aged less than 1 year.
Methods: A Community based cross-sectional study was carried out in United Arab Emirates from June 2020 to August 2020. Simple random sampling method was used and the sample size was calculated as 150. Mothers of children aged below 1 year were included in the study. A semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire was used in this study for interview purposes. Informed oral consent in common languages- English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Malayalam was obtained.
Results: The prevalence of good knowledge of danger signs among mothers of children aged less than 1 year in this study was found out to be 28.6%. 91.2% of the mothers have reported having sought medical care when any of the mentioned Danger signs occurred whereas 8.7% of them had opted to treat at home.
Conclusion:In spite of extensive coverage of maternal and child health services, the knowledge and awareness of the danger signs in neonates are fairly low in the mothers. Therefore more awareness and health education campaigns need to be implemented.

Reflective Approach In Organization Of Pedagogical Processes

F.O. Toxirova; Associate Professor M.R. Malikov; S.B. Abdullayeva; N.I. Ne’matov; A.A. Rustamov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 5780-5783

The article examines the issues of ensuring the activity of students in the pedagogical process on the basis of basic concepts, the formation of the subjects' interest in the studied concepts and the motivation of students to analytical activity in the process of a reflexive approach and the development of reflection in them.

Factors On Deciding TVET For First Choice Educational Journey Among Pre-Secondary School Student

Muhd Khaizer Omar; Md Abdur Rauf; Normala Ismail; Abdullah Mat Rashid; Hazwan Mohd Puad; Anis Zakaria

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 609-627

Less was known about predicting factors concerning students’ knowledge, interests, and motivation towards Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). The study aimed to determine the relationships among pre-secondary school students’ demographic factors, knowledge possession, interest and motivation related to TVET stream and to identify the relationship between informational methods and knowledge possession, interest and motivation of students towards TVET. A quantitative descriptive study used to determine the factors contributing to student’s knowledge, interests, and motivation, which play a critical role in 64 pre-secondary school students’ choice of TVET. A questionnaire was utilized to determine the participants’ perceptions of choosing the TVET field. Descriptive and inferential statistics, including one-way ANOVA analysis, were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that information delivery methods such as receiving information from teachers, parents, peers, internet platforms with motivation have a significant relationship for students to choose TVET. Thus, the promotion and strategy on empowering TVET is salient and developing a positive image on TVET will encourage myriad stakeholders on the importance of TVET for the nation. It is a high time to rebrand the image of vocational education as an element to train skilled human capital development.

Awareness And Practice Of Infection Control Protocol During Covid-19 Pandemic In Dental Clinics In Southern India- An Original Research

Dr. Abhishek Pandey; Dr. Smita Dutta; Dr. Rahul Maria; Dr Ambika K Nandini

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6527-6539

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has forced dentists to prepare themselves by updating their knowledge and receive training to face the present and after effects of COVID-19. The present survey was thus conducted to assess the knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and preparedness of the dentists in India about COVID-19.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among registered dentists in south India. A self-administered, anonymous, questionnaire comprising of 25 close- ended questions was circulated to gather the relevant information. A total of 1120 dentists submitted a response, out of which 1000 complete responses were included in the statistical analysis. Pearson’s Chi-square test was used for inter-group statistical comparison.
Results: 80% of the dentists had a fair knowledge about the characteristics of COVID-19. 61% and 50% of the dentists had taken infection control training and special training for COVID-19, respectively. 52% of the dentists had the perception that COVID-19 is very dangerous. Only 42% of the dentists were willing to provide emergency services to patients. Most of the dentists had an opinion that there is a need to enhance personal protective measures.
Conclusion: In the present study, South Indian dentists have presented satisfactory knowledge with adequate awareness as the majority of them had a fair level of knowledge with significantly higher knowledge among female respondents and those with post-graduation studies. As we are going through an evolutionary phase where new advances are expected to evolve, dentists will definitely emerge successfully out from the crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Knowledge, Awareness And Practice Of Dental Practitioners Regarding COVID-19 Pandemic- A Cross-Sectional Study

Anmol Bagaria; Shivam Bhardwaj; Ritu Sharma; Vaishali .; Vipul Anand; Pratik Prakash Bumb

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4625-4630

Background: The present study was conducted to assess knowledge, awareness and
practice of dental practitioners regarding COVID-19 pandemic.
Materials & Methods: 240 dental practitioners of both genders were provided with a
questionnaire regarding knowledge and practice regarding COVID-19 pandemic.
Results: 80% showed that SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of COVID- 19. 85% replied that 2-14
days is the incubation period of Covid- 19, 75% correctly replied that 6.8 % is the
incubation period for COVID- 19 and 82% replied that rRT-PCR is the laboratory test
available for detection of COVID- 19. 80% replied yes in order to provide treatment to
infected patients and 10% replied no. In response to question whether masks, head cap and
sanitizer protect against virus, 74% replied yes, 18% replied no and 8% replied don’t know.
The difference was significant (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Dental practitioners had sufficient knowledge, awareness and practice
regarding COVID-19 pandemic.

An insight among students of health sciences towards HIV/AIDS: A cross sectional study in coastal Karnataka

Ankitha Prem; Mahima Mishra; Suhan .; Smitha Nayak; Suman VB; Anupama N; Priyanka Arun Shirali; Rashmi Kaup Shiva

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 26-37

The objective of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among Interns of a Dental and Medical College. The data is collected through structured questionnaire by cross sectional study method with the sample size of 246. The model is tested on a context of Interns of dental and medical students for the first time. The present study has used a reflective measurement model. Due to the model complexity, the use of Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling approach is found to be appropriate for the purpose of analysis of constructs and their corresponding data. The structural model has proved that the path coefficient value and empirical t values of exogenous latent variables on endogenous latent variable are above that threshold value in relationship between knowledge and trust as well as perception and trust except attitude and trust. The testing of hypothesis confirms the strong relationship between knowledge and trust as well as perception and trust. Based on the results of Importance Performance Matrix Analysis results corporate need focus on changing the perception of interns primarily. Hence,medical college must aim at increasing the performance of the target construct trust so their first priority should be to improve the performance aspects captured by the construct perception performance by improving its total effects as this construct has high chance to improve its total effect which in turn improves its performance.

Reflective Approach In Organization Of Pedagogical Processes

F.O. Toxirova; M.R. Malikov; S.B. Abdullayeva; N.I. Ne’matov; A.A. Rustamov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 6646-6649

The article examines the issues of ensuring the activity of students in the pedagogical process on the basis of basic concepts, the formation of the subjects' interest in the studied concepts and the motivation of students to analytical activity in the process of a reflexive approach and the development of reflection in them

Assessing COVID-19 Related Knowledge And Perceptions Of Preventive Health Care Employees Working In Health Region Kalmunai-Sri Lanka

Shaikila Issadeen; Issadeen Aboobucker; RKAR Kariapper; Ikrima Rifath

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 6, Pages 418-426

According to Coronavirus disease Situation Report– 161 published by World Health Organization on 29 June 2020, globally 10 million cases and 500000 deaths and in Sri Lanka 2037 cases and 11deaths of COVID-19 had been reported . A poor understanding of the disease among Preventive Health care Employees might result in delayed treatment and rapid spread of the infection. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge and perceptions of Preventive health care Employees about COVID-19.A cross-sectional, study was conducted during June and July 2020, midst of COVID-19 outbreak in the country. A self-administered questionnaire with 25 survey item was used. A chi-square test was applied to investigate the level of association among variables, with significance set to P<.05. Out of 230 participants, 200 employees completed the survey and response rate was 86.95%.Among participants 71.5% (n=143) were female, 38.5% (n=77) were aged 40-49 years, and most of employees were Public Health Midwife (n=141, 370.5%) and least were Medical Officers of Health (n=11, 6%). Most participants (n=103, 51.3%) used Government web site to obtain information on COVID-19. A significant proportion of participants had poor knowledge on incubation period (n=41.20.5%) and more (n=187,93.5%)on complication of the disease. All the participants perceived very well about importance of taking travel history and category of waste related to patients (n=200,100%) and poorly (n=76,36%) perceived about the indication of personal protective equipment. Generally participant had moderate amount of knowledge (>57.62%) and positive perception (>69.01%) and Medical officers and Public Health Inspectors scored more than Public Health Midwife. As the global threat of COVID-19 continues to emerge, it was critical to improve the knowledge and perceptions of Preventive Health care Employees .Health ministry should provide a comprehensive and tailored educational and training programme, targeting all staff specially PHM , to promote preventive measures of COVID-19, to achieve equilibrium in terms of knowledge on COVID-19.

DIFFERENCES IN KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION OF EUTHANASIA IN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN MARTAPURA RIVERBANKS(Overview Based On School Origin, Parents Education, And Parents' Occupation)

Aminuddin Prahatama Putra; Edyson .; Ika Kusuma Wardani; Huldani .; Fauziah .; Julia Kasab

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 1118-1125

Background: Terminal disease causes pain that is unbearable by the patient. Euthanasia is an act of someone ending his life in order to relieve the pain he is suffering. Euthanasia is still prohibited in Indonesia. Education on ethical and basic knowledge between junior high schools located on the banks of the Martapura river may have differences due to local traditions regarding euthanasia, therefore research is needed to see differences in knowledge, attitudes and perceptions about euthanasia among SMPN 1 Astambul and SMPN 1 Karang Intan students. Methods: The research design used analytic observational with cross sectional method. The sample consisted of 100 students, the data were analyzed using the chi-square test with a 95% degree of confidence. Result: The results showed that the level of students' knowledge about euthanasia was still lacking, the majority of attitudes and perceptions about euthanasia were negative. Conclusion: There were no significant differences in knowledge, attitudes, perception regarding euthanasia based on their origin school. There were a significant differences in knowledge and attitudes based on parental education and occupation.

Knowledge , Attitude And Practice Of Infant Feeding Practices Among Medical Students

Dr. Harish Sudarsanan; Dr. Sanchana Arumugam; Dr Sri VipanchiKamepalli; Dr. J. Kumutha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 3644-3654

Introduction and background: World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least 6 months and thereafter until the child is 2 years of age. The success of introduction and sustenance of any health initiative depends upon the knowledge and attitudes towards those health practices. This study was undertaken to assess the baseline knowledge, attitudes and anticipated practices of MBBS students and help in framing policies towards inclusion of breast-feeding training in regular curriculum.
Methodology: A cross sectional survey was carried on at a private medical college on 137 medicos comprising of Final year MBBS and Interns. Using Google Forms, a survey questionnaire was prepared, comprising of 37 items assessing the knowledge, attitude and anticipatory practices towards breastfeeding and infant nutrition.
Results: The mean overall score of Final MBBS participants was 64.5% and that of Interns were 71.2% (P value = 0.002). In all 3 domains the Interns scored higher than Final MBBS participants and the differences were statistically significant. There were positive correlations between knowledge and attitude (r= 0.36, P value < 0.001), knowledge and practices (r= 0.53, P value < 0.001) and attitude and practices (r = 0.44, P value < 0.001).
Conclusion: This study highlights the knowledge, attitude and practice level of students among Final MBBS and Interns at our institute. The overall knowledge level was average. As tomorrows practitioners and policy makers it is mandatory to shape this group of young doctors in order to ensure that future of our nation that is current generation of childrenare in safe hands.

The Effect of Android-Based Health Education on the Autonomy of Mothers in the Fulfillment of Care in Pospartum Primipara

Siti Maria Ulfa; Werna Nontji; Syafruddin Syarif; Sundari .; Erlyn Limoa; Burhanuddin Bahar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4431-4442

Background: The importance of providing education during the postpartum period may help mothers successfully pass through several important phases after delivering a birth. A Serious complication may occur if a mother fails to cope with the unexpected situation. Therefore, equipping mothers with sufficient knowledge and skills of self care is essential to avoid any risks that may happen during postpartum. Lack of knowledge and skills are two major problems that mothers usually face when doing self care. To tackle the problems, we have created an android based application called BUBI Care to facilitate a more dynamic transfer of knowledge to mothers.
Research Method: This type of research is a quasi experimental research (quasi-research) with a pretest-posttest design with a control group design. The research sample used in this study were 19 TM III pregnant women (gestational age ≥ 38 weeks) as many as 19 people in the treatment group and 19 people in the control group, which were in accordance with the inclusion criteria of the researcher, with the time the study was carried out from September to October 2020.. Data were collected through pretest and 
posttest using digital questionnaires and digital observation sheets. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon and testthe Mann Whitney test.
Research Results: the findings indicated that there was a difference in the level of autonomy between the intervention group and the comparator group. The groups consist of respondents with breast care. The intervention group showed a mean score of 81.37 whereas the comparator group showed a mean score of 56.05, with a total of score difference 25.32. Furthermore, there was also a score difference between the intervention group of perineum care and its comparator group. The intervention group obtained a mean value of 78.95 while its comparator obtained a mean score of 49.26 with a total of score difference 29.69. An experiment on mothers who did postpartum exercises also showed a different mean score between the intervention and the comparator group. The intervention group obtained a mean score of 74.63 whereas the comparator group obtained a mean score of 50.53 with a total of score difference 24.01 points. In conclusion, there is a significant influence on the intervention groups in terms of the use of the android based health application.
Conclusion: the study indicated that there was a difference in the level of knowledge gained by the intervention group before and after being trained about the use of the apps. However, this did not happen to the comparator group. On the other hand, both of the intervention and the comparator groups experienced the improvement of self care skills and the level of autonomy after being trained.

Self-Reported Multicultural Competency among Moral Education and History Education Pre-service Teachers in an educational Institution in Malaysia

Grace Amanda Basianak Kumbong; Tan Bee Piang

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 5983-5996

Moral Education and History Education are both part of a student's social and political socialisation in Malaysia. These two curriculum programmes aim to help each student behave in accordance with the social norms expected in Malaysia, including respecting and obeying the values of democracy and rule of law. However, teachers may have their own value judgments, so how to prepare teachers to deal with students' different value systems in a diverse classroom is a challenge for teacher programmes. Teachers with high multicultural competency feel confidence and comfortable when confronted with diverse student needs. This study aims to identify the status of multicultural competency among the Moral Education and History Education pre-service teacher in an educational institution in Malaysia. Multicultural competency among these teachers is identified based on a tripartite model comprised of three aspects: ‘Awareness’, ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Acting’. The data collection methods used in this study are from the quantitative approach. 90 respondents were asked to answer a questionnaire adapted from the ‘Munroe Multicultural Attitude Scale Questionnaire’ (MASQUE) and ‘Teacher Multicultural Attitude Survey’ (TMAS). The results of this study present that the Moral Education and History Education pre-service teacher shows a higher level of multicultural awareness and knowledge; however, the results also note that these pre-service teachers acting on injustice or inequalities to be relatively low. This study suggests that the development of multicultural competency in teacher education programmes should more strongly emphasise the components of skill or demonstrating multicultural competence in future.

The Effect of Android-Based Health Education on the Autonomy of Postpartum Primipara Mothers in Neonatal Care.

Dwi Kartika Sari; Werna Nontji; Syafruddin Syarif; Sundari .; Erlyn Limoa; Burhanuddin Bahar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 8, Pages 4419-4430

Background: Primiparous postpartum mothers cannot independently take care of their babies due to a lack of knowledge about baby care. This study aims to determine the effect of android-based health education on the autonomy of primiparous postpartum mothers in neonatal care. Methods: The research design was a quasi-experiment with a pretest-posttest design with a controlled group design with a total sample of 19 pregnant women each of TM III primigravida (Gestational Age ≥ 38 weeks) in both of the intervention group and the control group. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling. The research was conducted at Public Health Centre of Kelayan Timur and at the PBM Clinic of Mrs. NM in Kelayan Timur Banjarmasin during September - October 2019. Data were collected using pretest and post-test containing questions about digital knowledge, skills, and independence in digital observation sheets. Data analysis was carried using the Wilcoxon test and the Mann-Whitney Test. Results: The Wilcoxon Test results showed that there were differences in the knowledge of respondents in the intervention group before and after joining Android-based health education with a value of p= 0.000. The results of the Mann-Whitney Test showed that there were differences in knowledge about neonatal care between the intervention group and the controlled group with a value of p= 0.004, there were differences in skills in neonatal care in the intervention group and the controlled group with a value of p= 0.012 for the skills of bathing babies, p= 0.016 for umbilical cord care skills and p= 0.009 for correct breastfeeding skills, and there were differences in independence in neonatal care between the intervention group and the control group. These results revealed an effect of android-based health education on the autonomy of neonatal care with a value of p= 0.001 for the autonomy in bathing babies, p= 0.006 for the autonomy in caring for the umbilical cord and p= 0.017 for the autonomy in breastfeeding. Conclusion: Android-based health education affects mothers' autonomy in neonatal care during primiparous postpartum.

Oral Rehydration Therapy: Mothers Knowledge And Attitude

Mohammed khawwam Abdul Wahid; Sura Khutan Mohammed; Ahmed Abdul Abbas

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 4349-4357

Over the last several decades, there has been some decline in mortality rate in association with diarrhea and this has been attributed to the use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS), better supplemental feeding, improvement in hygiene and sanitation and mother education; however, the use of ORS is greatly affected by mothers knowledge and attitude toward using it in treating their children with diarrheal disease. This study was aimed to figuring out maternal knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to ORT use in diarrheal illness and the main maternal characteristics that can predict such attitude and practice.The current study was designed to be a cross sectional study enrolling 400 mothers of children aged between 2-59 m. with history of diarrheal disease. Those mothers were asked to fill a questionnaire form regarding residency, level of education, parity, occupation,did they use ORS for their children or not during diarrheal disease. Mothers who did not use the ORS were asked about the reasons for such behavior. Mothers who used the ORS were asked about their source of knowledge about ORS,the way of preparation of ORS,the type of ORS, the frequency of administration, the method of administration and their beliefs regarding the benefit of ORS. The results of current study revealed that out of 400 mothers including in this study 232 (58%) used ORS to treat there children during diarrheal disease.There was no significant association between use of ORS and residence, level of education, parity and occupation (P > 0.05). Mothers who used ORS had good knowledge about the advantages and the way of preparation and use of ORS and their main source of knowledge was primary health care centers. Mothers who did not use ORS admitted to have no idea about its advantages because no one has told them about these advantages. a significant proportion of mothers in our community lack necessary knowledge about the advantages of ORS in treating diarrheal disease in children and that there is urgent need to adopt health campaign to raise the awareness of women in our society regarding this common health issue.

Knowledge And Practice Of Preventive Control Of Cervical Cancer In Housewives

Juvita D. Soto-Hilario .; Silvia A. Martel-y- Chang; Holger A. Aranciaga- Campos; Abner A. Fonseca- Livias

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 3975-3984

Objective. To determine the relationship between knowledge and the practice of preventive control of cervical cancer. Methods. A correlational study was carried out with 120 housewives attending the CLAS Pillcomarca in Huánuco 2017. In the data collection a knowledge questionnaire and a practice questionnaire were used. For the inferential analysis of the results, the Chi Square Test of independence was used. Results. 50.0% (60 housewives) presented regular knowledge about cervical cancer and 90.8% (109 housewives) had preventive cervical cancer control practices. On the other hand, a significant relationship was found between the knowledge about cervical cancer and preventive control practices (p 0,000). And, the general knowledge of the disease and knowledge about the prevention of the disease relate to the preventive control practices of cervical cancer (p 0.000). Conclusions. There is a significant relationship between the knowledge about cervical cancer and the preventive control practices of cervical cancer of housewives attending the CLAS Pillcomarca - Huánuco.

Factors Influencing The Use Of Postpartum Intrauterine Device (Iud)

Welem Tandilolok Sitohang; Umar Malinta; Sriwijaya .; A. Mardiah Tahir; Eddy Hartono; Arifin Seweng

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 7, Pages 1117-1122

Postpartum Intrauterine Device (IUD) is an effective, safe and comfortable contraceptive choice for women and made of T-shaped plastic and copper (Cooper T) which is inserted into the uterus postpartum/intraoperative. The results of the study showed that the highest percentage of respondents was at the age of spacing pregnancies (20-35 years), multiparas, those who were highly educated and those who did not work. The results of the statistical analysis showed that there was a significant influence between age, occupation, knowledge and support from the husband with postpartum IUD use, where p<0.05, while parity had no effect. Knowledge factor had a significant effect even though it was not influenced by the level of education or media exposure with a value of p=0.00. Multivariate analysis showed that knowledge was the dominant factor that affected the use of postpartum IUD as much as 43,012 times.
Conclusion: The postpartum IUD was most commonly used by mothers aged >35 years, working, sufficient knowledge of the IUD regardless of level of education and media exposure, and receiving support from the husband. Knowledge and support from the husband were the most influential factor on postpartum IUD use.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE LEVEL AND TONGUE BRUSHING HABIT ON COATED TONGUE PATIENTS

Ni Wy Rima Tiara Wahyudiana; Rosaline N.I Krimadi; Ida Bagus Pramana Putra Manuaba; Maslah Siregar; Retno Palupi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 666-674

Background. The oral cavity is an inseparable part of the human body. The oral cavity is composed of a structure that is a unitary function known as mastication, such as the teeth, tongue, while mucosa known as the stomatognathic system. One part of the oral cavity, namely the tongue, is an organ that has a central function for taste and taste of various types of food flavours and other substances that will enter the body through the oral cavity. However, sometimes the tongue is coated with a thin white layer containing bacteria, desquamated epithelial cells, leukocytes, blood metabolites, and various other components. Purpose: of this study was to determine the relationship between the level of knowledge and the habit of brushing the tongue in coated tongue patients who come to the Dental and Oral Hospital of Universitas Airlangga, Method. This study was descriptive analytic with the type of study was cross sectional. Results: were 28 patients with a good level of knowledge, 11 patients with a moderate level of knowledge, and 2 patients with a bad level of knowledge, and the results were 12 patients with a good level of habits, and 29 patients with a bad habit level. Conclusion. Good level of knowledge about tongue hygiene does not make a good habit also in keeping the tongue clean.

Deep Analysis of ITIL Framework for Improvement of Indian IT Services in Industries

Ras Bihari Dayal; Rahul Chandra Kushwaha

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages 2243-2249

This research article proposes a model of management based on the methodology that the Infrastructure Library of Information Technologies (ITIL) raises through the life cycle of the service. In the development of this investigation, areas, groups interdisciplinary and tools that satisfy the problem of complex relationship between business and technology. As part of the methodology of this study, a bibliographic inquiry was carried out and analyzed operational experiences of the object of study, which were related to the alternatives and disciplines that the ITIL methodology proposes. As a result of the investigation, a model of management that relates areas, groups, roles

THE IMPORTANCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION AND INTEGRATION OF OTHER SUBJECTS IN IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF EDUCATION

M. Rakhmatov; M. N. Rasulova; O. I. Eshniyozov; S. M. Elmonov; A. Nuritdinov

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 621-625

The article exposes the interdisciplinary integration of technology education and other interdisciplinary integration aimed at improving the quality of education currently through concrete examples of modern didactics of student learning.

AWARENESS ON FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY AMONG DENTAL UNDERGRADUATES

Bipin .; Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha .; Kiran kumar

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1605-1621

Forensic odontology deals with legal investigations in which it primarily involves the identification of the offender by comparing dental records to a bite mark left on the victim. It is especially used for the application of the principal of law and criminal investigation.Aim of the study is to evaluate knowledge and awareness on forensic dentistry. This special brand deals with the dental evidence obtained from the victim. As the field of forensic dentistry focuses on the methods of detection, collection and analysis of bite mark remains is very helpful in crime investigations to analyse the acquired evidence. In the past decades oral pathologists had major responsibilities in developing forensic science. A cross sectional study on undergraduates was carried out using a questionnaire with close ended questions. The survey had 15 questionnaires circulated in Google forms and 100 responses were obtained from the population, representation of data was in pie chart and bar graphs. Majority of the study population answered yes as they feel forensic odontology is very much essential to deal with crime investigation. 62.7% of the study population responded positively where they are able to differentiate the work of forensic anthropologists and a forensic odontologist first. The students' knowledge on forensic odontology and what it deals with, was significant with the year of study where final year students are more aware about forensic odontology. P value = 0.00(<0.05) which is statistically significant. This study concludes that most of the participants have knowledge and awareness on the role of forensic dentistry among dental undergraduates.

Knowledge About Esthetic Veneer Treatment For Enhancing Smile In Undergraduate Dental Students

B. MADHUMITHA; DR L KEERTHI SASANKA; DR R ABILASHA

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 3070-3096

Background: The most important feature in maintaining and improving a person’s esthetic appearance and self-esteem is only by an attractive smile. Smiling is the best method to influence people. The dynamic part of the face is the oral region, with tooth and gingival display during functional lip movement which is unique to an individual, people with ugly smiles develop a high risk of psychological problems. Esthetic dentistry was motivated by the growing accessibility of media and online information has been highly demanded by the patients and tooth color is also used for veneers. Aim: The main aim of this study is to assess the awareness about the esthetic veneer treatment for enhancing smiles in undergraduate dental students. Materials and method: A survey based questionnaire was done to assess the knowledge about the veneer treatment. A self designed 16 questions were framed and the responses were collected through google form app.Thedatas were statistically analysed by SPSS software. Results: Results were represented in the form of bar diagrams and 71% of the respondents are aware of veneer treatment. This study shows a high-level self-consciousness about the veneer treatment 76% of the students agreed that they can brush veneer, 63% were answered for porcelain veneer. Conclusion: The present study concluded that the undergraduate dental students are highly aware of the esthetic veneer treatment for enhancing smile.

SEGREGATION OF MEDICAL WASTE AND DISPOSAL MANAGEMENT - A SURVEY

Divyashri S; Jothi priya A; Vishnu priya V; Lakshminarayanan Arivarasu

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2197-2209

Segregation refers to basic separation of different categories of waste generated at some source and thereby reducing the risk as well as cost of handling and disposal. Segregation is the most crucial step in biomedical waste management. There are 4 major types of waste, they are general, infectious, hazardous and radioactive. To create awareness among the college students about the segregation and disposal of medical waste.This study involved the segregation of medical waste and disposal among the age group of 18 to 25 yrs. A set of 15 questionnaires were framed and sent through the online google form link. The questionnaire is based on the knowledge,attitude and information about the segregation and disposal of medical waste. Among 100 medical students 77% were aware about the segregation of the medical waste & 23% of the students were not aware about the segregation of the medical waste. To create awareness among the college students about the segregation of medical waste. From that we can protect our health and environment.

AWARENESS OF VARIOUS DIETS FOR DETOXIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF ORAL HEALTH AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS

Sarvasri T; Dr. L. Keerthi Sasanka; Kavitha S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 723-736

Eating a variety of foods rich in nutrients from all the food groups promotes healthy teeth and gums. This means eating a balanced diet of fruits, vegetables, protein drinks, drinks high in calcium and whole grains for a healthy smile and a healthy body. The aim of the present study is to find out whether the dental students are aware about the various diets for detoxifications and maintenance of oral health. A cross-sectional survey based study was conducted among the dental students on the various diets for detoxification and maintenance of oral health. The questionnaire was distributed through the “Google forms” website to around 100 Dental students. 79% were aware of the various diets taken for detoxification and maintenance of oral health. 83% thought that there is a link between oral health and oral health conditions. This study concludes that the dental students were aware about the various diets for detoxification and maintenance of oral health

AWARENESS ON FUNDAMENTALS OF FIXED PROSTHODONTICS AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS

KirthickKumaran. A.S; KeerthiSasanka. L; ArchanaSanthanam .; Kirankumar .

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 1635-1646

The aim of this study was to create awareness on fundamntals of fixed prosthodontics among dental students.It is the specialised area of dentistry involving the replacement. Missing teeth of the cast prosthesis is permanently cemented.Complete development of dental process leads to new complete virtual environment without any physical model situation.This study was a cross-sectional survey based study conducted among the dental students on the fundamentals of fixed prosthodontics. The questionnaire was distributed through the “Google forms” website to around 100 Dental students.In the present study about 56% of the population are aware of the prosthodontics and 44% of the population is not aware of the prosthodontics. Regarding the parts of fixed partial dentures 39% of the population are aware and 61% of the population are not aware of it. This concludes that the knowledge and awareness on the fixed prosthodontics is moderate among the dental students, in which among them the second year undergraduates had a higher knowledge on the fixed prosthodontics.

Assessment Of Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Based Survey On The Incidence Of Pulp Stones In Maxillary Molars Among Endodontists And General Practitioners - A Questionnaire Based Survey

AarthiMuthukumar .; Dr. AdimulapuHima Sandeep

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 2997-3015

AimThe aim is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice on the incidence of pulp stones in maxillary molars among endodontists and general practitioners.IntroductionPulp stones are discrete calcified masses found in the dental pulp tissue or embedded into dentin. Based on their radiographic features, they can be classified into true and false which are located more often in the coronal region of the tooth. True pulp stones are made up of dentine and lined by odontoblasts, whereas the false pulp stones are formed from degenerating cells of the pulp that get mineralized. Materials and MethodsThe sample size is 102 people and a random sampling method is used to minimise bias. Internal validity was a pre tested questionnaire and external experiment and cross verification with existing studies was performed. Data analysis was done in SPSS and Statistical test used is chi square test and dependent variables are demographic data such as gender and experience and independent variables are pulp stones incidence and knowledge.ResultsFrom this survey it was found that 70% were aware about the types of pulp stone, 62% were able to diagnose pulp stones radiographically and 60% encountered pulp stones rarely in maxillary molars.Conclusion
Within the limitations of the study , the prevailing knowledge in regard to the prevalence of pulp stones among endodontists was high when compared to the general practitioners. More awareness can be created among general practitioners about pulp stones. Furthermore, the existing Attitude and practice among respondents was high among endodontists and general practitioners when compared to knowledge.

AWARENESS ON THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF NATURAL MEDICINE AMONG ADULTS

Shreejha M. V; Kavitha. S; Vishnu Priya. V; Gayathri. R

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 311-323

Introduction: There has been a global rise in the use of natural products and natural medicine among
people. Proper regulation of natural medicine and products ensure good quality to control standards,
enhance the consumers safety that facilitate their modern healthcare system, mainly because of their lack
of side effects.
Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge, awareness and attitude, towards natural
medicine and products among adults.
Materials and methods :A cross sectional study was conducted among the adults [101people]. The
questionnaire was circulated online through google forms and the collected data were analysed using SPSS
software. The Pearson Chi square test was done in association with the gender of the respondents.
Results: The survey results showed that 79.2% of the people have knowledge about natural medicine.
90.1% of the participants believe natural medicines are effective, 75% of the participants use natural
medicine products in their regular life, 61.4% said natural medicine is more effective than pills.
Conclusion: The present study showed that the awareness and knowledge on natural medicine among
adults is quite good.

KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS AND PRACTICE AMONG UNDERGRADUATE DENTAL STUDENTS ON USAGE OF ANTIBIOTICS FOR ENDODONTIC TREATMENTS

V.A Muralidharan; Sindhu Ramesh; Dr.Gheena. S

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2020, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 169-185

Endodontic infection is the infection of the root canal system and the microorganisms play a tremendous role in pulpal and periapical disease. The primary aim of endodontic treatment is to remove as many bacteria as possible from the root canal system. This can be achieved by a combination of local and systemic use of antibiotics. The use of antibiotics in dentistry especially in endodontics has become a practice towards inappropriate prescription and overdose leads to adverse side effects and bacterial resistance. An undergraduate student will have only limited knowledge in this regard. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and perception on usage of antibiotics among undergraduate students for endodontic therapy.This present study is a cross-sectional, descriptive questionnaire study conducted among dental undergraduate students in Chennai, India. The study was conducted from March to April 2020. A descriptive questionnaire study was conducted among 320 dental students in the city. A structured questionnaire was prepared focussing on antibiotics indication in dentistry particularly in endodontic treatment. Assessment of subjects awareness and attitude towards use of antibiotics for patients after endodontics procedures included in the questions relating to the knowledge of the basic antibiotics regime and its course. The subjects were requested to respond to each item in the specific format given. All the participants were allowed to choose one of the given three to four choices for each item in the questionnaire.A large population of students of 320 were familiar with this antibiotic resistance. Compared with the juniors, the senior students have a wider knowledge for prescribing antibiotics for various endodontic procedures.Most of the students prescribed Amoxicillin (30.82%)for any endodontic treatment for a duration of three days (26.42%) compared to other antibiotics.This study concludes that undergraduate dental students may prescribe antibiotics inappropriately and hence a proper and extensive guideline must be given to them to be followed . A thorough knowledge and awareness must be there on the antibiotic regime and its usage to all students before entering their clinics.

ASSESSMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT SYMPTOMS AND SIGN OF THE DENGUE FEVER IN THE PRIMARY HEALTH-CARE MEDICAL PRACTITIONER’S IN MAKKAH AL-MOKARRAMAH CITY AT SAUDI ARABIA

Najeeb Hamid Alsahafi, AbdullahBurayk Mabruk Alyuobi, Hasan Mohamed Alasmari, Helal Ghali AL harbi, Abdulmohsen Rashid Alotaibi, Mohammed Yahia Almalki, Asma Naif Alosaimi, Alaa Mohammed Askar, Bandar Mulfi Lafi Alluqmani, Fahad Mohammed Allehyani

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 182-195

Background:
Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem, with increasing incidence and widening geographic spread over recent years. It is a vector-borne disease that is transmitted from person to person by mosquitoes. Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. In recent years, transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi urban areas and has become a major international public health concern.Since 1994, Makkah province became a dengue-endemic area with high rate of dengue infection during, spring and early summer. The primary-care physician plays a key role in dengue diagnosis, management, and prevention.
Aim of the study:The study aimed to assess the level of knowledge about symptoms of the dengue fever in the primary health-care medical practitioner’s in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city at Saudi Arabia
.Methods: Across sectional descriptive study conducted among including medical practitioner’s  in selected primary health–care centers in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city, during the October to December, 2018, the Sample size of medical practitioners . Our total participants were (300)
.Results: This table shows the majority of participant (43.0%) have average level of knowledge about symptoms of dengue fever followed by (36.3%) of participant high while Range(0-10) and Mean ±SD(6.387±2.323). Regarding knowledge about signs dengue fever, that majority of participant (48.3%) have average level of knowledge followed by (38.3%) of participant have an high level of knowledge while Range(1-11) and Mean ±SD(7.877±2.052). Regarding the participant total level of knowledge about dengue fever, about (41.4%) have average level followed by (38.3%) have average level of knowledge while Range(3-21) and Mean±SD(14.263±4.021)
Conclusion: This review highlights the need for revealed major gaps on knowledge about symptoms of the dengue fever in the primary health-care medical practitioner’s related to dengue Makkah. primary health-care medical practitioner’s working in primary Health care need training and regular supervision to improve their knowledge on the about symptoms of the dengue fever. The results of this study provide a useful opportunity to identify strengths and areas in need of improved, knowledge about symptoms of the dengue fever in primary-care management of dengue.

ASSESSMENT THE KNOWLEDGE REGARDING VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AMONG FEMALE ADULT ATTENDING THE PRIMARY HEALTH CLINIC AT MAKKAH , SAUDI ARABIA SAUDI ARABIAN IN 2019: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Sammar Ali M Jalal, Mohammed Ahmed Omar Almahmudi, Amal abdulkader habhab, Mohammad Hassan Saqeer Alhothali, Nader Mohammad Alharbi, Ahlam Saleem Almagnoni Wajdi Bashah Khider Alnadwi, Nada Mohammed Saaed Alharbi, Rami Husein Saad Almasri

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 139-149

Background
      Vitamin D is one of the major vitamin and very essential for maintenance of normal growth and development of strong bones. It is often referred to as the "sunshine vitamin" because it can be synthesized in the body from the ultraviolet rays provided by the sun. Vitamin D is known to have essential roles in the human body. However, the case of vitamin deficiency is reported to increase in many adult worldwide, especially in Saudi Arabia. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with numerous chronic diseases including cancer, heart disease and diabetes type 1 and 2. It is currently estimated that one billion people suffer from vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Sunlight is the main and natural source of vitamin D and most foods contain very little amount of it. The main action of vitamin D is to help calcium and phosphorus in our diet to be absorbed from the gut.
 Aim of the study: The study’s aim was to assess the knowledge regarding vitamin D deficiency ​among female adult attending the primary health clinic at Makkah at Saudi Arabia
Methodology: Across sectional descriptive study was conducted among female adult attending to clinic in PHC at Makkah, Saudi Arabia city, during the October to December, 2019. Our total participants were (150).  Results: Major findings of the study were (38%) adult women were in the group of age between 25 to 35 years. The majority of the women (84.67%) “married” status. The majority of the women were (49.33) secondary level of education, regarding chronic disease, most of the mothers in the study were found to have no chronic disease were (62.00%). The income level of (56.0%) of the respondents ranged average, the majority of the women were (42.0%) Sources of knowledge doctor.
 Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among the various age groups in our country due to various factors. So, Awareness programmes have to be conducted to make the general public including the females aware of the vitamin D, its deficiency, causative factors and the preventive measures. So this study was done this study was conducted assessment the knowledge towards vitamin D deficiency, sun exposure, supplementation in a sample of adult female attending the primary health clinic at Makkah, Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian.

KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE ABOUT EVIDENCE-BASED MEDICINE AMONG FAMILY MEDICINE TRAINEES IN JOINT PROGRAMS OF FAMILY MEDICINE IN MAKKAHREGION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

Saja Sultan Alhazmi, Mohammed Sultan Alhazmi Fahad Salman Almajnoni, Renad Sultan Alhazmi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 125-138

Background: In the last decade, teaching of the knowledge and skills required for the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) is taught through standalone courses and workshops in classrooms away from the clinical practice such as research centers.Objectives: To determine the level of knowledge, familiarity with sources and attitude towards Evidence-based Medicine among Family Medicine trainees in MakkahRegion 2017 as well as to identify barriers for its practical application.Subjects and methods: It was a cross-sectional included a representative sample of Family Medicine trainee enrolled in joint programs of FM in MakkahRegion (Makkah, Jeddah, and Taif).A self-administered valid questionnaire was used for data collection, including personal data, opinion, and attitudes of participant towards EBM, knowledge of EBM terms, familiarity and use of electronic EBM sources.Results: One hundred and eighty-six Family Medicine residents were included in the study. Exactly two-thirds of them were females. Majority of the participants (97.8%) were Saudis. The overall score of opinion and attitude towards EBM ranged between 22 and 40 with a mean of 34.09 (±) 3.19. Female residents expressed higher attitude score towards EBM than male residents (mean rank was 98.91 versus 82.68.(This was borderline significant, p=0.051. The overall score of familiarity and use of electronic EBM source ranged between 4 and 12 with a mean of 9.80 (±) 1.95. R1residents expressed the highest familiarity and use of electronic EBM source score (mean rank was 104.27) whereas those of R4 level expressed the lowest score (mean rank was 69.07), p=0.046. Also, residents of Makkah Family medicine residency program had the highest familiarity, and use of electronic EBM source score (mean rank was 108.93) whereas those of Jeddah program had the lowest score (mean rank was 75.25), p=0.001. The overall score of EBM knowledge ranged between 11 and 44 with a mean of 33.51 (±) 7.16. Lack of EBM source in the native language, lack of time to access EBM insufficiency of essential EBM skill in most areas of medicine and there is little or no evidence to guide practice were the most frequent barriers for applying EBM in practice.
Conclusion: Overall, family medicine resident physicians in the MakkahRegion showed a welcoming attitude towards evidence-based medicine, suboptimal knowledge of EBM some significant terms.

ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF PATIENTS’ RIGHTS IN FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SENIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS

Sawsan ghaith alsharif, Mohmmad Ateeg Alsubhi, Naeem Eid Alsubhi, Majed Masud Hassan Al-Zahrani, Ghassan Ghazi Marghalani Mohammed Medreq FI Allh R. Almehmadi, Amin Khalaf Ghazi Almaamery, Basim Salman M Almehmadi, Mohammad Motlaq Alsolami, Meshal Salman M Almhemadi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 216-227

Background:
Little is known about the implementation of the patient bill of rights (PBR) in Saudi Arabia. In Saudi Arabia, the basic law of governance states that “the State shall look after public health and provide health care for every citizen.” Accordingly, in 2001, the Ministry of Health (MOH) established the General Directorate of Patients' Relation to look after patients' rights and in 2006 was able to publish the first edition of patients' bill of rights (PBR) in Saudi Arabia, which was endorsed in 2010 by the National Society for Human Rights in Saudi Arabia. On November , 2011, the International Conference on Patients' Rights was organized in Saudi Arabia. On December , 2011, a new edition of PBR was published. This was presented at the National Conference on Patients' Rights in Saudi Arabia organized by the MOH on April , 2012.The social system in Saudi Arabia is very supportive for patients and their families and in most hospitals patients have access to free health care services. Professionals, including future physicians are expected to respect patients’ rights, but if they are not familiar with the contents of the bills of rights.
 Aim of the study:To assess the knowledge of the Importance of Patients’ Rights in from the Perspective of senior medical students in Umm Al-Qura University in Makkah Al-Mokarramah city at Saudi Arabia.
 Methods: a cross-sectional study design descriptive study conducted was conducted at College of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University in Makkah, the study was conducted at sixth and fifth academic level (male and female sections)Our total participants were (400).
Results:shows that the majority of participant approximately (40.0%) were aged <35  years, while data Range (23-59) Mean ±SD (41.112±6.258), gender that male students represent (62.0%) of the participants also that of the(54.75%) participants have average knowledge of the patients’ rights knowledge , (42.5%) have high knowledge of the patients’ rights knowledge, and the data ranged from(8to30)by mean+ SD (21.661+3.879),the X2(177.365) and a statistically significant level, p=0.001
Conclusion: Incorporating patient priorities and preferences into their healthcare can improve desirable proximal outcomes related to communication such as the patient feeling heard, understood, respected and engaged in their care. Knowledge of the senior medical students regarding patients` rights is generally acceptable.

ASSESSMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES OF INFECTION CONTROL STANDARD AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS AT THE PRIMARY HEALTHCARE LEVEL IN MAKKAH CITY AT SAUDI ARABIA

Abdullah Ahmad Abdullah ALZAHRANI, Thuraya Ahmad Rumbo Mishal Saad Al nofaie, Massad Jumah Al Khattabi

European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 2019, Volume 6, Issue 1, Pages 114-124

Background
Health care associated infections (HCAI) are one of the most serious and complex worldwide health problems. Commitment to standard precautions (SPs) and infection control (IC) measures are important to all healthcare providers (HCP) to prevent occupational exposure to hazardous materials. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are particularly more prone to blood-borne pathogens through contact with infected blood and body fluids during their work. It is based on the presumption that every person is infected or colonized with an organism that could be transmitted in the healthcare setting and thus health care workers need to apply infection control practices during the delivery of health care.Health care worker at risk of health associated infection (HAIs) due to their exposure to the patients during carrying out their duties. Health care workers in primary health care centers are the first to detect and to prevent the spread of infection. Standard precautions are regarded as an effective means for protecting health care worker, patients and community.
 Aim of the study: The study aimed to assess the level of Knowledge and practices of infection control standard among health care workers at the primary healthcare level in Makkah City.
Method:  A cross sectional study enrolled HCWs (doctors, nurses, lab workers) from 10 primary healthcare (PHC) centers in in Makkah, during the April to June, 2021, Our total participants were (200)
.Results:the knowledge regarding standard precautions of infection control study results show the majority of participant had average information were(55.0%) while weak knowledge were(21.0%) the data ranged from(5-18) by mean ±SD(12.15±3.11), also the Nationality is a significant relation between knowledge and Practices increase in the non-Saudi healthcare workers were mean+ SD respectively (12.980±2.606, 6.603±1.510), compared to the Saudis had adequate level of knowledge Practices where (T=-5.33, T=-6.152) and P-value=<0.001.
Conclusion: There was a gap between the actual and desired Knowledge and practices of Healthcare providers regarding IC. Continuing education programs are needed to improve their Knowledge and practices scores towards SPs and IC measures in order to reduce HCAI, inadequate knowledge particularly concerning the disposal of sharp instruments and hand hygiene were also detected. The studies highlighted the necessity of the provision of a comprehensive training program to ensure compliance with infection control measures by HCWs.